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The orientations of individual crystals within a polycrystalline aggregate subjected to stress have a strong influence on its bulk strain rate and flow behavior. The ability to include the effect of crystal fabric and recrystallization processes in an ice flow law, especially at the bottom of glaciers and ice sheets where temperature is close to the pressure-melting point, is important because the stratigraphy of the ice body may be affected and the paleoclimate reconstruction hampered. We present herein three newly developed deformation apparatuses offering the possibility, from single experiments, of investigating different finite strain stages and their corresponding c-axis fabric and grain texture patterns in various confined, shear flow configurations (simple shear, pure shear and compression/extension bending). The technical set-ups and major advantages compared to classical methods are explained, and results from experiments are discussed in order to illustrate the functioning and purposes of the methods. In all experiments, significant variations in the microstructural development have been observed that reflect the varying orientations of the anisotropy and its relationship to the stress pattern. In monocrystalline ice-bending experiments, the pre-existing c-axis fabric is shown to have a profound influence on the response to stress and possibly to the type of slip system activated.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11·5% in all patients studied, and 2·3% of Javanese patients and 18·0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0·01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA ‘on’ and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.
A meta-analysis of the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonist of the azapirone class as an anxiolytic drug for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not previously been reported.
We carried out a systematic review of the literature available in PubMed, the Cochrane Library database and PsycINFO up to 12 October 2013, and conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo and RCTs of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies for MDD treatment. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), number needed to treat (NNT)/number needed to harm (NNH) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Fifteen RCTs comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo (total n = 2469, four studies with buspirone, seven with gepirone, three with ipsapirone and one with zalospirone) were identified. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists had significantly more responders (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65–083, p < 0.00001, NNT = 6, 12 trials, n = 1816) than placebo. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists were superior to placebo in discontinuation due to inefficacy (RR 0.49, p = 0.02, NNH = 16, p = 0.03, 10 trials, n = 1494) but were inferior to placebo in discontinuation due to side-effects (RR 1.88, p < 0.0001, NNH = 17, p = 0.001, 13 trials, n = 2196). However, all-cause discontinuation was similar in both groups (RR 0.99, p = 0.85, 14 trials, n = 2402). Four 5-HT1A agonist augmentation studies were identified (total n = 365, three buspirone studies and one tandospirone study). There were no statistically significant effects of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies on response rate (RR 0.98, p = 0.85, four trials, n = 341). 5-HT1A agonist-related side-effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, dizziness, insomnia, palpitation, paresthesia and sweating were greater than with placebo (p < 0.00001 to p = 0.03).
Our results suggest that 5-HT1A agonist has a more beneficial effect on MDD than placebo, but has several side-effects.
To study the nature of Lyα blobs (aka LABs), we conduct a deep C IV and He II narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs located in SSA22 proto-cluster at z ~ 3.1. We reach the unprecedented sensitivity, 5σ surface brightness limit of 2.1 − 3.4 × 10−18 erg s−1 cm−2 arcsec−2 per 1 arcsec2 aperture for two emission lines. We do not detect any extended C IV and He II emission, placing strong upper limits on the He II/Lyα and C IV/Lyα line ratios. We compare our limits with data in the literature related to the nebulae associated with high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) and quasars, and we recover the data by modeling the LABs as nebulosities powered by a central QSO. For further information see Arrigoni Battaia et al. (2014).
The mechanical properties and deformation behavior of each constituent layer of multilayered steel composites were examined using microtensile testing. Three-layered integrated steels consisting of SUS420 and SPCC (cold-reduced carbon steel sheets) were fabricated by a cold-rolling process. Different heat treatment processes were used to prepare three types of specimens (as-rolled, 823K-2 min heat-treated, and 823K-500 min heat-treated), and the effect of heat treatment on their mechanical properties was investigated. In the as-rolled specimens, the average tensile strengths in the SUS420 and SPCC layers were 1063 and 606 MPa, respectively, while in the specimens heat-treated for 500 min, they were 680 and 451 MPa, respectively. The tensile strength decreased with the increase in the heat treatment time. The tensile strength of the specimens was also calculated by using the rule of mixture. For the as-rolled specimens and the 823K-2 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was consistent with the measured value; however, for the 823K-500 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was lower than the measured value. This result suggests that the necking of this layered structure was effectively obstructed by the outer ductile layer. The micromechanical characterization technique used in this study is useful not only for investigating deformation behavior but also for designing multilayered steel composites with superior mechanical properties.
The mass transporting properties of the surface relief grating (SRG) photofabrication on azobenzene polymer films is discussed precisely using an existing fluid mechanics model. Formulation for the SRG inscription rate is derived analytically from Navier-Stokes equation. In consequence, the dependence of inscription rate of the SRG on the experimental and geometrical parameters was explained very well by the model. The photoinduced surface deformation with an onedimensional Gaussian laser beam was also carried out in order to establish the validity and the generality of our fluid mechanics model. The experimentally obtained surface deformation profile is well reproduced by the theoretical model generalized for arbitrary force field profile.
A series of novel ionic chromophores consisting of a carbazole moiety and pyridinium rings connected by a double bond have been designed and synthesized as nonlinear optical materials. Their linear and nonlinear optical properties were investigated by semiempirical calculation and experiment. The absorption maximum wavelengths (lmax) of these ionic chromophores showed shifting to longer wavelength region than their corresponding electrically neutral compounds. These ionic chromophores possess large first hyperpolarizabilities (b).
Two types of shape and contrast features of superconducting vortices in a Lorentz micrograph were obtained by the newly developed 1-MV field-emission transmission electron microscope on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8(Bi-2212) thin specimen containing tilted columnar defects. The shape and contrast features could be consistently interpreted by the simulation that some vortices were pinned along tilted columnar defects and others were unpinned. The interesting property for temperature change of vortex core inside the material was also observed.
A single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+8 which has columnar defects in its inside are observed by Lorentz microscopy using the newly developed 1-MV field emission electron microscope at the first time. The superconducting vortices are observed with higher contrast than ever. Simultaneous observation of vortices and columnar defect is succeeded in real time.
Ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin films were modified by the substitution of Sr2+ ions for Bi3+ ions and of Nb5+ for Ti4+ (codoping) by spin-coating and decomposition of chemical solutions of metal-alkoxide materials (the nominal compositions of Bi4−xSrxTi3−xNbxO12 where x=0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5). Single-phase thin films were crystallized above 550°C with BIT-type structure. The ferroelectric properties were found, though, with the values of Pr=10 μC/cm2 Ec=100 kV/cm, εr=300, and tanδ<5 % for Bi3.5Sr0.5Ti2.5Nb0.5O12 (x=0.5) annealed at 650 °C. Perhaps due to the lowering of the Curie temperature with increasing x, the maximum value of δr increased.
Impurity effects were investigated in (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) systems in order to suppress leakage currents under relatively low oxygen pressure conditions by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). We tried to dope transition metals, such as Mo, Mn, Cr, W and Fe into the BST target and used the targets to fabricate the films. By measuring electrical properties, we found Fe-doping had a significant effect on suppressing leakage current. Subsequently, we changed the amount of Fe doping from 0.1mol% to 6%. As a result, with post annealing, the sample with Fe:4% showed the lowest leakage current among those analyzed. Even without post annealing, the sample with Fe:6% showed the lowest leakage current. As for the dielectric constants, they decreased as the doping increased. At most, a 30% reduction was observed, compared with non-doped BST. XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structures) results indicated that the valency of the Fe ion was 3+ and located at the B-site of BST.
We report on that plasma damage on SnO2 can be suppressed by using surface termination by chlorine. It was found that the darkening of SnO2 is decreased and a wider gap p-a-Si material is obtained by using SiH2Cl2 especially at the higher reaction pressure and at the lower substrate temperature. The suppression of darkening of SnO2 and wide optical gap is correlated to chlorine contents in the film. It is demonstrated that SiH2Cl2 is also beneficial for boron-doped material, indicating a suitable material for a window layer of solar cells.
Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si:H) p-i-n solar cells have been prepared using a conventional RF plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method at a low process temperature of 140 °C. The low temperature deposition of µc-Si:H has been found to be effective to suppress the formation of oxygen-related donors that cause a reduction in open circuit voltage (Voc) due to shunt leakage. We demonstrate the improvement of Voc by lowering the deposition temperature down to 140, while suppressing the reduction in high short circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF). A high efficiency of 8.9% was obtained using an Aasahi-U substrate. Furthermore, by optimizing textured structures on ZnO transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrates, an efficiency of 9.4% (Voc=0.526V, Jsc=25.3mA/cm2, FF=0.710) was obtained. In addition, relatively high efficiency of 8.1% was achieved using VHF (60MHz) plasma at a deposition rate of 12 Å/s. Thus, this low temperature deposition technique for µc-Si:H is promising for both high efficiency and high rate deposition of µc-Si:H solar cells.
We have developed a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique for high-rate growth of µc-Si:H at low temperatures using hydrogen diluted monosilane source gas under high-pressure depletion conditions. It was found that material qualities deteriorate, e.g. crystallinity decreases and defect density increases with increasing growth rate mainly due to ion damage from the plasma. We have found that deuterium dilution improves not only the crystallinity but also defect density as compared to hydrogen dilution and that deuterium to hydrogen ratio incorporated in the film has a good correlation with crystallinity. The advantages of the deuterium dilution are ascribed to lower ion bombardment due to slower ambipolar diffusion of deuterium ion from the plasma. Further improvement of material quality has been achieved using a triode technique where a mesh electrode inserted between cathode and anode electrodes prevents from ion bombardment. In combination with a shower head cathode, the triode technique remarkably improves the crystallinity as well as defect density at a high growth rate. As a consequence, we have succeeded to obtain much better crystallinity and uniformity at 5.8 nm/s with a defect density of 2.6×1016cm−3. We also discuss the limiting factors of growth rate and material quality for µc-Si solar cells.
Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12; BIT) -based ferroelectric materials are proposed from the view of the “Site-engineering”, where the Bi-site ions are substituted by lanthanoid ions (La3+ and Nd3+) and Ti-site ions by other ions with higher charge valence (V5+). In the present study, influences of vanadium (V) - substitution for (Bi,M)4Ti3O12 thin films [M = lanthanoid] on the ferroelectric properties are evaluated. V-substituted (Bi,M)4Ti3O12 films have been fabricated using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) technique on the (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/(100)Si substrate. Remnant polarization of (Bi,La)4Ti3O12 and (Bi,Nd)4Ti3O12 films has been improved by the V-substitution independent of the coercive field. The processing temperature of BLT and BNT films could also be lowered by the V-substitution.
Firstly, on the basis of the classical model on the surface process of adsorbed species, a guiding principle is proposed for the preparation of high-quality a-SiGe:H alloys via plasma-CVD technique. Secondly, a- SiGe:H alloys were prepared by the rf-discharge technique with three intentional modifications; (A) from SiH4/GeH4 using a diode reactor (conventional method), (B) from SiH4/GeH4 using a triode reactor (triode method), (C) from SiH4/GeH4/H2 mixture using the diode reactor (H2-dilution method). Finally, growth mechanism is discussed in terms of the selection of long-lifetime radicals in a plasma and the H-coverage factor of the growing surface, providing us a clue to materials design.
Ultrathin YBa2CU3O7 (YBCO) films were epitaxially grown on non-superconducting PrBa2CU3O7 (PrBCO) buffer layer by reactive evaporation, in which the crystal growth was controlled through the monitoring of reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) specular intensity oscillations. Atomic force microscope (AFM) observation reveals that the steps in the surface of ultrathin YBCO films (∼100Aå) have one-unit-cell height, implying a unit cell-by-unit cell growth manner. One-unit-cell thick (1-UCT) YBCO layer exhibits superconductivity when charge reservoir layers of BaO-CuO-BaO are located above and below the CuO2 bilayer interposed with an Y layer. Essential transport properties of the normal state in bulk YBCO, such as T-linear dependence of resistivity and T-1 dependence Of Hall resistivity, are found to be inherent in the individual CuO2 bilayer. Study of diagonal and Hall resistivities provides evidence of Kosterlitz-Thouless transition to be occurred in 1-UCT YBCO.