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Reduced gray matter volumes in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Such volumetric abnormalities might denote alterations in cortical thickness, surface area, local gyrification or all of these factors. The STG can be anatomically divided into five subregions using automatic parcellation in FreeSurfer: lateral aspect of the STG, anterior transverse temporal gyrus of Heschl gyrus (HG), planum polare (PP) of the STG, planum temporale (PT) of the STG and transverse temporal sulcus.
We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3T scans from 40 age- and sex-matched patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy subjects, and the scans were automatically processed using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to assess group differences in regional volumes and detailed thickness, surface area and local gyrification.
As expected, patients with schizophrenia had significantly smaller bilateral STG volumes than healthy subjects. Of the five subregions in the STG, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly and marginally reduced volumes in the lateral aspect of the STG and PT of the STG bilaterally compared with healthy subjects. The volumetric alteration in bilateral lateral STG was derived from both the cortical thickness and surface area but not local gyrification. There was no significant laterality of the alteration in the lateral STG between patients and controls and no correlation among the structures and clinical characteristics.
These findings suggest that of five anatomical subregions in the STG, the lateral STG is one of the most meaningful regions for brain pathophysiology in schizophrenia.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11·5% in all patients studied, and 2·3% of Javanese patients and 18·0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0·01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA ‘on’ and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.
The orientations of individual crystals within a polycrystalline aggregate subjected to stress have a strong influence on its bulk strain rate and flow behavior. The ability to include the effect of crystal fabric and recrystallization processes in an ice flow law, especially at the bottom of glaciers and ice sheets where temperature is close to the pressure-melting point, is important because the stratigraphy of the ice body may be affected and the paleoclimate reconstruction hampered. We present herein three newly developed deformation apparatuses offering the possibility, from single experiments, of investigating different finite strain stages and their corresponding c-axis fabric and grain texture patterns in various confined, shear flow configurations (simple shear, pure shear and compression/extension bending). The technical set-ups and major advantages compared to classical methods are explained, and results from experiments are discussed in order to illustrate the functioning and purposes of the methods. In all experiments, significant variations in the microstructural development have been observed that reflect the varying orientations of the anisotropy and its relationship to the stress pattern. In monocrystalline ice-bending experiments, the pre-existing c-axis fabric is shown to have a profound influence on the response to stress and possibly to the type of slip system activated.
A meta-analysis of the serotonin1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonist of the azapirone class as an anxiolytic drug for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) has not previously been reported.
We carried out a systematic review of the literature available in PubMed, the Cochrane Library database and PsycINFO up to 12 October 2013, and conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo and RCTs of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies for MDD treatment. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), number needed to treat (NNT)/number needed to harm (NNH) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Fifteen RCTs comparing 5-HT1A agonists with placebo (total n = 2469, four studies with buspirone, seven with gepirone, three with ipsapirone and one with zalospirone) were identified. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists had significantly more responders (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65–083, p < 0.00001, NNT = 6, 12 trials, n = 1816) than placebo. Pooled 5-HT1A agonists were superior to placebo in discontinuation due to inefficacy (RR 0.49, p = 0.02, NNH = 16, p = 0.03, 10 trials, n = 1494) but were inferior to placebo in discontinuation due to side-effects (RR 1.88, p < 0.0001, NNH = 17, p = 0.001, 13 trials, n = 2196). However, all-cause discontinuation was similar in both groups (RR 0.99, p = 0.85, 14 trials, n = 2402). Four 5-HT1A agonist augmentation studies were identified (total n = 365, three buspirone studies and one tandospirone study). There were no statistically significant effects of 5-HT1A agonist augmentation therapies on response rate (RR 0.98, p = 0.85, four trials, n = 341). 5-HT1A agonist-related side-effects including gastrointestinal symptoms, dizziness, insomnia, palpitation, paresthesia and sweating were greater than with placebo (p < 0.00001 to p = 0.03).
Our results suggest that 5-HT1A agonist has a more beneficial effect on MDD than placebo, but has several side-effects.
To study the nature of Lyα blobs (aka LABs), we conduct a deep C IV and He II narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs located in SSA22 proto-cluster at z ~ 3.1. We reach the unprecedented sensitivity, 5σ surface brightness limit of 2.1 − 3.4 × 10−18 erg s−1 cm−2 arcsec−2 per 1 arcsec2 aperture for two emission lines. We do not detect any extended C IV and He II emission, placing strong upper limits on the He II/Lyα and C IV/Lyα line ratios. We compare our limits with data in the literature related to the nebulae associated with high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs) and quasars, and we recover the data by modeling the LABs as nebulosities powered by a central QSO. For further information see Arrigoni Battaia et al. (2014).
A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.
Cholesterol granuloma is an intractable ear disease. Many studies of this condition have been published since the initial report by Manasse. However, the pathogenesis of this condition is unclear. This study reviewed the treatment of middle-ear cholesterol granuloma in 16 patients undergoing surgical treatment at Kurume University Hospital.
The relationship between patients' pre-operative tympanic membrane findings and post-operative course was analysed. Patients with swollen tympanic membranes had significantly poorer outcomes. Patients with retracted tympanic membranes and those undergoing ossicular chain reconstruction had significantly better outcomes. The patients' overall hearing success rate at approximately two weeks post-operatively was 75 per cent. However, by six months post-operatively, the overall hearing success rate had declined to 62.5 per cent. Patients with poor hearing two weeks post-operatively did not acquire better hearing.
Previously, the treatment of carcinoma of the external auditory canal has mainly involved surgical resection. In order to enable organ preservation and to obtain cancer-free surgical margins, we introduced the use of superselective, intra-arterial, rapid infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy to treat this condition.
We reviewed our patients' tumour stages, feeding arteries and clinical outcomes. Tumours were staged according to the Pittsburgh staging system. Chemotherapy was administered intra-arterially in the angiography suite via transfemoral catheterisation of the feeding arteries. Four patients underwent superselective, intra-arterial, rapid infusion chemo-radiotherapy. A complete response was obtained in all four patients. The overall toxic side effects were modest.
Superselective, intra-arterial, rapid infusion chemotherapy can be an effective, organ-preserving treatment for external auditory canal carcinoma, with a high cure rate.
Tympanic membrane perforation causes a sound conduction disturbance, and the size of this conduction disturbance is proportional to the perforation area. However, precise evaluation of perforation size is difficult, and there are few detailed reports addressing this issue. Furthermore, such evaluation becomes more difficult for irregularly shaped perforations. This study conducted a quantitative evaluation of tympanic membrane perforations, using image analysis equipment.
A significant correlation was found between the degree of sound conduction disturbance and the perforation area; this correlation was greater at low frequencies following a traumatic perforation. The conductive disturbance associated with chronic otitis media was significantly greater at low frequencies. Circular perforations caused only minor conduction disturbance. Perforations in the anteroinferior quadrant were associated with greater conduction disturbance. Traumatic spindle-shaped perforations and malleolar perforations were associated with greater conduction disturbance.
Labyrinthine fistula is one of the most common complications of chronic otitis media associated with cholesteatoma. The optimal management of labyrinthine fistula, however, remains controversial. Between 1995 and 2005, labyrinthine fistulae were detected in 31 (6 per cent) patients in our institution. The canal wall down technique was used in 27 (87 per cent) patients. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in the first stage in all patients. Bone dust and/or temporalis fascia was inserted to seal the fistula in 29 (94 per cent) patients. A post-operative hearing test was undertaken in 27 patients; seven (26 per cent) patients showed improved hearing, 17 (63 per cent) showed no change and three (11 per cent) showed a deterioration. The study findings indicate that there are various treatment strategies available for cholesteatoma, and that the treatment choice should be based on such criteria as auditory and vestibular function, the surgeon's ability and experience, and the location and size of the fistula.
Microstructure evolution of YBa2Cu3O7−y (YBCO) films during the two heat-treatments in the advanced trifluoroacetates metalorganic deposition (TFA-MOD) process has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. In the calcination process, precursor films including nanopores were formed through the shrinkage of the film after a remarkable increase of the thickness due to the thermal decomposition of metalorganic salts in the starting solution. During the crystallization process, the densification and shrinkage of the film occurred after agglomeration of nanopores and coarsening of unreacted phase particles such as Y2Cu2O5, CuO, and Ba–O–F in the precursor films. The YBCO films were then epitaxially grown with the remaining unreacted phase particles in the film, finally pores were generated again by a reaction of these unreacted particles to form YBCO accompanied by the volume reduction. It is important to control the densification of precursor films and coarsening of the unreacted phase particles in the crystallization process, to fabricate YBCO final films with fine crystallinity and high critical current values.
To determine if a prediction of epidemic cholera using climate data can be made, we performed autoregression analysis using the data recorded in Dhaka City, Bangladesh over a 20-year period (1983–2002) comparing the number of children aged <10 years who were infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 to the maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall. We formulated a simple autoregression model that predicts the monthly number of patients using earlier climate variables. The monthly number of patients predicted by this model agreed well with the actual monthly number of patients where the Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0·95. Arbitrarily defined, 39·4% of the predicted numbers during the study period were within 0·8–1·2 times the observed numbers. This prediction model uses the climate data recorded 2–4 months before. Therefore, our approach may be a good basis for establishing a practical early warning system for epidemic cholera.
Oncomelania nosophora (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) is the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in Japan. Although most of the snails were eliminated during the 20th century, they are still found in two areas in Japan. One area is in the Kofu Basin, including Nirasaki City, in Yamanashi Prefecture. The other is the Obitsu River Basin in Kisarazu City, Chiba Prefecture. Snails collected in Nirasaki and Kisarazu were exposed to 3 geographical strains of S. japonicum originating from Japan, China, and the Philippines. Both isolates of O. nosophora showed high susceptibility to the Japanese strain of S. japonicum (74·0%–82·2% for the Nirasaki isolate and 58·0%–56·0% for the Kisarazu isolate) and low susceptibility to the Chinese strain (0·0%–1·3% and 1·4%–7·9% respectively). In contrast, the susceptibility of the snails to the Philippine strain was significantly different (P<0·01) between the isolates (3·3%–6·6% for the Nirasaki isolate and 31·9%–75·9% for the Kisarazu isolate). To examine the differences in infectivity in detail, we conducted histological observations of snails exposed to the Philippine strain at 3 h, 1, 3, and 15 days after miracidial exposure. We found differences in the development of the parasite between the isolates of snails from early after exposure.