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Results of comprehensive particle image velocimetry measurements investigating the dynamics of turbulent jets in a rotating fluid are presented. It is observed that background system rotation induces a time-periodic formation–breakdown cycle of the jets. The flow dynamics associated with this process is studied in detail. It is found that the frequency of the cycle increases linearly with the background rotation rate. The data show that the onset of the breakdown phase and of the reformation phase of the cycle can be characterized in terms of a local Rossby number employing an internal velocity and a length scale of the jet. The critical values for this local Rossby number, for onset of breakdown and reformation, scale linearly with a global Rossby number based on the flow conditions at the source. The analysis of the experimental data suggests centrifugal instability as the potential origin of the formation–breakdown cycle.
The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
We investigated the clinical predictors of methicillin-resistance and their impact on mortality in 371 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia identified from two prospective multi-centre studies. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 42.2% of community-onset and 74.5% of hospital-onset cases. No significant clinical difference was found between patients infected with MRSA vs. methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), except that the former were more likely to have had hospital-onset bacteraemia and received antibiotics in the preceding 90 days. After stratifying according to the acquisition site, prior antibiotic use was the only independent predictor of having MRSA in both community-onset and hospital-onset cases. The frequency of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was higher in patients with MRSA than in those with MSSA bacteraemia. However, methicillin resistance was not a predictor of mortality in patients and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of both MRSA and MSSA bacteraemia were similar. This study indicates that there are no definitive clinical or epidemiological risk factors which could distinguish MRSA from MSSA cases with the exception of the previous use of antibiotics for having MRSA bacteraemia, which emphasises the prudent use of glycopeptide treatment of patients at risk for invasive MRSA infections.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production has been very rare in serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains, which are well-known invasive community strains. Among 92 ESBL-producing strains identified in 218 isolates from nine Asian countries, serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains were screened. Two ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from Singapore and Indonesia were determined to be serotype K1 and ST23. Their plasmids, which contain CTX-M-15 genes, are transferable rendering the effective transfer of ESBL resistance plasmids to other organisms.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Despite evidence on the short-term benefits of early intervention (EI) service for psychosis, long-term outcome studies are limited by inconsistent results. This study examined the 10-year outcomes of patients with first-episode psychosis who received 2-year territory-wide EI service compared to those who received standard care (SC) in Hong Kong using an historical control design.
Consecutive patients who received the EI service between 1 July 2001 and 30 June 2002, and with diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, were identified and matched with patients who received SC first presented to the public psychiatric service from 1 July 2000 to 30 June 2001. In total, 148 matched pairs of patients were identified. Cross-sectional information on symptomatology and functioning was obtained through semi-structured interview; longitudinal information on hospitalization, functioning, suicide attempts, mortality and relapse over 10 years was obtained from clinical database. There were 70.3% (N = 104) of SC and 74.3% (N = 110) of EI patients interviewed.
Results suggested that EI patients had reduced suicide rate (χ2(1) = 4.35, p = 0.037), fewer number [odds ratio (OR) 1.56, χ2 = 15.64, p < 0.0001] and shorter duration of hospitalization (OR 1.29, χ2 = 4.06, p = 0.04), longer employment periods (OR −0.28, χ2 = 14.64, p < 0.0001) and fewer suicide attempts (χ2 = 11.47, df = 1, p = 0.001) over 10 years. At 10 years, no difference was found in psychotic symptoms, symptomatic remission and functional recovery.
The short-term benefits of the EI service on number of hospitalizations and employment was sustained after service termination, but the differences narrowed down. This suggests the need to evaluate the optimal duration of the EI service.
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87–7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52–12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.
This paper presents the optimal design of an electromagnetic vibration-based generator using the simulated annealing method (SA). To optimally extract the vibrational energy of a system vibrating at a specific frequency, the selected mass and spring stiffness of a resonant vibration is required. The relationship between induced energy and the generator's structure, its permanent magnet height and diameter, number of turns, and wire diameter in a single air coil are discussed. Also, a prototype of the vibrationbased electrical generator is built and tested via a shaker excited at resonance frequency and input amplitude of 0.06mm. Consequently, results reveal that the design parameters (permanent magnet height and diameter, number of turns, and wire diameter) play essential roles in maximizing electrical power.
Background: This study examined the use of low doses of antipsychotic medications (300 mg/day CPZeq or less) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
Methods: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia, aged 55 years or older, was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) study (2001–2009). Data on 1,452 patients in eight Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, India, and Malaysia were analyzed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.
Results: The prescription frequency for low doses of antipsychotic medications was 40.9% in the pooled sample. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that patients on low doses of antipsychotic medications were more likely to be female, have an older age, a shorter length of illness, and less positive symptoms. Of patients in the six countries and territories that participated in all the surveys between 2001 and 2009, those in Japan were less likely to receive low doses of antipsychotics.
Conclusion: Low doses of antipsychotic medications were only applied in less than half of older Asian patients with schizophrenia.
With economic development, non-communicable diseases replace infectious diseases as the leading cause of death; how such transition occurs for infectious diseases with long latency has rarely been considered. We took advantage of a Chinese population with rapid economic development in the mid-20th century to study changing patterns of infection-related cancers. We used sex-specific Poisson regression to estimate age, period and cohort effects on adult deaths 1976–2005 from eight infection-related cancers in Hong Kong. Cervical, head and neck, and oesophageal cancers, associated with sexually transmitted infections, decreased for the first birth cohorts with sexual debut in a more developed environment. Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, associated with vertically transmitted infections, decreased for the first cohorts born into a more developed environment. Birth cohort patterns were unclear for nasopharyngeal, stomach and liver cancers. Mortality rates for cancers related to early infections may depend on population history, with delayed reductions for some infection-related cancers.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
This paper reports on new experimental findings and conclusions regarding the pulsed-laser-induced melting-and-solidification behavior of PECVD a-Si films. The experimental findings reveal that, within the partial-melting regime, these a-Si films can melt and solidify in ways that are distinct from, and more complex than, those encountered in microcrystalline-cluster-rich LPCVD a-Si films. Specifically (1) spatially dispersed and temporally stochastic nucleation of crystalline solids occurring relatively effectively at the moving liquid-amorphous interface, (2) very defective crystal growth that leads to the formation of fine-grained Si proceeding, at least initially after the nucleation, at a sufficiently rapidly moving crystal solidification front, and (3) the propensity for local preferential remelting of the defective regions and grain boundaries (while the beam is still on) are identified as being some of the fundamental factors that can participate and affect how these PECVD films melt and solidify.
We present ultraviolet (UV) properties of dwarf galaxies in the Fornax and Ursa Major clusters in comparison with the Virgo cluster. Most of the dwarf galaxies in the Fornax cluster show red UV colors which is consistent with that the Fornax is dynamically evolved cluster with large fraction of early-type galaxies. Meanwhile, majority of dwarf galaxies of Ursa Major cluster are late-type with blue UV colors, indicating prevalence of strong star formation activities in the low density environment.
We present a mass-metallicity (M–Z) relation of 412 blue compact dwarf galaxies at z = 0.2 ~ 0.5 using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 spectroscopic data. We found a variation of mass-metallicity relations depending on the redshift in which metallicity evolution of low mass galaxies appear to be stronger than that of high mass galaxies. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) shows tight correlation with galaxy mass in the sense that low mass galaxies have substantially high SSFR. We also discuss environmental effect in the SSFR vs galaxy mass relation. At a given mass, merging system shows systematically higher SSFR than isolated one.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission occurs in 0.2%-10% of people after accidental needlestick exposures. However, postexposure prophylaxis is not currently recommended. We sought to determine the safety, tolerability, and acceptance of postexposure prophylaxis with peginterferon alfa-2b in healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to blood from HCV-infected patients.
Open-label pilot trial of peginterferon alfa-2b for HCV postexposure prophylaxis.
TWO academic tertiary-referral centers.
HCWs exposed to blood from HCV-infected patients were informed of the availability of postexposure prophylaxis. Persons who elected postexposure prophylaxis were given weekly doses of peginterferon alfa-2b for 4 weeks.
Among 2,702 HCWs identified with potential exposures to bloodborne pathogens, 213 (7.9%) were exposed to an HCV antibody-positive source. Of 51 HCWs who enrolled in the study, 44 (86%) elected to undergo postexposure prophylaxis (treated group). Seven subjects elected not to undergo postexposure prophylaxis (untreated group). No cases of HCV transmission were observed in either the treated or untreated group, and no cases occurred in the remaining 162 HCWs who did not enroll in this study. No serious adverse events related to a peginterferon alfa-2b regimen were recorded, but minor adverse events were frequent.
In this pilot study, there was a lower than expected frequency of HCV transmission after accidental occupational exposure. Although peginterferon alfa-2b was safe, because of the lack of HCV transmission in either the treated or untreated groups there is little evidence to support routine postexposure prophylaxis against HCV in HCWs.
This chapter focuses on the optical sensing applications based on TiNi films. When the TiNi film undergoes a phase transformation, both its surface roughness and reflection change, which can be used for a light valve or on–off optical switch. Different types of micromirror structures based on sputtered TiNi based films have been designed and fabricated for optical sensing applications. Based on the intrinsic two-way shape memory effect of free standing TiNi film, TiNi cantilever and membrane based mirror structures have been fabricated. Using bulk micromachining, TiNi/Si and TiNi/Si3N4 bimorph mirror structures were fabricated. As one application example, TiNi cantilevers have been used for infrared (IR) radiation detection. Upon absorption of IR radiation, TiNi cantilever arrays were heated up, leading to reverse R-phase transition and bending of the micromirrors.
Optical MEMS, also called MOEMS (Micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems), generally refers to the optical and optoelectronic systems that include one or more micromechanical element [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. The micromechanical elements in MOEMS are batch fabricated by micromachining techniques. They are smaller, lighter, faster and cheaper than their bulk counterparts, and can be monolithically integrated with the optical components. The digital micromirror device (DMD) from Texas Instruments, USA is a showpiece of optical MEMS . It is an array of mirrors, which are independently addressable and can deflect light through a tristable range of motion (+10°, 0°, –10°), as illustrated in Fig. 19.1 . A light source is directed onto the DMD while a signal is input to the device. Each individual mirror is placed in a binary mode.