To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production has been very rare in serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains, which are well-known invasive community strains. Among 92 ESBL-producing strains identified in 218 isolates from nine Asian countries, serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains were screened. Two ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from Singapore and Indonesia were determined to be serotype K1 and ST23. Their plasmids, which contain CTX-M-15 genes, are transferable rendering the effective transfer of ESBL resistance plasmids to other organisms.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable psychiatric disorder. Additionally, environmental factors such as perinatal stress and early adversities contribute to the occurrence and severity of ADHD. Recently, DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism that potentially mediates gene–environmental interaction effects in the aetiology and phenomenology of psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated whether serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) methylation patterns were associated with clinical characteristics and regional cortical thickness in children with ADHD.
In 102 children with ADHD (age 6–15 years), the methylation status of the SLC6A4 promoter was measured. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was obtained and ADHD symptoms were evaluated.
A higher methylation status of the SLC6A4 promoter was significantly associated with worse clinical presentations (more hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and more commission errors). Additionally, a negative correlation was observed between SLC6A4 methylation levels and cortical thickness values in the right occipito-temproral regions.
Our results suggest that the SLC6A4 methylation status may be associated with certain symptoms of ADHD, such as behavioural disinhibition, and related brain changes. Future studies that use a larger sample size and a control group are required to corroborate these results.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.
Preterm birth confers risk for poor outcome, including mental health problems. Survival of extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants increased in the 1990s but psychiatric outcomes in older adolescents born preterm since 1990 are not well documented. This study aimed to characterize mental health and personality traits in a prospective geographical cohort of adolescents born EP/ELBW in Victoria, Australia in 1991 and 1992.
At age 18 years, 215 EP/ELBW and 157 normal birthweight (>2499 g) control adolescents completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, Axis 1 Non-Patient version (SCID-I/NP), the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) module, and questionnaires assessing recent depression and anxiety symptoms and personality traits.
ADHD prevalence was significantly elevated in EP/ELBW adolescents compared with controls [15% v. 7%; odds ratio (OR) 2.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–6.58]. Aside from ADHD, however, EP/ELBW and control adolescents reported very similar outcomes, with other lifetime diagnoses identified in 23% of EP/ELBW and 21% of controls. These were predominantly mood and anxiety disorders (21% EP/ELBW, 20% controls). The groups did not differ in recent depression or anxiety symptoms assessed using questionnaires, and personality traits were also similar.
ADHD was more prevalent in EP/ELBW adolescents than controls, which is consistent with some, but not all, reports on preterm survivors born before the 1990s, and younger preterm children born in the 1990s. The high rates of anxiety and mood disorders were similar in both groups, and comparable with population-based estimates.
We have investigated characteristic ferroelectric and structural antiphase domain structures in single crystals of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho, Lu, and Yb) by obtaining various electron diffraction patterns, dark-filed images and high-resolution lattice images. In the ferroelectric phase of RMnO3 characteristic domain structures consisting of six ferroelectric and structural antiphase domains, which can be identified as the “cloverleaf” pattern, is found in the (110) plane, in addition to the (001) plane, and are inherent to the ferroelectric phase of hexagonal RMnO3. In domain configuration with the cloverleaf pattern in the (110) plane, the structural antiphase boundaries are inclined to be parallel to the  direction.
Optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells having growth interruption were investigated using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and transmission microscopy. InxGa1−xN/GaN (x>0.25) six pair quantum wells used in this study were grown on c- plane sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The growth interruption was carried out by closing the group-III metal organic sources before and after growth of InGaN quantum well layers. With increasing the interruption time, the quantum dot-like region and well thickness decreases due to indium re-evaporation or thermal etching effect. As a result, PL peak position is blue-shifted and intensity is reduced. The size and number of V-defect did not vary with interruption time. The interruption time is not directly related with formation of the defect. The V-defect in quantum wells originates at threading dislocations and inversion domain boundaries due to higher misfit strain.
Organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous materials containing homogeneously distributed ethane group in silica framework were prepared using 1,2 bis(trimethoxysilyl) ethane (BTME) as a precursor and alkyltrimethylammonium chloride/bromide surfactant as a template. Characterization of the materials was performed using XRD, TEM/SEM, 29Si– / 13C– NMR, and N2-adsorption. Hydrothermal synthesis assisted by microwave heating produced a 1-3 micronsized hybrid material with spherical morphology in substantially reduced time. Bifunctional materials containing BTME and either aminopropyl- or mercaptopropy- group within the same silica framework were also prepared with or without the presence of a swelling agent, mesitylene. Mn-salen complex tethering on the hybrid material produced a catalyst with a somewhat enhanced performance in cyclohexene etherification using TBHP as an oxidant. Testing of the hybrid material as a reverse phase HPLC column material after C18 surface-functionalization demonstrated a promising result, which warrants further optimization of synthesis parameters.
We use resonance Raman scattering (RRS) and electroreflection (ER) measurements to profile the the composition and strain variations in laterally composition-modulated (CM) GaP/InP short-period superlattices (SPS's). The ER spectra of a GaP2.2/InP2.0 SPS give the fundamental band-gap energy at 1.69±0.05eV, which is about 210 meV lower than the band gap energy of a GaInP random alloy with the same overall composition. The RRS measurements reveal strong dependences of the phonon spectrum on the polarization and the excitation energy. In RRS spectra measured with the polarization of both excitation and scattered photons along the composition modulation direction, the GaP-like longitudinal optical (LO) phonon redshifts by 4.0±0.5 cm−1 near the resonance with the fundamental energy gap. On the other hand, when the polarizations are orthogonal to the composition modulation, the LO phonons redshift as much as 16 cm−1 at low excitation energies. A comparison of the experimental data with a model calculation gives the average In composition in the In-rich region as 0.70±0.02, and the average Ga composition in the Ga-rich region as 0.68±0.02. Our result also indicates that there are small volumes (less than 1% volume fraction) with very high In mole fraction.
We observed a dramatic peak in the 1/f noise at the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in low-Tc, manganites. This many-orders-of-magnitude noise enhancement is observed for both polycrystalline and single-crystal samples of La5/8−y. Pry, Ca3/8MnO3 (y = 0.35 – 0.4) and Pr1−xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.35 – 0.5). This observation strongly suggests that the microscopic phase separation in the low-Tc, manganites causes formation of a percolation network, and that the observed MIT is a percolation threshold. It is shown that the scale of phase separation in polycrystalline samples is much smaller than that in single crystals.
We have investigated the magnetic anisotropies of doped manganite materials in epitaxial thin film and single crystal form. Structural characterization, including x-ray diffraction, Rudierford backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force misocroscopy, indicate that our epitaxial films arc single crystalline and have excellent crystallinity. Since lattice distortions greatly affect the magnetic and transport properties of this family of materials, it is not surprising to find the profound effect of strain in films due to the lattice mismatch between the substrate and film. Magnetic anisotropy results of single crystals, subject to no external stress, is compared to those of epitaxial films.
In this study, Ag/OD-MO/Ag surface-type diode was fabricated by drop-casting orange dye and methyl orange blend thin film from 1.0 wt.% aqueous solution, under the effect of an electric field, on a glass substrate with preliminary deposited silver electrodes. Geometrical length and width of the semiconducting channel between metallic electrodes were equal to 40 μm and 21 mm, respectively. The dark I-V characteristics exhibited strong rectification behaviour though both electrodes were from the same metal. The average value of rectification ratio (RR) was 27 and it was found that RR varies with applied voltage in the range of 1–40. The dark I-V characteristics were simulated by modified Shockley equation and space-charge limited currents (SCLC) approach. Different diode parameters were calculated from current-voltage characteristics. The diode showed non-ideal I-V behaviour with a quality factor greater than unity. Energy band diagram is proposed for the Ag/OD-MO/Ag surface-type diode.
Thin films of polythiophene, a kind of polyheterocyclic compound with hydrogen function groups, were deposited by KrF excimer laser ablation of a compressed solid target in a vacuum chamber. The laser pulse fluence was approximately selected at 2 J/cm2 with a pulse duration of 25 ns. The structural, topographic, and electronic properties of the deposited thin films were analyzed by atomic force microscope, x-ray diffraction, and Raman and infrared spectroscopy measurements. Deposited thin films were observed to have good crystal properties and to be composed of crystalline cubes with a uniform size of 0.1 μm. The electronic structure of the deposited thin films should be different from the target materials, resulting from the laser irradiation effects. The influence of the deposition temperature on the structural and electronic properties of the deposited thin films was studied.
During a 1-year period from October 1995 to September 1996, 273
isolations of Streptococcus
pneumoniae were made from various types of clinical specimens. The
majority of the isolates
(39·2%) were from sputum whilst 27·5% were from blood, CSF
and other body fluids. The
organism was isolated from patients of all age groups, 31·1% from
children aged 10 years and
below, 64·7% of which come from children aged 2 years or below.
The majority of the isolates
belong to serotypes 1, 6B, 19B, 19F and 23F. Serotypes 1 and 19B were the
serotypes associated with invasive infection. About 71·9% of the
invasive infections were due
to serotypes included in the available 23 valent polysaccharide vaccine.
The rates of resistance
to penicillin and erythromycin were 7·0 and 1·1% respectively.
Our findings show that the
serotypes of S. pneumoniae causing most invasive infections in
Malaysia are similar to those in
other parts of the world and the available vaccine may have a useful role
in this population.
In order to quantitatively determine the residual stresses at the interfaces of laminate composite materials, a model involving exponential stress gradient in the substrate and no stress gradient in the film was derived. The measurements of residual strains at the Si/quartz interfaces using the Raman microprobe were compared to expected strains by the model. The model shows that a small volume of substrate near the interface about 2 times the film thickness was affected by the thermal mismatch of the two regions. Approximately 5–10 times higher residual strains were expected at the substrate-side interfaces compared to the measured results. This is explained by the experiments averaging along the probe thickness of about 10μm resolution. The recrystallization process of Si film by thermal annealing was also investigated using Raman spectroscopy.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.