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Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates reduced from 33.9 to 13.9 and 37.3 to 11.3 per 100 000 population, respectively. Also, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates reduced from 2.2 to 1.5 and 2.8 to 1.0 per 100 000 population, respectively. Average APC in the incidence and mortality rates showed significant decline both in men (−6.2% and −5.4%, respectively) and women (−5.7% and −4.6%, respectively). Age-specific analysis demonstrated decreases in incidence and mortality rates for every age category, except for the incidence trend in the younger population. Although trends in active TB incidence and mortality rates in Japan have favourably decreased, the rate of decline is far from achieving TB elimination by 2035.
Sodium bromate is a strong oxidant, and bromate intoxication can cause irreversible severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. This paper reports the first case in the English literature of bromate-induced hearing loss with hearing recovery measured by formal audiological assessment.
A 72-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with complaints of profound hearing loss, nausea, diarrhoea and anuria after bromate ingestion in a suicide attempt. On admission, pure tone audiometry and auditory brainstem responses showed profound bilateral deafness. Under the diagnosis of bromate-induced acute renal failure and sensorineural hearing loss, continuous haemodiafiltration was performed. When dialysis was discontinued, pure tone audiometry and auditory brainstem responses showed partial threshold recovery from profound deafness.
Severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss is a common symptom of bromate intoxication. Bromate-induced hearing loss may be partially treated, and early application of continuous haemodiafiltration might be useful as a treatment for this intractable condition.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.
The Japan-U.S. satellite ASCA was launched in February 1993 and provides a new capability to obtain high-resolution X-ray spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars in the 0.5 — 10 keV band. We present spectra of the wide binary HD 193793 (WC7+O4-5) obtained three months after periastron with the WC7 star in front, and of the WN7 star HD 93162 in Carina. The spectrum of HD 193793 is heavily absorbed below 2 keV by the WC7 wind and shows a prominent emission line from He-like iron at 6.7 keV. Acceptable fits were obtained using a Raymond-Smith model with kT ≈ 3 keV and non-solar abundances. In contrast, the spectrum of HD 93162 is softer and shows very little emission above ≍2 keV. The relatively low signal-to-noise precludes emission line analysis, and an acceptable spectral fit was obtained using a simple Bremsstrahlung model with kT ≍ 1.6 keV. No significant variability was detected in the X-ray light-curves of either star.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The region south of the reflection nebula NGC1333 in Perseus is an active star forming region including numerous Herbig-Haro objects and at least 5 protostar candidates with molecular outflows and far-infrared emission. It has been actively studied in various wave bands (e.g. Aspin et al 1994 and references therein). We observed this region with ASCA with the primary objective to detect X-rays from the protostars embedded deep in the molecular cloud.
On 1993 August 20, we observed the Rho-Oph dark cloud and detected hard X-rays from Class I sources (Koyama et al.(1994), Kamata et al.(1997)). One of the sources (EL29) showed a flare-like variability, while another (WL6) exhibited sinusoidal variation with no large spectral change. The later would be due to a spin of the protostar. The sinusoidal period of about 1 day is shorter than spin periods of TTSs of ~3-7 day.
X-ray imaging spectroscopic observations near the Galactic center region were carried out with the ASCA satellite. We found two bright spots very close to the Galactic center (Sgr A∗); one is extended and has a soft spectrum associated with strong emission lines from highly ionized irons, while the other is a point-like object with a harder spectrum and a larger absorption. We also found extended emission with K-shell transition lines from highly ionized Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe. Remarkable feature found with ASCA is an extended emission of 6.4 keV lines of low ionization irons. The 6.4 keV line fluxes are found to be well correlated to the region of cool clouds. We interpret that the 6.4 keV line is due to florescence from the cool clouds irradiated by strong (and obscured from our line of sight) X-ray beams.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
Interferometric measurement of a pulsar is one of the most effective techniques to measure accurate source position. Precise measurement of pulsar position will give us the information of proper motion and parallax. Interferometric measurements on pulsars have been carried out, but the number of the pulsars whose position were measured is still smaller than the total number of pulsars. Because newly discovered pulsars are rapidly increasing due to recent intensive systematic surveys. We have started measuring their position by using VLBI between Kashima and Kalyazin. This report shows the results of the first experiment.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
We have investigated characteristic ferroelectric and structural antiphase domain structures in single crystals of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho, Lu, and Yb) by obtaining various electron diffraction patterns, dark-filed images and high-resolution lattice images. In the ferroelectric phase of RMnO3 characteristic domain structures consisting of six ferroelectric and structural antiphase domains, which can be identified as the “cloverleaf” pattern, is found in the (110) plane, in addition to the (001) plane, and are inherent to the ferroelectric phase of hexagonal RMnO3. In domain configuration with the cloverleaf pattern in the (110) plane, the structural antiphase boundaries are inclined to be parallel to the  direction.
The optoelectronic properties of porous Si (PS) have been investigated in relation to the visible luminescence characteristics. First, the electronic structure has been characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) reflection spectra analyses. A retention of the original crystallinity, accompanied by a band gap widening, is confirmed by the optical reflection spectra and the optical constants behavior. Second, it is shown that there exists an intrinsic correlation between the visible photoluminescence characteristics of PS and its interfacial and electrical properties. These experimental results suggest that in the visible luminescence mechanism of PS, both band modification in Si crystallites and passivation at their surface play a complementary role to each other. The former ensures sufficient electronic excitation and the latter contribute to suppression of nonradiative relaxation.
Gas source silicon molecular beam epitaxial (Si-MBE) growth is microscopically governed by a disociative adsorption of silicon hydrides, such as Si2H6 source gas molecules on Si surface. The dissociative adsorption generates SiH species on the surface. From this hydride phase, hydrogen desorbs thermaly. The temperature dependence of the growth rate indicated that the hydrogen desorption from the SiH is the rate limiting step. In HBO2 Knudsen cell doping, B adsorbates block the surface migration. Such a blocking effect can be avoided by B2H6 gas dopant, because of the similar incorpration mechanism of B2H6 to that of Si2H6. However, in PH3 gas doping, a crystal quality degradation was observed at a high doping range due to the preferentially high sticking coefficient of PH3 and the resulting surface dangling bond termination. The selective epitaxial growth of a B doped layer using Si2H6 and B2H6 was applied to a novel structured base fabrication for super self-aligned selectively grown base transistor (SSSBT). A successful achievement of the SSSBT fabrication indicates the high potentiality of gas source Si-MBE to the sub-micron size ultra-high speed bipolar large scale integrated (LSI) circuits.
A single high Tc phase of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor was obtained by following proper synthetic conditions:(a)addition of Pb, (b)proper starting composition, (c)codecomposition method, (d)sintering under low oxygen partial pressure and (e)long sintering. The composition analysis showed that every atomic site might be occupied by some element and there might not be defects or excess atoms in the structure. The hole donor in these samples is considered to be Pb on the Bi site and hole concentration seems to be, to some extent, controlled by the Pb content. A phase with four CuO2 layers have possibly grown on the surface of the grains of thi high Tc phase.
The current leakage generated in a localized area that creates a more serious problem to the ULSI devices was investigated. To clarify the origin of such a current leakage generated at a localized small area, an evaluation technique with a high spatial resolution, high sensitivity and a precise positioning is demanded. We have developed the planar point TEM(Transmission Electron Microscope) technique to enable the structure analysis of a localized small area in ULSI devices. Using this technique and AEM(Analytical Electron Microscope), we revealed one cause of current leakage at a small area in a memory device. It was found that one origin of such leakage is caused by heavy metal precipitation on the localized dislocation. The origin of this dislocation generation is a combination of effects from the crystalline damage during the formation of the oxide sidewall spacer by dry etching and the stresses from the oxide sidewall spacer and the field oxide.
GaN films were deposited on glass substrates using a compound-source molecular beam epitaxy technique. Electroluminescent devices with a double-insulator structure were also fabricated using the deposited films. When the devices were operated using a sine-wave voltage, one of the emission peaks was located in the UV spectral region. Introducing a small ammonia flow increased the deposition rate.