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Lattice Boltzmann direct numerical simulation of turbulent open-channel flows over randomly distributed hemispheres at
is carried out to reveal the influence of roughness parameters related to a probability density function of rough-surface elevation on turbulence by analysing the spatial and Reynolds- (double-) averaged Navier–Stokes equation. This study specifically concentrates on the influence of the root-mean-square roughness and the skewness, and profiles of turbulence statistics are compared by introducing an effective wall-normal distance defined as a wall-normal integrated plane porosity. The effective distance can completely collapse the total shear stress outside the roughness sublayer, and thus the similarity of the streamwise mean velocity is clearer by introducing the effective distance. In order to examine the influence of the root-mean-square roughness and the skewness on dynamical effects that contribute to an increase in the skin friction coefficient, the triple-integrated double-averaged Navier–Stokes equation is analysed. The main contributors to the skin friction coefficient are found to be turbulence and drag force. The turbulence contribution increases with the root-mean-square roughness and/or the skewness. The drag force contribution, on the other hand, increases in particular with the root-mean-square roughness whereas an increase in the skewness does not increase the drag force contribution because it does not necessarily increase the surface area of the roughness elements. The contribution of the mean velocity dispersion induced by spatial inhomogeneity of the rough surfaces substantially increases with the root-mean-square roughness. A linear correlation is confirmed between the root-mean-square roughness and the equivalent roughness while the equivalent roughness monotonically increases with the skewness. A new correlation function based on the root-mean-square roughness and the skewness is developed with the available experimental and direct numerical simulation data, and it is confirmed that the developed correlation reasonably predicts the equivalent roughness of various types of real rough surfaces.
The effect of the superluminal motion of 3C273b was observed on the fringe amplitudes obtained in VLBI experiments which have been conducted on the baselines between Japan and United States since 1984 under the Crustal Dynamics Project. The speed was 0.7 mas/year and the direction was −83 degrees in the position angle. It was also confirmed as the apparent right ascention shift of the source.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.
Two reversal theory-based studies investigated dancers' psychological experience at final rehearsal, and at three performances in an annual competition. In Study 1, 23 Japanese modern dance specialists completed the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory immediately before and after performance. Pre-study expectations that dancers would experience higher levels of unpleasant emotions (including performance anxiety or stage fright) and stress pre-competition than pre-final rehearsal were not confirmed. Dancers experienced significantly higher levels of unpleasant emotions before final rehearsal than before competition. Also contrary to expectations, competing was found not to be more stressful and not to require greater efforts to cope, than rehearsing. Study 2 set out to investigate dancers' basic motives for dancing and to show whether the anxiety-to-excitement reversal phenomena could be discerned during dance performance. Using the same experimental procedure as Study 1, a similar group of 15 dancers completed a dance performance experience questionnaire. The results indicated that, for the majority of dancers, the primary reason for dancing was either the paratelic, telic, arousal-seeking, or alloic-sympathy meta-motivational categories, and that many dancers experienced anxiety to excitement reversals.
InGaN films have been grown on GaN and AlGaN epitaxial layers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The “composition pulling effect” during the initial InGaN growth stages has been studied as a function of the lattice mismatch between the InGaN and the underlying epitaxial layer. The crystalline quality of the InGaN is good near the InGaN/GaN interface and the composition is close to that of GaN. However, with increasing InGaN film thickness, the crystal quality deteriorates and the indium mole fraction increases. The composition pulling effect becomes stronger with increasing lattice mismatch. It is suggested that indium atoms are excluded from the InGaN lattice during the early growth stages to reduce the deformation energy from the lattice mismatch. TEM observations of the InGaN/GaN structure reveal that the degradation of the crystalline quality of InGaN films grown on GaN is caused by pit formation which arises from edge dislocations propagating through the InGaN film from the underlying GaN.
Estimation of 50% lethal doses from nuclear DNA contents and subsequent species sensitivity distribution analysis was performed to derive regional 5% hazardous doses (HD5) for major orders Anura (e.g., frogs) and Caudata (e.g., salamanders) of amphibians inhabiting Japan, Australia, France, Czech Republic, Canada and some US states, where nuclear power plants or uranium mines are located. The HD5 values ranged from 3.0 to 7.7 Gy for the Anura inhabiting there while they ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 Gy for the Caudata. Comparison of these results with the worldwide HD5s (5.3 Gy for the Anura and 3.3 Gy for the Caudata) suggests that benchmark values for the Asian and Oceanic Anura and the European Caudata can be set at higher doses than the global values. Regional differences should be, therefore, considered when benchmark values are derived for some taxonomic groups.
For realizing the proof of mass production capablity or a move toward a GW/a production, 16%-efficiency project has been started setting the target of each parameter as V∝: 0.685 V/cell, FF: 0.735 and Jsc: 31.8mA/cm2. Up to FY2008, the target of each parameter independently has been achieved expect the efficiency. All of our research by adjusting the two resistance (Rsh and Rs) in the monolithically integrated 30cm×30cm-sized circuits. To improve the FF, double buffer structure with CBD-Zn(O,S,OH)x and MOCVD-ZnO is proposed and the thickness is adjusted by optimizing the Rs and the Rsh. As the result, FF of over 0.7 has been achieved for the first time in our CIS R&D since FY 1993.
The technique of radiolytic decomposition of water leading to hydrogen production was demonstrated to explore a new field in the utilization of radioactive platinum group metals recovered from high level radioactive waste (HAW) and radioactivity of HAW. The radiation photocatalytic method is based on the technique to decompose water on platinized semiconductor particles under UV-light irradiation which has been widely investigated to develop an alternative energy source. In this study gamma radiation from Co-60 source was applied to produce hydrogen instead of UV-light and a significant amount of hydrogen evolved from catalyst-water suspension. Our preliminary experiments proved a possibility of converting the energy of radiation ionization into chemical energy (hydrogen) by the radiation photocatalytic method.
We have proposed spin quantum cross (SQC) devices, in which organic materials are sandwiched between two edges of magnetic thin films whose edges are crossed, towards the realization of novel beyond-CMOS switching devices. In SQC devices, nanometer-size junctions can be produced since the junction area is determined by the film thickness. In this study, we have fabricated Ni SQC devices with poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT): 6, 6-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) organic materials and investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics experimentally and theoretically. As a result of I-V measurements, ohmic I-V characteristics have been obtained at room temperature for Ni SQC devices with P3HT:PCBM organic materials, where the junction area is as small as 16 nm × 16 nm. This experimental result shows quantitative agreement with the theoretical calculation results performed within the framework of the Anderson model under the strong coupling limit. Our calculation also shows that a high on/off ratio beyond 10000:1 can be obtained in Ni SQC devices with P3HT:PCBM organic materials under the weak coupling condition.
In this study, the pn hetero-interface between Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer and Cu(InGa)(SSe)2 (CIGSS) surface layers is discussed in order to achieve the fill factor (FF) over 0.73 and the circuit efficiency of 16 % on aperture area of over 800 cm2. Two resistances, i.e. shunt resistance (Rsh) and series resistance (Rs), in the circuits are employed as a yardstick to evaluate the interface quality. Since there are no realistic yardsticks on the Rs, the difference between Voc and optimum-power voltage (Vop) (i.e. Voc-Vop [V/cell]) is applied as a simple tool to evaluate the Rs. It is emphasized that it is important to reduce the Rs mainly correlated to the buffer deposition process and, as a result, the interface quality. We consider the Rs is dependent on the remaining Zn(OH)2 concentration in the Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer deposited by a chemical-bath deposition (CBD) technique. As an approach to make the Rs minimize and the Rsh maximize simultaneously, adjusting the thickness of a CBD-Zn(O,S,OH)x buffer layer and a non-doped ZnO layer deposited by a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique has been effective to reduce the remaining Zn(OH)2 concentration. Determining the optimized deposition procedure to achieve the FF over 0.700 consistently, the circuit efficiency of 15.3 % with aperture area of 856 cm2 and the FF of 0.717 has been achieved.
To examine the usefulness of a three-dimensional model for surgical navigation of cholesteatoma.
Materials and method:
A three-dimensional model was prototyped using selective laser sintering. Based on detailed computed tomography data, powder layers were laser-fused and accumulated to create a three-dimensional structure. The computed tomography threshold was adjusted to simultaneously replicate bony structures and soft tissues.
The cholesteatoma, major vessels and bony structures were well replicated. This laser-sintered model was used to aid surgery for recurrent cholesteatoma. The cholesteatoma, which extended from the hypotympanum through the styloid process sheath and the internal carotid artery sheath, was removed safely via a minimal skin incision.
The laser-sintered model was useful for surgical planning and navigation in a cholesteatoma case involving complex bony structures and soft tissue.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
VERA aims at astrometric observations using phase referencing VLBI techniques, whose goal is a 10 micro arc-second accuracy for annual parallax measurements. VERA has four 20-m diameter VLBI radio telescopes in Japanese archipelago with the maximum baseline length of 2,300 km. They have the two-beam observing system, which makes simultaneous observations of two objects possible. This leads to very accurate phase referencing VLBI observations. An important science goal is to make a 3-dimensional map of the Galaxy and reveal its dynamics. In order to achieve this, VERA has the 22GHz and 43GHz bands for H2O and SiO maser objects, respectively. Maser objects are compact and suitable for astrometry observations. VERA's construction was started in 2000 and the array became operational in 2004. We have already measured annual parallaxes and proper motions of some galactic objects. In the future, VERA will collaborate with Korean and Chinese VLBI stations.
“Stand-support sintering”, that is supporting the load of the sinter cake with bars or
plates attached to pallets, has been developed and applied practically to the sintering
machines in Kimitsu works, Nippon Steel. The stands start to support the load of the sinter
cake just after the top layer is melted and starts to solidify. Shrinkage is stopped
and the gas flow rate is increased when the stands start to support the load of the
sinter cake. It was found that sintering time was shortened and productivity was improved in
actual sintering machines.
Transitions of flow past a row of square bars placed across a uniform flow are
investigated by numerical simulations and the bifurcation analysis of the numerical
results. The flow is assumed two-dimensional and incompressible. It is already known
that jets coming through gaps between square bars are independent of each other
when the pitch-to-side-length ratio of the row is large, whereas the confluence of two
or three jets occurs due to a first pitchfork bifurcation from the flow with independent
jets when the pitch-to-side-length ratio is small. It is found that confluence of four jets
occurs in consequence of the second pitchfork bifurcation from the flow with pairs
of jets joined to each other. Bifurcation diagrams of the flow are obtained, which
include confluences of double, triple and quadruple jets. Lengths of the twin vortices
are evaluated for each flow pattern. The confluences of two, three and four jets are
qualitatively confirmed experimentally by flow visualizations.