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Variability in antidepressant response is due to genetic and environmental factors. Among genetic factors, the ones controlling for availability of the drug at the target site are interesting candidates. Rs6295C/G SNP for 5-HT1A gene (HTR1A) has been found to effect the expression and function of HTR1A In fact rs6295C/G was in strong linkage disequilibrium with other polymorphisms of HTR1A suggesting that those functional effects could be associated with polymorphisms other than the synonymous rs6295C/G. In the present study we examine the possible association of a panel of markers in strong linkage disequilibrium of the HTR1A with SSRI/SNRI response in 137 Japanese major depression sample followed for 6 weeks. We observed the significant association of better response to antidepressant with rs10042486C/C (p<0.0001), rs6295G/G (p<0.0001) and rs1364043T/T (p=0.018) genotype carriers, that is mutant allele homozygote, independently from clinical variables. Furthermore mutant allele homozygote carriers in all these 3 SNPs was associated more solidly with treatment response by various assessment such as HAM-D score change over time (p=0.001), week 2 (p<0.0001), 4(p=0.007), and 6(p=0.048) as well as response rate (p=0.0005) and remission rate (p=0.004).
In conclusion, this is the first study that reports the significant association of antidepressant response with rs10042486C/T and rs1364043G/T variants of HTR1A and also with rs10042486-rs6295-rs1364043 combination. This finding adds an important piece of information for the pathway of detecting the genetics of antidepressant response even if results must be verified on larger samples.
We explored the factors promoting long-term mental health among adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. We examined the associations of their long-term mental health with disaster-related storytelling and school-based psychoeducation, and of school-based psychoeducation with disaster-related storytelling.
A secondary school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 years after the disaster. Participants with traumatic experiences such as injury, loss, witnessing someone's death/injury and home destruction (N = 1028, mean age 15, standard deviation 1.38, male 51%) were eligible. Mental health/disaster education (MHE/DE) was defined as taking one or more lessons in MHE and/or DE at school since the earthquake. Experiences of storytelling about the disaster involved expressing distressing memories and feelings regarding the earthquake since the disaster happened, according to four groups: never expressed distressing memories and feelings, expressed them through writing/drawing, expressed them through talking to lay supporters and expressed them through talking to health professionals. Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean scores on five selected subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) scale among the four storytelling groups. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the relationships between MHE/DE and current mental health as measured by the SCL-90, AIS and PLEs. The relationship between education and storytelling was probed by χ2 test.
The talked-to-lay-supporters group showed better mental health on the SCL-90 (p ⩽ 0.001), AIS (p < 0.001) and PLEs (p = 0.004), while the consulted-health-professionals group showed worse mental health on the three dimensions of the SCL-90: depression (p = 0.05), anxiety (p = 0.02) and fear (p = 0.04), and on PLEs (p = 0.02) compared with the never-expressed group. MHE and DE were inversely associated with SCL-90, AIS and PLE scores. Participants who received these forms of education talked about their disaster experiences to lay supporters more than those who did not.
MHE and DE at school may promote adolescents’ mental health after a disaster. Experience of storytelling about the disaster to lay supporters may be helpful for long-term psychological recovery, and may be a potential mediating factor for school-based education and better mental health. Because of the cross-sectional nature of this study, causality cannot be inferred; therefore, further prospective intervention studies are needed to elucidate the effect of these factors on adolescent survivors’ mental health.
The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007–2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity). Nationally, testing activity and positivity showed an inverse relationship; in 2008, the testing rate peaked, but positivity was lowest. While notification rates were higher for Tokyo (median = 0.98, range = 0.89–1.33) than Okinawa (median = 0.61, range = 0.42–1.09), Okinawa had slightly higher testing rates (median = 187, range = 158–274) relative to Tokyo (median = 172, range = 163–210). Positivity was substantially lower in Okinawa (median = 0.34%, range = 0.24–0.45%) compared with Tokyo (median = 0.57%, range = 0.46–0.67%). Relative to the national testing rate (median = 85, range = 80–115) and positivity (median = 0.34%, range = 0.28–0.36%), Tokyo had higher positivity, despite more testing. In 2014 in Okinawa, all three indicators increased, providing a strong reason to be concerned as positivity increased despite more testing. Together with other information, accounting for testing and positivity improve interpretation of surveillance data to guide public health assessments.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
The overview of the recent results for discovery and investigations of a very exotic phenomenon – optical mirage in the X-ray spectral range – is presented. It was found that the mirage could be created in the form of coherent virtual point source, emerging in the vicinity of the second plasma in two-stage oscillator-amplifier X-ray laser. The X-ray source-mirage, rigidly phased with the initial radiation of generator, occurs only when amplification takes place in the amplifier plasma and leads to the appearance of the interference pattern in the form of concentric rings in the spatial profile of the output X-ray laser beam. The equation describing the emergence of X-ray mirage was found, numerical solution of which shows that its formation is similar to that of the optical mirages observed at propagation of light rays through an inhomogeneously heated air. Obtained results have already demonstrated novel comprehension into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation, opening additional opportunities for X-ray interferometry, holography, and other applications, which require multiple rigidly phased sources of coherent radiation.
We studied GeTe structures in topological switching random access memories (TRAMs) with a [GeTe/Sb2Te3] superlattice by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of the TRAMs deposited at different temperatures. We found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 and 240°C and that the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films.
This paper describes an overview of our recent discovery – clear
demonstration that LiF crystals can be efficiently used as a high-performance neutron
imaging detector based on optically stimulated luminescence of color centers
generated by neutron irradiation. It is shown that the neutron images we have
obtained are almost free from granular noise, have a spatial resolution of
and a linear response with a dynamic range of at least
. The high contrast and good sensitivity of LiF crystals allow us to
distinguish two holes with less than 2% transmittance difference. We propose to use
such detectors in areas where high spatial resolution with high image gradation
resolution is needed, including diagnostics of different plasma sources such as laser
and z-pinch produced plasmas.
This paper solves the known problem of elimination of unnecessary internal element construction as well as variable elimination in XML processing with (a subset of) XQuery without ignoring the issues of document order. The semantics of XQuery is context sensitive and requires preservation of document order. In this paper, we propose, as far as we are aware, the first XQuery fusion that can deal with both the document order and the context of XQuery expressions. More specifically, we carefully design a context representation of XQuery expressions based on the Dewey order encoding, develop a context-preserving XQuery fusion for ordered trees by static emulation of the XML store, and prove that our fusion is correct. Our XQuery fusion has been implemented, and all the examples in this paper have passed through the system.
AFM induced local anodic oxidation of HOPG was carried out in various conditions such as humidity, applied voltage and scan speed. A clear evidence of different oxidation features between HOPG and graphene has been confirmed and discussed.
These results should contribute to the progress of the micro/nano fabrication of graphene by the local anodic oxidation.
To evaluate the effectiveness of a brief suicide management training programme for Japanese medical residents compared with the usual lecture on suicidality.
In this multi-center, clustered randomized controlled trial, the intervention group attended a structured suicide management programme and the control group, the usual lecture on depression and suicidality. The primary outcome was the difference in residents' cumulative competency score to manage suicidal persons from baseline (T0) to 1 month after the intervention (T2), determined using the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-1) score, at individual level.
Analysis of 114 residents (intervention group n = 65, control group n = 49) assigned to two clusters in each group revealed no change in SIRI-1 score from T0 to T2 or immediately after the intervention (T1) between the two groups. As a secondary analysis, discrepancy in judgement between the participants and Japanese suicidologists was examined immediately after the intervention in the adjusted model, with a mean difference in score of 9.98 (95% confidence interval: 4.39–15.56; p = 0.001).
The structured programme was not proven to improve competency in suicide management when measured by the SIRI-1 score. Further elaboration of the programme and valid measurement of its outcome would be needed to show the program's effectiveness.
We previously revealed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) seroprevalence was 4·5% in pigs on Ishigaki Island from 2005 to 2007. However, a partial E gene sequence (151 bp) of the JEV genome (JEV/sw/Ishigaki/1/2005) was detected in one pig. Phylogenetic analysis showed that JEV/sw/Ishigaki/1/2005 belonged to genotype III and to the same lineages isolated in Taiwan from 2006 to 2008. Serum samples were collected from 128 pigs on Ishigaki from 2009 to 2010, 24 wild boars on Ishigaki from 2008 to 2010, and 117 wild boars on Iriomote Island from 2008 to 2010. Four (3·1%) pigs on Ishigaki were positive for JEV antibody, but all wild boars on the island were negative. Fifty-two (44·4%) wild boars on Iriomote were positive for JEV antibody, in contrast to a seroprevalence of 3·7% in 2000 and 2004. JEV on Iriomote and/or in Taiwan might be related to transmission on Ishigaki.
It is shown that various spectroscopic methods based on measurements of X-ray spectra radiated from cluster targets can be used for estimation of the destruction degree of clusters by laser prepulses. These methods allow insight to be gained regarding the important issue of preservation of the dense cluster core at the moment of the arrival of the main laser pulse. In addition, they can be used for quantitative estimation of the size of the undestroyed parts of the clusters and also for measuring the temperature and density of the preplasmas produced by the laser prepulses.
Results of our experimental investigation on the ozone zero phenomenon
suggested us the importance of the electrode surface condition. This means
that the main cause of the phenomenon, that is, temporal decrease of ozone
concentration at the outlet of DBD type ozone generator and the recovery
characteristics from the phenomenon are considered as the surface reaction
process, which are influenced strongly by the surface condition. The surface
condition is never constant during the ozone generation and varies gradually
or remarkably with time depending on the experimental conditions. Therefore
we have been continued to make clear the cause of the phenomenon, for
example, the reproducibility of the phenomenon, using new electrodes and
together with the surface analysis technique etc. In this paper, we describe
on the above results and discussion.
Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) align by coupling to the liquid crystals’ (LC) nematic director in LC/MWCNT dispersions. This coupling is so strong that the LC molecules act as molecular motors to reorient the MWCNTs when an electric field is applied across oriented electro optic cells. On the other hand, MWCNTs also improve the LC order and modify the crystal phase of LCs. We investigate the physical reasons for those strong effects by studying the molecular interactions between a host LC and MWCNTs. It has been predicted theoretically that the aromatic rings could stack with their π orbitals in 4-Cyano-4’-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) and MWCNT nanocomposites. Experimentally 5CB modifies the MWCNTs Raman breathing modes in the same nanocomposites. In turn, we look for evidence of this interaction between MWCNTs and LCs at the 5CB molecules. Using FTIR spectroscopy we found that the modes corresponding to 5CB aromatic rings vibrations are affected in the presence of MWCNTs which confirms that π-π stacking of 5CB’s biphenyl rigid core to the carbon rings on the MWCNTs’ surface may indeed be major mechanism for MWCNT/LC nematic coupling. It shows also that the Raman breathing mode effects on MWCNTs can be due to this π-π stacking interaction with 5CB. Further investigations of the MWCNTs interactions with 5CB can lead to developing of a complete model of this phenomenon and help applications for electro optic cells, nanoswitches, new crystal forms for optics, communication technology and others.
Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) form a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) phase in their lyotropic form, enabling their mixing and coupling of their director to that of nematic LCs. An important aspect of this LC/MWCNT interaction, for applications other than display technology, is looking at the ways the MWCNTs affect the physical properties of the LCs. We study the effect of MWCNTs on the nematic to crystal (N-C) phase transition of 4-cyano-4-npentylbiphenyl (5CB). Our Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results show a dramatic increase in N-C phase transition temperature of 14°C for only 0.1% and of 20°C for 1% MWCNT, due to the crystal nucleation activity of the nanotubes. Using Polarized Microscopy we observe a change in the crystalline order of 5CB from spherulitic at 0% MWCNTs to a multidomain in presence of MWCNTs. The new crystals resemble those formed by a smectic LC 4- Decyloxybenzoic acid. This is in line with predictions from simulations, that the MWCNTs form smectic order in nematic 5CB at their interface. MWCNTs induced modifications of the crystal phase of 5CB promise to create controlled novel crystal forms for the purposes of optical transmission and other applications.
We have prepared a CrO2 thin film by chemical vapor deposition from a Cr8O21 precursor and studied the bulk and surface physical properties. The CrO2 thin film is grown on TiO2(100) substrate by heating precursor and TiO2 (100) substrate together in a sealed quartz tube. The prepared film is found from x-ray diffraction analysis to be an (100)-oriented single phase. The magnetization and resistivity measurements indicate that the film is a ferromagnetic metal with a Curie temperature of about 400 K. Cr 3s core-level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy spectra reveal the presence of a metallic CrO2 in the surface region of the film. Our work indicates that preparation from a Cr8O21 precursor in a closed system is promising for obtaining a CrO2 thin film with the metallic surface.
A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.
Patients suspected of having cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis are diagnosed using investigations such as fine needle aspiration cytology and the polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, these investigations are intended for primary tuberculosis infection. The majority of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis cases in the elderly are thought to be caused by reactivation.
The aims of this study were (1) to examine the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology, polymerase chain reaction and blood tests in the diagnosis of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis caused by reactivation, and (2) to clarify any differences when compared with primarily infected cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis cases.
Materials and methods:
Thirty-three elderly patients with neck lumps underwent excisional biopsy from 2003 to 2008. The efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology was examined by comparing the results of excisional biopsy with those of fine needle aspiration cytology performed at the initial medical examination for cases of suspected tuberculous disease. Furthermore, the leucocyte count and C-reactive protein concentration were compared for cases of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis versus cases of malignant lymphoma.
Although nine cases were diagnosed with cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis using excisional biopsy, only one of these had been suspected based on fine needle aspiration cytology results. Three cases with tuberculous lymphadenitis were suspected of having malignant lymphoma on initial examination. There was no significant difference in the leucocyte count and C-reactive protein concentration, comparing cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis versus malignant lymphoma.
Unlike the primary infection often seen in endemic areas, the diagnosis of early stage tuberculous lymphadenitis of the swelling type caused by reactivation in elderly people is difficult to confirm unless excisional biopsy is performed. In elderly patients with neck lumps, cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis should be included in the differential diagnosis.