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Trail making test (TMT) was developed as a neuropsychological test evaluating frontal lobe function. However, the contribution of frontal lobe in results of TMT is still controversial because studies in patients with brain injuries suggest the role of basal ganglia rather than frontal lobe in results of TMT.
To examine the contribution of frontal lobe in the results of TMT, we measured blood flow in frontal cortex during performance of computer version TMT-A and TMT-B.
Sixteen healthy student volunteers (8 male, 25.9±5.3 year old; 8 female, 22.0±2.9 year old) was used in the study. Seven laser beam probes and 8 sensor probes were put on frontal lobe, and absorbance of 695 nm and 830 nm infrared beams were measured at 10Hz by optic topography (ETG 4000, Hitachi, Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan).
Concentration of deoxyhemoglobin was decreased while concentration of oxyhemoglobin was increased in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of TMT-A and TMT-B.
The results suggest that blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of TMT, and possible involvement of this brain region in the performance of TMT.
A variety of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) develops a broad spectrum of both ataxia and non-ataxia symptoms. Cognitive and affective changes are one such non-ataxia symptoms, but have been described only in hereditary SCAs with exonic CAG gene expansion.
We newly found intronic hexanucleotide GGCCTG gene expansion in NOP56 gene as the causative mutation (=SCA36) in nine unrelated Japanese familial SCA originating from Asida river area in the western part of Japan, thus nicknamed Asidan for this mutation. These patients show unique clinical balance of cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron disease (MND), locating on the crossroad of these two diseases. We examined cognitive and affective analyses on 12 Asidan patients who agreed to join the examination.
The 12 Asidan patients demonstrated a significant decrease in their frontal executive functions measured by frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) compared with age- and gender-matched controls, whilst mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa dementia score-revised (HDS-R) were within normal range. the decline of frontal executive function was related to their disease duration and scale for the assessment and rating of ataxias (SARA). They also demonstrated mild depression and apathy. Single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) analysis showed that these Asidan patients showed decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a particular areas of cerebral cortices such as Brodmann areas 24 and 44-46.
These data suggest the patients with Asidan mutation show unique cognitive and affective characteristics different from other hereditary SCAs with exonal CAG expansion or MND.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays. Of the 188 pig serum samples tested for antibody responses to partially purified low-molecular-weight antigens of T. solium cyst fluid, positive responses were detected in 37 samples (19.7%). Based on these results, 16 pigs (10 seropositive and 6 seronegative) were necropsied for investigation of cysticerci and intestinal parasites. All seropositive pigs were coinfected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena cysticerci, except one, which was infected with T. hydatigena alone. Three of the six seronegative pigs were confirmed to be infected with T. hydatigena. Pigs infected with T. solium showed much stronger antibody responses than those infected with T. hydatigena. Our results demonstrate the co-occurrence of two swine cysticercoses due to T. solium and T. hydatigena in the studied areas. This study also reveals the importance of direct confirmation of the presence of cysticerci by necropsy after serological screening. In addition to the prevalence of swine cysticercosis in these endemic areas, our findings also reveal potential implications for the development of serological diagnostic assays for swine cysticercosis.
Bathing intensive care unit (ICU) patients with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)–impregnated cloths decreases the risk of healthcare-associated bacteremia and multidrug-resistant organism transmission. Hospitals employ different methods of CHG bathing, and few studies have evaluated whether those methods yield comparable results.
To determine whether 3 different CHG skin cleansing methods yield similar residual CHG concentrations and bacterial densities on skin.
Prospective, randomized 2-center study with blinded assessment.
PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING
Healthcare personnel in surgical ICUs at 2 tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Chicago, Illinois, and Boston, Massachusetts, from July 2015 to January 2016.
Cleansing skin of one forearm with no-rinse 2% CHG-impregnated polyester cloth (method A) versus 4% CHG liquid cleansing with rinsing on the contralateral arm, applied with either non–antiseptic-impregnated cellulose/polyester cloth (method B) or cotton washcloth dampened with sterile water (method C).
In total, 63 participants (126 forearms) received method A on 1 forearm (n=63). On the contralateral forearm, 33 participants received method B and 30 participants received method C. Immediately and 6 hours after cleansing, method A yielded the highest residual CHG concentrations (2500 µg/mL and 1250 µg/mL, respectively) and lowest bacterial densities compared to methods B or C (P<.001).
In healthy volunteers, cleansing with 2% CHG-impregnated cloths yielded higher residual CHG concentrations and lower bacterial densities than cleansing with 4% CHG liquid applied with either of 2 different cloth types and followed by rinsing. The relevance of these differences to clinical outcomes remains to be determined.
To identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) colonization among long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH) patients.
Multicenter, matched case-control study.
Four LTACHs in Chicago, Illinois.
Each case patient included in this study had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission followed by a KPC-positive surveillance culture later in the hospital stay. Each matched control patient had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission and no KPC isolated during the hospital stay.
From June 2012 to June 2013, 2,575 patients were admitted to 4 LTACHs; 217 of 2,144 KPC-negative patients (10.1%) acquired KPC. In total, 100 of these patients were selected at random and matched to 100 controls by LTACH facility, admission date, and censored length of stay. Acquisitions occurred a median of 16.5 days after admission. On multivariate analysis, we found that exposure to higher colonization pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04; P=.002), exposure to a carbapenem (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.06–4.77; P=.04), and higher Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01–1.29; P=.04) were independent risk factors for KPC acquisition; the odds of KPC acquisition increased by 2% for each 1% increase in colonization pressure.
Higher colonization pressure, exposure to carbapenems, and a higher Charlson comorbidity index independently increased the odds of KPC acquisition among LTACH patients. Reducing colonization pressure (through separation of KPC-positive patients from KPC-negative patients using strict cohorts or private rooms) and reducing carbapenem exposure may prevent KPC cross transmission in this high-risk patient population.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
HYPER-I (High Density Plasma Experiment-I) is a linear device that combines a wide operation range of plasma production with flexible diagnostics. The plasmas are produced by the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating with parallel injection of right-handed circularly polarized microwaves of 2.45 GHz from the high-field side. The maximum attainable electron density is more than two orders of magnitude higher than the cutoff density of ordinary waves. Spontaneous formation of a variety of large-scale flow structures, or vortices, has been observed in the HYPER-I plasmas. Flow-velocity field measurements using directional Langmuir probes (DLPs) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method have clarified the physical processes behind such vortex formations. Recently, a new intermittent behavior of local electron temperature has also been observed. Statistical analysis of the floating potential changes has revealed that the phenomenon is characterized by a stationary Poisson process.
We present the spatially-resolved polarization measurements for the disk around the Herbig Ae star, AB Aurigae. The images were obtained in J, H, and Ks bands with the coronagraphic camera HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope. The inner region beyond 30 AU from the star was imaged, which reveals an azimuthal dip, a radial gap at around 80 AU, and complex spiral-like emission in polarized light.
As the Nobeyama Radio Observatory Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33, we have been mapping M33 in CO(1-0) with the multi-beam receiver BEARS equipped on the 45-m telescope using the OTF mapping technique since 2007. The purpose of this project is to investigate the physical properties of GMCs and understand the evolutionary process from GMC formation to star formation in GMCs by comparing with various data such as CO(3-2), 1.1 mm continuum obtained with ASTE10m telescope at Atacama and the optical data obtained with SUBARU. We identified 87 GMCs using the first year data of CO(1-0) and observed 28 GMCs among them in CO(3-2) with ASTE (Onodera 2009, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo). From the comparison of these lines, it was shown that the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio increases with star forming activity in the GMCs. Furthermore, we found that more massive GMCs tend to have higher CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio. Since the ratio is thought to be an indicator of the fraction of warm and dense molecular gas, our results imply that the fraction of warm and dense gas increases with GMC mass. Especially, since the ratio in the GMCs with low star forming activity is in the range where the ratio depends mainly on the density, we speculate that dense gas fraction increases with GMC mass.
We observed embedded super-star clusters (SSCs) in blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) IIZw40 and He2-10 with N-band and Q-band imaging and spectroscopy using the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) on board the 8m Subaru Telescope. Our infrared images of Henize 2–10 resolve the radio knots (knots I-V; Kobulnicky & Johnson 1999) and the N- and Q-band spectra show the strong [NeII] 12.8 μm and the [SIII] 18.71 μm together with relatively weak [SIV] 10.51 μm and [ArIII] 8.99 μm as well as the distinct unidentified infrared (UIR) bands at 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm. We find the typical stellar spectral type of the members in the SSCs is O9 using the CoStar model (Stasinska & Schaerer 1997) and that the ionization environment in the most deeply embedded SSC(POS/#D) is the softest among those SSCs. The UIR bands exhibit a flat distribution over the galaxy and do not show a correlation with the MIR continuum, suggesting that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not strongly associated with the SSCs. We also find a possible decrease in the UIR 12.7 μm/11.2 μm ratio inside the embedded SSCs, suggesting that smooth-edged large PAHs are dominant (Hony et al. 2001) there. The small UIR to continuum ratio inside the embedded SSCs also suggests that the size distribution of the carbonaceous dust is skewed to the larger ones inside the embedded SSCs. Possible destruction of smaller species by harsh radiation field in the vicinity of massive stars due to the smaller heat capacity and/or the coagulation process that have been undertaken in dense dusty embedded SSCs would explain our results consistently. From the mid-infrared spectroscopy of IIZw40, the UIR bands are detected only in the south-western border of the mid-infrared peaks, suggesting the uneven distribution of PAHs within 4×106yr (Vanzi et al. 1996) after the nuclear starburst triggered in the merging of two small original galaxies.
We report the synthesis and thermoelectric properties of [(Ca1-xREx)2CoO3-δ]0.62CoO2 compounds (RE: rare earth element, RE = Y, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho and Lu). From optimization of synthesis conditions, all the chosen RE in this study were able to be substituted for the Ca sites in the block layers up to x = 0.25. In the case of RE = Tb, at 1150 K, only κ was systematically decreased with x, while both Seebeck coefficient (S) and resistivity (ρ) were almost constant for the charge of x. Consequently, the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) was increased with x and reached 0.2 at 1150 K for x = 0.25. Moreover, interestingly, it was found that S and ρ at 300 K were enhanced with ionic radius of the doped trivalent RE ions in spite of the doping of equivalent RE ions. This is probably because local structures of oxygen sites around Co ion in the CoO2 layers largely depend on kinds of the doped RE.
Serology (ELISA and immunoblot) using native glycoproteins, affinity purified glycoproteins, and a recombinant antigen is known to be highly specific to Taenia solium cysticercosis in humans and pigs. These techniques were applied for dogs in the highly endemic area of cysticercosis in Papua (Irian Jaya), Indonesia. Analysis of dog sera by both ELISA and immunoblot revealed 7 of 64 dogs were highly positive. Examination of two sero-positive dogs revealed cysticerci of T. solium in the brain and heart of these dogs. Mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed that they were the same as T. solium previously confirmed from pigs and biopsies from local people from Irian Jaya. It is suggested that the life cycle of T. solium may be completed not only between humans and pigs but also between humans and dogs.
Genetic polymorphism was determined among 13 isolates of Taenia solium from various regions using PCR-amplified sequences of 2 mitochondrial genes: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b. The 2 phylogenies obtained were similar to each other regardless of the genes examined. The isolates from Asia (China, Thailand, Irian Jaya and India) formed a single cluster, whereas the isolates from Latin America (Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Brazil) combined with those from Africa (Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon) to form an additional cluster. These results and historical data of swine domestication, distribution of pigs and colonization suggest that T. solium was introduced recently into Latin America and Africa from different regions of Europe during the colonial age, which started 500 years ago, and that the tapeworm of another origin independently spread in Asian countries.
Results are presented of a study on the mechanical stress dependence of the resistance of polycrystalline silicon (Poly-Si) films, doped with different atomic species. Two types of Poly-Si film implanted with boron and phosphorus ions were studied, namely, B-doped films of 400 nm and P-doped layers of 250 nm thickness, which were deposited by LPCVD at 620 °C on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. Film doping was done by ion implantation at 50 keV, with a dose of boron and phosphorus of 2 × 1014 and 5.3 × 1014 cm−2, respectively. The Poly-Si films were annealed in a H2 ambient at 1000 °C for 20 min to activate the implanted atoms. A controlled amount of external stress was applied to the silicon wafers in order to study the impact on the electrical performance of the implanted Poly-Si resistors. The resistance of the B-doped Poly-Si films is shown to increase by the mechanical stress, while the resistance of the P-implanted Poly-Si films remained unchanged. It is concluded that this difference is related to the structural differences between Poly-Si films implanted with boron and phosphorus, respectively.
Pulsed excimer-laser processing of amorphous silicon on non-crystalline substrates allows for the fabrication of high-quality polysilicon thin-film transistors (TFTs). It also provides procedures for doping self-aligned amorphous silicon TFTs. In addition, laser-crystallized polysilicon exhibits some interesting materials properties, such as, large lateral grain growth with a corresponding enhancement in the electron mobility. Under optimized processing conditions, excellent polysilicon TFTs with high mobilities, sharp turn on, low off-state leakage currents and good spatial uniformity have been achieved. These improved parameters, particularly the low off-state leakage currents and good uniformity, enable not only displays but also the moredemanding flat-panel imaging arrays to be fabricated in polysilicon. Results on both polysilicon CMOS circuits and a polysilicon flat-panel imager are presented.