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Assessing impact of treatment from the patient perspective provides additional information about treatment efficacy in major depressive disorder (MDD) trials.
Pooled data from three identically designed clinical trials showed aripiprazole adjunctive to antidepressant therapy (ADT) was effective in treating MDD.1
Patients who completed an 8-week prospective ADT phase with inadequate response were randomized double-blind to 6-weeks adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole or placebo. The Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) is a 16-item, self-report measure to evaluate daily functioning, with higher scores indicating better satisfaction. Comparisons of mean change from baseline (Week 8) to Week 14 in Q-LES-Q-SF items and general subscores were performed using ANCOVA (LOCF).
There was significant improvement in the Q-LES-Q-SF Overall-General subscore (total of items 1-14 expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible score) in the aripiprazole-treatment group (9.49% [n=507]) vs placebo (5.71% [n=492] p< 0.001). Placebo was significantly higher than aripiprazole in Physical Ability (placebo 0.13 vs aripiprazole 0.02, p=0.020). Aripiprazole was significantly higher than placebo in all other items except Physical Health and Vision. Aripiprazole also produced significant increases in both the Satisfaction with Medication (Item 15) (aripiprazole 0.36 vs placebo 0.20, p< 0.01) and Overall Satisfaction (Item 16) (aripiprazole 0.61 vs placebo 0.35, p< 0.001) scores.
Results emphasize that assessment of patient functioning and quality of life may have utility both in clinical trials and clinical practice.2
We explore the status of state-of-the-art upconverter materials in the context of improving solar cell performance. We focus on semiconductor upconversion nanostructures that can harvest two separate bands of the solar spectrum and offer a promising path to rational engineering of improved performance and thus improved overall solar energy harvesting.
Photon upconversion is a process in which two low-energy photons are sequentially absorbed and one high-energy photon is emitted. Photon upconversion in both inorganic and organic material platforms has been used to improve solar cell efficiency. Lanthanide-doped salts (inorganic) and triplet–triplet annihilation molecules (organic) have achieved 33% and 60% internal upconversion quantum efficiency, respectively, leading to current density increases of 17 mA/cm2 and 0.86 mA/cm2. However, their performance is limited by their narrow absorption bandwidth (AB) and limited tunability, especially at low photon fluxes. Recently, colloidal semiconductor nanostructures have emerged as a promising material platform for upconversion. The optical absorption in these low-dimensional heterostructures involves both quantum-confined and continuum band states, enabling a much larger AB. Moreover, the techniques of semiconductor heterostructure engineering can be used to optimize performance and to tailor absorption and emission wavelengths. We review the performance and potential impact on solar energy harvesting of upconversion materials, focusing on semiconductor upconverters. We discuss computational models that suggest that semiconductor upconverter nanostructures could have outstanding performance for photovoltaic. We then discuss the current state of the art in semiconductor upconversion morphologies and compositions and provide an outlook on the ways in which nanostructures can be tailored to improve performance for applications.
A new method, called Cloud of Points (COP) Reconstruction, is proposed in the present work to extend the meshfree method to simulate viscous flows. With the characters of viscous flows, the anisotropic COP structure is distributed in boundary layer. The proposed method can improve the anisotropic COP structure to isotropic COP structure and reduce the condition number of the least square coefficient matrix for conventional meshfree method. The values of the new reconstructed points are calculated by the Lagrange interpolation. The accuracy and the robustness of the presented meshfree solver are demonstrated on a number of standard test cases, including the functions with analytical gradients and the viscous flows past NACA0012 airfoil. The comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data and other numerical simulation data are also investigated.
In indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion, the radiation symmetry must be controlled for the achievement of hotspot ignition. The radiation symmetry is of great importance. In this paper, we investigate the drive asymmetry of the M-band (2–5 keV) radiation emitted from an Au holhraum wall by using the three-dimensional view-factor code IRAD3D. Analysis of the M-band flux drive at the Shenguang-III laser facility shows that it is asymmetric and that the asymmetry varies with time. For a given cross section over the pole, the initial M-band flux asymmetries are P2 = 11.59, P4 = 1.41, and P6 = −0.64%. When the asymmetries are artificially added to a symmetric radiation drive, the position of the deuterium-tritium (DT) ice/gas interface is asymmetric for a National Ignition Facility capsule in 1D simulation. This means that M-band flux asymmetry can lead to implosion asymmetry even if the total radiation is symmetric. Pure CH and Si-doped CH capsules are considered. The results show that a mid-Z dopant can partly reduce the asymmetry. However, the asymmetry is still very large. Thus, it is necessary to study the M-band flux asymmetry and its influence on the implosion symmetry.
We studied the evolution, genotypes, and the molecular clock of dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1), between 2001 and 2014 in Guangzhou, China. The analysis of the envelope (E) gene sequences of 67 DENV-1 strains isolated in Guangzhou, together with 58 representative sequences downloaded from NCBI, have shown shifts in viral genotypes. The genotype changed several times, from genotype I to IV in 2002, from IV to I in 2005, and from I to V in 2014. These genotype shifts may be the cause of DENV outbreaks. The diversity of genotypes and clades demonstrates a high risk of future outbreaks in Guangzhou. The mean rate of virus nucleotide substitution in Guangzhou was determined to be 7·77 × 10−4 per site per year, which represents a medium substitution rate compared to two other countries. Our research can point to different ancestors of the isolated strains, which may further reveal the different origins and transmission of DENV-1 strains in Guangzhou.
Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease globally. Control of DF is limited by barriers to vector control and integrated management approaches. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for autochthonous DF transmission and to estimate the threshold effects of high-order interactions among risk factors. A time-series regression tree model was applied to estimate the hierarchical relationship between reported autochthonous DF cases and the potential risk factors including the timeliness of DF surveillance systems (median time interval between symptom onset date and diagnosis date, MTIOD), mosquito density, imported cases and meteorological factors in Zhongshan, China from 2001 to 2013. We found that MTIOD was the most influential factor in autochthonous DF transmission. Monthly autochthonous DF incidence rate increased by 36·02-fold [relative risk (RR) 36·02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 25·26–46·78, compared to the average DF incidence rate during the study period] when the 2-month lagged moving average of MTIOD was >4·15 days and the 3-month lagged moving average of the mean Breteau Index (BI) was ⩾16·57. If the 2-month lagged moving average MTIOD was between 1·11 and 4·15 days and the monthly maximum diurnal temperature range at a lag of 1 month was <9·6 °C, the monthly mean autochthonous DF incidence rate increased by 14·67-fold (RR 14·67, 95% CI 8·84–20·51, compared to the average DF incidence rate during the study period). This study demonstrates that the timeliness of DF surveillance systems, mosquito density and diurnal temperature range play critical roles in the autochthonous DF transmission in Zhongshan. Better assessment and prediction of the risk of DF transmission is beneficial for establishing scientific strategies for DF early warning surveillance and control.
Since the electromagnetic energy gained by the laser wave in a free-electron laser (FEL) is transferred from the kinetic energy loss of a relativistic electron beam, the stability of electron motion is one of the key factors that affect FEL performance. In this paper the stability of electron motion is compared for different focusing regimes. It is demonstrated that the natural focusing regime of a three-dimensional wiggler is easily broken by the self-field of the electron beam. The magnetic focusing regime of an axial guide magnetic field is based on the superposition of a strong Larmor rotation on the transverse quiver motion of the electrons, while the electric focusing regime of an ion-channel guiding field generates an electric force to counteract the divergent effect of the beam self-field. In comparison with the magnetic focusing regime of an external magnetic system, the electric focusing regime of an ion-channel guiding field may yield smaller instantaneous Larmor radius and slighter Larmor-centre deviation from the axis and provide better motion stability.
Performance of a perovskite based solar cell is highly determined by the crystalline qualities of the perovskite thin film sandwiched between an electron and a hole transport layer, such as grain size and uniformity of the film. Here, we demonstrated a new hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique to synthesis high quality perovskite films. First, a PbI2 precursor film was spin-coated on a mesoporous TiO2 (m-TiO2)/compact TiO2 (c-TiO2)/FTO substrate in ambient environment. Then, purified CH3NH3I crystal material was evaporated and the vapor reacted with the PbI2 precursor film in a vacuum pressure/temperature accurately controlled quartz tube furnace. In this technique, high vacuum (2mTorr) and low temperature (100°C) were applied to decrease perovskite film growth rate and reduce perovskite film defects. After vapor reaction, the perovskite film was annealed at 100°C for 10min in 20mTorr vacuum to recrystallize and remove CH3NH3I residue in order to further improve crystal quality of the thin film. Crystal quality of this perovskite thin film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and AFM results illustrate perovskite thin films synthesized by this technique have larger grain sizes and more uniformity (RMS 11.6nm/Ra 9.3nm) superior to most existing methods. Strong peaks shown in the XRD chart at 14.18°, 28.52°, 31.96°, which were assigned to (110), (220), (330) miller indices of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite crystal, indicate the complete reaction between CH3NH3I vapor and PbI2 precursor layer. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.3% and stable efficiencies under four hours illumination of AM1.5 standard were achieved by these solar cells. This vacuum/vapor based technique is compatible with conventional semiconductor fabrication techniques and high quality perovskite film could be achieved through delicate process control. Eventually, perovskite based solar cells could be mass produced in low cost for large scale applications by this novel technique.
Based on the results of the study of convex object motion1 (J. Hopcroft and G. Wilfong, “Motion of objects in contact,” Int. J. Robot. Res., 4(4), 32–46 (1986)), this paper addresses the problem of exact collision detection of a pair of scaled convex polyhedra in relative motion, and determines the contact conditions of tangential contact features, arbitrary relative motion involving translation and rotation, and uniform scaling of the objects about a fixed point. We propose a new concept of the decision curve based on analytical contact equations that characterize a continuum of scaling factors (or a single scaling factor), which ensures that a pair of objects undergoing a scaling transformation will maintain the same tangential contact feature pair (or make instantaneous tangential contact feature transitions). We propose a reliable simulation-based approach to construct the decision curve by hybridizing analytical contact equations and conventional collision detection method, called the Fast Collision Detection Method (FCDM). This method can determine whether two scaled objects will make contact at specific tangential contact features (vertices, edges, or faces) under particular uniform scaling factors and after distinctive relative motion with better accuracy and less computational time than the existing collision detection methods. Finally, we demonstrate our approach for solving motion design in simple assembly/disassembly problems.
There is increasing demand for navigation capability for space vehicles. The idea to extend the application of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) from terrestrial to space applications by the use of main beam and side lobe signals has been shown to be feasible. In order to understand the performance and the potential space applications GNSS can support, this paper characterises the Space Service Volume (SSV) in terms of the four parameters of minimum received power, satellite visibility, pseudorange accuracy and Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP). This new definition enables the position errors to be estimated. An analytical methodology is proposed to characterise minimum received power for the worst location. Satellite visibility and GDOP are assessed based on grid points at different height layers (to capture the relationship between height and visibility) for single and multiple GNSS constellations, the former represented by BeiDou III (BDS III) and the latter, BDS III in various combinations with GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO. Additional simulation shows that GNSS can potentially support lunar exploration spacecraft at the Earth phasing orbit. This initial assessment of SSV shows the potential of GNSS for space vehicle navigation.
To investigate the feasibility of postauricular hypodermic injection for treating inner ear disorders, we compared perilymph pharmacokinetics for postauricular versus intravenous injection, using magnetic resonance imaging, in an animal model.
Twelve albino guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups and administered gadopentetate dimeglumine via either a postauricular or an intravenous bolus injection. A 7.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system was used to assess the signal intensities of gadolinium-enhanced images of the cochlea, as a biomarker for changes in gadopentetate dimeglumine concentration in the perilymph. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on these signal intensity values.
Guinea pigs receiving postauricular injection showed longer times to peak signal intensity, longer elimination half-life, longer mean residence time and a greater area under the signal–time curve (from pre-injection to the last time point) (p < 0.05).
Postauricular injection shows potential as an efficient drug delivery route for the treatment of inner ear disorders.
Owing to energy conservation of waste heat, Lead telluride, PbTe, based materials have promising good thermoelectric properties around a range of middle temperature (Fig. 1, from 300 to 600°C), due to their high melting point, fine chemical stability, and the high figure of merit Z. The general physical properties and factors affecting the figure of merit have been reviewed. This research is focused on the n-type of PbTe materials and collocated with analysis of densities, hardness, elastic modulus, and thermoelectric properties thermoelectric figure of merit ZT=GS2T/κ (where G is electrical conductivity, S is Seebeck coefficient , T is absolute temperature, and κ is thermal conductivity). Room temperature hardness and Young’s modulus are measured by nano-indentation. In this study, the hot-press compacts under the pressure of 4 ton/cm2 can reach the maximum density about 8.2 g/cm3, and hardness and elastic modulus are 0.6 GPa and 70 GPa, respectively. The figure of merit value (ZT) of PbTe in low temperature (around 340°C) was found about 1 with carrier concentration above 1019 cm−3. These results also indicate that the powder metallurgy parameters provide potentialities for further increase of the high efficiency of energy conversion in PbTe materials.
An effective strategy to produce thermo-responsive islands-in-the-sea hydrogel nanofibres was developed using a single needle electrospinning setup. The produced hydrogel nanofibre mats not only showed excellent temperature response and high response speed, but also showed nanostructured surfaces.
This study aimed to compare ‘cool’ [working memory (WM) and response inhibition] and ‘hot’ (delay aversion) executive functions (EFs) in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A total of 100 ADHD children (45 with family history of ADHD and 55 with no family history) and 100 healthy controls, all medication free, were tested on tasks related to the ‘hot’ (i.e. two choice-delay tasks) and ‘cool’ domains of EF (i.e. Digits backward, Corsi Block Task backward, Go/No-Go Task, Stop-Signal Task, and the Stroop).
Compared with the controls, children with ADHD were found to perform significantly worse on one or more measures of response inhibition, WM, and delay aversion after controlling for co-morbidities and estimated IQ. In addition, comparisons between ADHD children with family history of ADHD and those with no family history found significant differences on measures of response inhibition and WM but not delay aversion. These results are largely supported by results of two logistic regressions.
ADHD was found to be associated with deficits on both cool and hot EFs. There is also evidence to suggest that cool EFs impairment is related to a family history of ADHD. Findings of this study have helped to elucidate the nature and extent of EF deficits in children with ADHD.
Co-doped GeO2 ceramic films were prepared via a liquid phase
co-deposition (LPCD) process. The oxide samples were transformed into
Ge1-xCox films (x = 0.75, 3.2 and 11.5%) after annealing under
hydrogen atmosphere. The crystallinity of Ge1-xCox film decreases
with increasing Co content. The Ge1-xCox films are p-type (hole
density 1020 ~ 1021 cm-3). The 3.2% film has higher
electrical conductivity and hole density compared with the other two
samples. The 0.75% film is superparamagnetic at 300 K while the 3.2%
and 11.5% films exhibit blocked superparamagnetic behaviors. Hysteresis
loops can be observed in the magnetization curves of the 3.2 and 11.5%
samples. The observed ferromagnetisms are on only a local (a few nanometers)
scale, which most likely arise from different size and chemical distribution
in every sample.
Before you read on, take two minutes to draw a picture of an innovative kind of chocolate. Don't think too hard. Just draw it quickly.
This task was presented to the many designers, artists, and students from all over the world who took part in the Belgian chocolate initiative project organized by the Addict Creative Lab. When the famous Belgian chocolate company Isis Luxury approached this ethnically and functionally diverse group to brainstorm product branding and packaging strategies to enhance the product's marketability, Giovanna Massini, the Addict Creative Lab researcher who led the chocolate project, advised his lab members: “Chocolate in Belgium is an icon, like pasta in Italy. But why do we feel obliged by tradition? We must disturb the traditional shapes. We must create new combinations, new ingredients.”
In this paper, we investigate whether incorporating sunspot-groups classification information would further improve the performance of our previous logistic regression based solar flare forecasting method, which uses only line-of-sight photospheric magnetic parameters. A dataset containing 4913 samples from the year 2000 to 2005 is constructed, in which 2721 samples from the year 2000, 2002 and 2004 are used as a training set, and the remaining 2192 samples from the year 2001, 2003 and 2005 are used as a testing set. Experimental results show that sunspot-groups classification combined with total gradient on the strong gradient polarity neutral line achieve the highest forecasting accuracy and thus it testifies sunspot-groups classification does help in solar flare forecasting.