To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are often considered to be the greatest challenge in dementia care, leading to increased healthcare costs, caregiver burden, and placement into care facilities. With potential for pharmacological intervention to exacerbate behaviors or even lead to mortality, the development and rigorous testing of non-pharmacological interventions is vital. A pilot of the Tailored Activities Program (TAP) for reducing problem behaviors in people with dementia was conducted in the United States with promising results. This randomized trial will investigate the effectiveness of TAP for reducing the burden of BPSD on persons with dementia and family caregivers within an Australian population. This trial will also examine the cost-effectiveness and willingness to pay for TAP compared with a control group.
This randomized trial aims to recruit 180 participant dyads of a person with dementia and their caregivers. Participants will have a diagnosis of dementia, exhibit behaviors as scored by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the caregiver must have at least 7 h per week contact. Participants will be randomly allocated to intervention (TAP) or control (phone-based education sessions) groups, both provided by a trained occupational therapist. Primary outcome measure will be the revised Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) to measure BPSD exhibited by the person with dementia.
This trial investigates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TAP within an Australian population. Results will address a significant gap in the current Australian community-support base for people living with dementia and their caregivers.
To assess the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in inmates entering two maximum-security prisons in New York State, USA, inmates (N = 830) were interviewed and anterior nares and oropharyngeal samples collected. Isolates were characterized using spa typing. Overall, 50·5% of women and 58·3% of men were colonized with S. aureus and 10·6% of women and 5·9% of men were colonized with MRSA at either or both body sites. Of MSSA isolates, the major subtypes were spa type 008 and 002. Overall, risk factors for S. aureus colonization varied by gender and were only found in women and included younger age, fair/poor self-reported general health, and longer length of prior incarceration. Prevalence of MRSA colonization was 8·2%, nearly 10 times greater than in the general population. Control of epidemic S. aureus in prisons should consider the constant introduction of strains by new inmates.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the role played by length of hospital stay in the risk of healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (BSI), independent of demographic and clinical risk factors for BSI.
We employed data from 113,893 admissions from inpatients discharged between 2006 and 2008.
Large tertiary healthcare center in New York City.
We estimated the crude and adjusted hazard of BSI by conducting logistic regression using a person-day data structure. The covariates included in the fully adjusted model included age, sex, Charlson score of comorbidity, renal failure, and malignancy as static variables and central venous catheterization, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit stay as time-varying variables.
In the crude model, we observed a nonlinear increasing hazard of BSI with increasing hospital stay. This trend was reduced to a constant hazard when fully adjusted for demographic and clinical risk factors for BSI.
The association between longer length of hospital stay and increased risk of infection can largely be explained by the increased duration of stay among those who have underlying morbidity and require invasive procedures. We should take caution in attributing the association between length of stay and BSI to a direct negative impact of the healthcare environment.
To define the clinical and audiological features of normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, and to evaluate the role of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in tinnitus generation.
Materials and methods:
Thirty-two patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were compared with 29 patients without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, regarding clinical and audiological aspects.
The mean age of the study group subjects was significantly lower, and they experienced the kindling effect less frequently than the control group. The mean tinnitus handicap inventory score of the study group was considerably higher than that of the controls, although the difference was not statistically significant. The study group had significantly quieter tinnitus, and higher transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emission responses, compared with the control group.
Normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions have different clinical and audiological characteristics, compared with those without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. Appropriate evaluation and treatment should be considered at an early stage in these patients.
Our aim was to determine whether the index of left ventricular mass increases during the acute and subacute phase of Kawasaki disease, and to investigate any relationship between this index and clinical and echocardiographic variables. We performed, therefore, a retrospective study of 66 children with Kawasaki disease, having a mean age of 2.85 years, comparing the findings with those obtained from 57 normal controls, having a mean age of 2.99 years. The data from the patients used for comparison was obtained during the acute and subacute phase of the illness, as well as during the phase of convalescence. We performed correlation analysis of the findings during the acute and subacute phase, determining the relationship between the index of left ventricular mass and other variables. The index was higher (p = 0.0461), and the velocity of propagation of left ventricular early diastolic flow was lower (p < 0.0001), during the acute and subacute phase when compared to control values. The index then reduced (p = 0.0001) during the phase of convalescent when compared to the acute and subacute phase. Levels of albumin in the serum (p = 0.0193), peak E velocity (p = 0.0479), and velocity of propagation (p = 0.0360) were found to be related to the index of left ventricular mass. Significant relationships were found between the differences in this index and differences in body weight when findings during the acute and subacute phase were compared to those of the phase of convalescence. The index of left ventricular mass, therefore, is increased during the acute and subacute phase of Kawasaki disease, and is associated with altered diastolic indexes. This elevation may be due to generalized myocardial swelling from acute inflammation and increased vascular permeability. Measuring this index as a potential predictor of diastolic function should be added to studies of cardiac function during the acute and subacute phase of Kawasaki disease.
Local extension of thyroid carcinoma can result in massive invasion of the trachea, causing severe airway compromise. The pre- and peri-operative management of such airway compromise is difficult but critical. We report the use of extracorporeal oxygenation support as an alternative peri-operative airway management option in such a situation. This approach facilitated curative surgery in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma invading the trachea.
We present a case report regarding extracorporeal oxygenation support in a patient with locally advanced thyroid carcinoma.
The patient was a 68-year-old woman with aggressive thyroid papillary carcinoma invading the trachea. The airway was almost totally obstructed, and tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis was planned. A venovenous bypass catheter was placed for cardiopulmonary bypass, using the bilateral femoral veins. Curative surgery and reconstruction were then performed successfully, under general anaesthesia assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenation.
Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenation is a safe and effective alternative airway management option in patients with locally aggressive thyroid cancer.
There is a high incidence of pain following intravenous injection of propofol, and many studies have been conducted to find a way of reducing this. The administration of lidocaine and, recently, remifentanil has also been used for this purpose, but it is only partially effective. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of a combination of pretreatment with remifentanil and premixture of lidocaine with propofol and to compare either treatment alone during propofol injection in dorsal hand-veins.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial, we studied 141 adult patients scheduled for elective surgery. The combination of pretreatment of remifentanil (0.35 μg kg−1 min−1) and a premixture of lidocaine with propofol (mixture of propofol 1% and lidocaine 1% in a 10 : 1 ratio) was compared with either treatment alone in the prevention of pain on propofol injection. Pain was assessed on a four-point scale (0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) during propofol injection. Patients in Group B received remifentanil (0.35 μg kg−1 min−1) 30 s before the injection of propofol.
The reduction of pain on propofol injection was similar in both the remifentanil pretreatment and lidocaine premixture groups (62.2% vs. 62.2%). Combination therapy was associated with a higher incidence of patients without pain (91.3%) than either treatment alone (P < 0.001). On analysing the injection pain scores, we found a significant reduction of the score in the remifentanil and lidocaine Group C compared with the lidocaine Group A (P < 0.001) and the remifentanil Group B (P < 0.001).
The combination of pretreatment of remifentanil and premixture of lidocaine with propofol was more effective in reducing the incidence of pain on injection of propofol than either treatment alone.
A study of Si-doped and Mg-doped AlxGa1-xN up to × ∼ 50 % and the characteristics of ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission wavelengths at 340 nm and 290 nm are reported. By using grading super-lattices (SLs) before n-type AlGaN growth, surface roughness is much improved. Resistivity of 2.9×10-2 Ωcm and free electron concentrations of 2.9×10 cm- are achieved for n-type Al0.45Ga0.55N. The viability of effective p-type doping is defined by a minimum concentration of Mg required to offset the background impurities and, more importantly, a maximum limit above which inversion domains and structural defects start to nucleate, accompanied by a rapid degradation of electrical transport. Resistivity of 10 Ωcm and free hole concentrations above 1017 cm−3 are achieved for AlxGa1-xN up to × ∼ 50 % within an optimum window of Mg incorporation. Output powers up to 1.5 mW from small area 340 nm LEDs (< 100 μm diameter) and 110 μW from 290 nm LEDs (100 μm diameter) directly off a planar chip have been achieved under DC condition. For large area encapsulated lamp (1×1 mm2 device area and 0.52 mm2 mesa area), output power of 79 mW from 340 nm LEDs and 8.5 mW from 290 nm LEDs are achieved under pulse mode (1kHz, 2% duty factor).
Characteristics of Cu/C:H films on the PET substrate prepared by ECR-MOCVD coupled with a DC bias under Cu(hfac)2-Ar-H2 was investigated with special attention to process parameters. Our results showed that the Cu/C:H film has strongly adhere with the polymer substrate by chemical bonding and exhibited wide range of electrical conductivity that could be controlled by process parameters. The increase in H2/Ar ratio, microwave power and negative DC bias voltage brought on the higher pulling strength between Cu/C:H films and PET substrate. The effects of surface pretreatments of polymer substrate on pulling strength were insignificant in the range of our experimental range.
Vertically aligned carbon nanorods and multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD) on Ni- coated glass substrates with the RF-self biasing of –100 and –200 V, respectively. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that the distance between adjacent graphene layers of carbon nanorods is much larger than that of well-graphitized MWNTs. In electron-energy-loss spectra, the energy of π+σ plasmon peak for the carbon nanorod shifts towards lower value of 23.8 eV, by comparison with the well-graphitized MWNT at 25.5 eV. In addition, the π palsmon peak at 6 eV is clearly defined for the well-graphitized MWNT, but not seen for the carbon nanorod. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also showed that the delocalization of π electrons gets more pronounced with the structural evolvement from the carbon nanorod to the well-graphitized MWNT. Therefore, it is suggested that ionic bombardment can provide sufficient internal energy for dehydrogenation from hydrocarbon molecules, and thus, well-graphitized MWNTs could be grown even at low temperatures.
Fasciola hepatica, a parasitic flatworm belonging to the Class Trematoda, is one of the first metazoan groups to possess a centralized nervous system. However, the electrophysiological properties of neurones in F. hepatica are largely unknown. In the present study, we acutely isolated viable neurones from F. hepatica and characterized their electrophysiological properties. A hyperpolarization-activated cation current was recorded in the cells using the whole-cell patch-clamp. The current was found to be activated slowly at membrane potentials negative to 0 mV and did not display any time-dependent inactivation. This current was reduced by 1 mM Gd3+ to the level of the leak current, while 3 mM of Cs+ had no effect. However, the current was inhibited by extracellular acidosis in the pH range 7.0–7.8, and the membrane potentials of these cells were depolarized by extracellular alkalosis in the pH range of 5.8 to 8.2. Gd3+ (1 mM), which inhibited the pH-sensitive hyperpolarization-activated cation current, also hyperpolarized the cells. In summary, we isolated single neurones from F. hepatica, and these were found to express a pH-sensitive hyperpolarization-activated cation current. This current may participate in the membrane depolarization of F. hepatica neurones during alkaline challenge.
Through time-series CCD photometry of the globular cluster M 53, we have discovered eight new SX Phoenicis type stars. All the new SX Phoenicis stars are located in the blue straggler star region in the color-magnitude diagram of M 53. In addition, we have obtained light curves for 45 known RR Lyrae stars.
Highly efficient, two-dimensional arrays of parallel-addressed InGaN blue microLEDs with individual element diameters of 8, 12 and 20μm have been fabricated. In order to overcome the difficulty of interconnecting multiple device elements with sufficient step-height coverage for contact metallisation, a novel scheme involving the etching of sloped-sidewalls has been developed. The devices have I-V characteristics similar to those of broad-area reference LEDs fabricated from the same wafer, and give superior (3mW) light output in the forward direction to the reference LEDs, despite much lower active area. The external efficiencies of the micro-LED arrays improve as the dimensions of the individual elements are scaled down. This is attributed to scattering at the etched sidewalls of in-plane propagating photons into the forward direction.
Crystalline and pore-free films of α–Fe2O3 were prepared on hydrophilic self-assembled organic monolayers (DTT-SAMs) at 80 °C. Subsequently, Fe3O4 and γ–Fe2O3 films were synthesized via post annealing of as-deposited α–Fe2O3. In situ patterning of crystalline iron oxide thin layers was achieved via microcontact printing (μCP) and selective deposition. μCP was used to pattern two different surface moieties of self-assembled organic monolayers (SAMs) on Au–Cr–Si substrates. An elastomeric stamp was used to transfer either hexadecanethiol (HDT) SAMs, which are to sustain deposition of iron oxide precipitates, or hydrophilic SAMs [e.g., dithiothreitol (DTT)]. Selective deposition was realized through precipitation of iron oxide phases. Iron oxide films were deposited onto hydrophilic SAMs, but not onto HDT surfaces. Line (width of <1 μm) patterns in crystalline α–Fe2O3 thin films were obtained.
Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on a silicon substrate by direct metal ion beam deposition (DMIBD). Partial pressures of nitrogen gas were changed to get different compositions of nitrogen in the DLC films. The composition and surface morphology of the films were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Effect of nitrogen doping on field emission property was studied. The field emission data indicated that the nitrogen doping lowered the turn-on field and increase the current density. It was believed that doping of nitrogen into the DLC film plays an important role in enhancement of the field emission. This enhancement of field emission could be explained by the improvement of electron transport through nitrogen-dope DLC layer.