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Background: The Gilenya® Go ProgramTM offers education and support services, including coordination of first dose observation (FDO) and follow-up contact to reinforce monitoring recommendations and compliance in fingolimod-treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Methods: Data were analyzed for patients enrolled in the Canadian Gilenya® Go ProgramTM from March 2011 to January 2016. The retention to fingolimod therapy, reasons for treatment discontinuation and incidence of adverse events (AEs) during treatment are reported. Results: At data cut-off, 3956 patients had completed FDO; 3201 patients were being actively treated. Mean age at enrolment was 41.0 years; 74.9% patients were female. The overall fingolimod exposure was 7869 patient-years. Most recent previous therapies (n=3746) included interferons (43.3%) and glatiramer acetate (29.6%). Most common reasons for switching to fingolimod (n=3674) was lack of efficacy (31.8%). Retention to therapy at data cut-off was 81.3%. AEs (45.2%) were the most common reason (n=334) for treatment discontinuation and included low lymphocyte count/abnormal hematology values (13.8%), gastrointestinal disturbances (6.9%), and elevated liver enzyme levels (7.8%). Adherence to recommended ophthalmic examination was 92.4%. Conclusions: In real-world clinical practice in Canada, adherence to both fingolimod treatment and monitoring was high. The Gilenya® Go Program™ helps to meet the safety monitoring recommendations for fingolimod-treated RRMS patients.
Thermal plasma wind tunnels with power of 0.4 MW and 2.4 MW have been constructed at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) in Korea. This facility is capable of producing a heat flux greater than 10 MW/m2, a level that is relevant for testing thermal protection materials that are used for re-entry vehicles in space transportation. A segmented arc plasma torch was adopted as a plasma source; this was designed to have high thermal efficiency and long life, and to produce a supersonic plasma flow with enthalpy greater than 10 MJ/kg. We investigated the characteristics of the supersonic plasma flow using intrusive and non-intrusive diagnostic systems. Ablation characteristics of potential thermal protection materials such as carbon/carbon composites and graphite were investigated with the plasma wind tunnel. Cracks and pores in the materials accelerated the erosion. For carbon/carbon composites, the pores grew and the cracks which occurred at the interfaces between the carbon fibres and the matrix propagated, while for the graphite, the erosion started at the pores and peeled off the surface.
Victimisation by the police is purported to be widespread in cities in the USA, but there is limited data on police–public encounters from community samples. This is partly due to an absence of measures for assessing police violence exposure from the standpoint of civilians. As such, the demographic distribution and mental health correlates of police victimisation are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to present community-based prevalence estimates of positive policing and police victimisation based on assessment with two novel measures, and to test the hypotheses that (1) exposure to police victimisation would vary across demographic groups and (2) would be associated with depression and psychological distress.
The Survey of Police–Public Encounters study surveyed adults residing in four US cities to examine the prevalence, demographic distribution and psychological correlates of police victimisation. Participants (N = 1615) completed measures of psychological distress (K-6 scale), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) and two newly constructed measures of civilian-reported police–public encounters. Both measures were developed to assess police victimisation based on the WHO domains of violence, which include physical violence (with and without a weapon, assessed separately), sexual violence (inappropriate sexual contact, including public strip searches), psychological violence (e.g., threatening, intimidating, stopping without cause, or using discriminatory slurs) and neglect (police not responding when called or responding too late). The Police Practices Inventory assesses lifetime history of exposure to positive policing and police victimisation, and the Expectations of Police Practices Scale assesses the perceived likelihood of future incidents of police victimisation. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between police–public encounters and psychological distress and depression.
Psychological violence (18.6%) and police neglect (18.8%) were commonly reported in this sample and a substantial minority of respondents also reported more severe forms of violence, specifically physical (6.1%), sexual (2.8%) and physical with a weapon (3.3%). Police victimisation was more frequently reported by racial/ethnic minorities, males, transgender respondents and younger adults. Nearly all forms of victimisation (but not positive policing) were associated with psychological distress and depression in adjusted linear regression models.
Victimisation by police appears to be widespread, inequitably distributed across demographic groups and psychologically impactful. These findings suggest that public health efforts to both reduce the prevalence of police violence and to alleviate its psychological impact may be needed, particularly in disadvantaged urban communities.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure are associated with altered task-related connectivity during episodic recognition. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging from 282 cognitively healthy middle-to-late aged adults enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention, we investigated whether fractional anisotropy (FA) within white matter regions known to decline with age was associated with task-related connectivity within the recognition network. Results: There was a positive relationship between fornix FA and memory performance, both of which negatively correlated with age. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that higher fornix FA was associated with increased task-related connectivity amongst the hippocampus, caudate, precuneus, middle occipital gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus. In addition, better task performance was associated with increased task-related connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, cuneus, and hippocampus. Conclusions: The findings indicate that age has a negative effect on white matter microstructure, which in turn has a negative impact on memory performance. However, fornix microstructure did not significantly mediate the effect of age on performance. Of interest, dynamic functional connectivity was associated with better memory performance. The results of the psychophysiological interaction analysis further revealed that alterations in fornix microstructure explain–at least in part–connectivity among cortical regions in the recognition memory network. Our results may further elucidate the relationship between structural connectivity, neural function, and cognition. (JINS, 2016, 22, 191–204)
Alcohol consumption is a possible co-factor of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) persistence, a major step in cervical carcinogenesis, but the association between alcohol and continuous HPV infection remains unclear. This prospective study identified the association between alcohol consumption and HR-HPV persistence. Overall, 9230 women who underwent screening during 2002–2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Current drinkers [odds ratio (OR) 2·49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·32–4·71] and drinkers for ⩾5 years (OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·17–4·63) had a higher risk of 2-year HR-HPV persistence (HPV positivity for 3 consecutive years) than non-drinkers and drinkers for <5 years, respectively (vs. HPV negativity for 3 consecutive years). A high drinking frequency (⩾twice/week) and a high beer intake (⩾3 glasses/occasion) had higher risks of 1-year (OR 1·80, 95% CI 1·01–3·36) HPV positivity for 2 consecutive years) and 2-year HR-HPV persistence (OR 3·62, 95% CI 1·35–9·75) than non-drinkers. Of the HPV-positive subjects enrolled, drinking habit (OR 2·68, 95% CI 1·10–6·51) and high consumption of beer or soju (⩾2 glasses/occasion; OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·06–7·98) increased the risk of 2-year consecutive or alternate HR-HPV positivity (vs. consecutive HPV negativity). These findings suggest that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of cervical HR-HPV persistence in Korean women.
InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) laser diodes (LDs) were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates using a multi-wafer MOCVD system. The threshold current for pulsed lasing was 1.6 A for a gain-guided laser diode with a stripe of 10 × 800 μm2. The threshold current density was 20.3 kA cm−2 and the threshold voltage was 16.5 V. The optical power ratio of transverse electric mode to transverse magnetic mode was found to be greater than 50. The characteristic temperature measured from the plot of threshold current versus measurement temperature was between 130 and 150K.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is now recognized as a common cause of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to describe the first ETEC O169 outbreak identified in Korea. In this outbreak, we identified 1642 cases from seven schools. Retrospective cohort studies were performed in two schools; and case-control studies were conducted in five schools. In two schools, radish kimchi was associated with illness; and in five other schools, radish or cabbage kimchi was found to have a higher risk among food items. Adjusted relative risk of kimchi was 5·87–7·21 in schools that underwent cohort studies; and adjusted odds ratio was 4·52–12·37 in schools that underwent case-control studies. ETEC O169 was isolated from 230 affected students, and was indistinguishable from the isolates detected from the kimchi product distributed by company X, a food company that produced and distributed kimchi to all seven schools. In this outbreak, we found that the risk of a kimchi-borne outbreak of ETEC O169 infection is present in Korea. We recommend continued monitoring regarding food safety in Korea, and strengthening surveillance regarding ETEC O169 infection through implementation of active laboratory surveillance to confirm its infection.
The specific capacitance of the carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode can be increased by using nanoporous alumina templates with the high pore density and the small and uniform pore diameter. The surface area of the CNTs was controlled and increased by preparing them with uniform diameters. The well-ordered nanoporous alumina templates were fabricated by a two-step anodization method. The cylindrical pore diameter, length, and density of the template utilized for the CNT growth was 53 ± 1 nm, 2 μm, and 3.1×1010 cm−2, respectively. The CNTs with uniform diameter of 44 ± 2 nm were grown on the porous alumina template as electrode materials for the electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC characteristic of the CNT electrodes was examined by measuring the capacitances from the cyclic voltammograms. The specific capacitance of the CNT electrodes can be increased to the value of 121 ± 5 F/g.
The relation between the ion irradiation induced grain growth in bilayer system and the basic parameters involved in ion beam mixing process was studied. TEM micrographs showed that a significant grain growth has been induced by Ar+ irradiation at room temperature. The grain size increases rapidly in low dose region, while it approaches a saturated value in high dose region, and it has close relationship with thermodynamic properties such as cohesive energy ( ΔHc ) and heat of mixing( ΔHm ). The experimental results are in good agreement with the model for the grain growth based on the thermal spike induced atomic migration.
Amorphous semiconductors play a major role in the field of electronic imaging. The function of an image sensor is to generate an electrical signal corresponding to the light distribution in the optical image. The photodiodes convert light into electrical signal. We investigated the linear image sensor driven by thin film transistor as an switching element, with each photodiode connected to the corresponding thin film transistor. The photo/dark conductivity of photodiode are compared in the case of amorphous silicon and microcrystalline. The influences in contact resistance between microcrystalline n+ layer and the source/drain metal electrode, electron mobility, threshold voltage, and on-off current ratio of thin film transistor with intrinsic microcrystalline silicon channel layer were also investigated.
The asymmetric amorphous silicon thin film transistors are fabricated and exposed to various stress environments. A visible light illumination of 200,000 Ix and gate bias of 30 V are applied to both asymmetric and widely used symmetric a-Si TFT's. It is observed that the leakage current of asymmetric structure, where only one electrode is fully overlapped by gate electrode, is much less than that of symmetric one. The visible light illumination as well as gate bias stress do not degrade the leakage current of the asymmetric a-Si TFT's, while the leakage current in die symmetric TFT's are increased considerably due to the stress. Also, the degree of degradation in the threshold voltage, the field effect mobility and the subthreshold slope of asymmetric TFT's are relatively much less than that of conventional symmetric TFT's.
The accelerated degradation phenomena in amorphous silicon thin film transistors due to both electrical stress and visible light illumination under the elevated temperature have been investigated systematically as a function of gate bias, light intensity, and stress time. It has been found that, in case of electrical stress, the threshold voltage shifts of a-Si TFT's may be attributed to the defect creation process at the early stage, while the charge trapping phenomena may be dominant when the illumination periods exceed about 2 hours. It has been also observed that the degradation in the device characteristics of a-Si TFT's is accelerated due to multiple stress effects, where the defect creation mechanism may be more responsible for the degradation rather than the charge trapping mechanism.
A real-time x-ray analysis technique has been developed and employed for in-situ investigation of solid and liquid state reactions in Au-Sn/Cu system as a function of temperature. Typically, 1 μm eutectic Au-Sn films were deposited on 1.5 μm Cu layers on Si wafers. Phase changes in Au-Sn films on Cu from ambient to above the eutectic temperature have been investigated. Cu diffusion into Au-Sn film above 250 °C resulted in a ternary Au-Sn-Cu compound and raised the melting temperature of the structure to about 325 °C. This affects joining characteristics of the Au-Sn metallization.
Interfacial reactions of polyimide with several metals have been investigated by XPS and TEM to determine their effects on adhesion and long term stability. It has been found that the polyimide-on-metal interface and the metal-on-polyimide interface are intrinsically different; in the case of PI-on-metal interface, the precursor of polyimide, polyamic acid, reacts with the metal resulting in a strong chemical bond and therefore, higher adhesion strength than the corresponding metal-on-PI interface. Both interfaces are found susceptible to T/H environment, resulting in significant adhesion loss. The mechanical and electrical properties of polyimide may be altered as a result of the interaction with metals and therefore, great care is necessary to insure a stable interface and the reliability of devices.
In this work, we proposed a direct bonding method using interlayers for single crystalline silicon wafers and glass wafers. Various materials were used for interlayers of thermal oxide, sputtered nitride, electron-beam(E-beam) evaporated silicon oxide and molybdenum. After hydrophilization, samples were spin dried and mated together without external forces. Three types of solutions were used for hydrophilizing the samples. Changes of average surface roughness after hydrophilization of the single crystalline silicon wafer, thermal oxide and E-beam silicon-oxide were inspected using atomic force microscope(AFM). Bonding interfaces of the bonded pairs were observed by scanning electron microscope(SEM). Voids and non-contact areas of the bonding pairs were also inspected using infrared(IR) transmission microscope. Surface energy, tensile strength measurements and breaking tests were also done.
Ti-48A1 specimens were coated with Al-21Ti-23Cr film at 200 W, 0.8 Pa and 573 K by RF magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behavior of the coated specimens was investigated through isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests, and the tensile deformation properties of the coated specimens were also investigated before and after oxidation. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation curves showed that the Al-21Ti-23Cr film was very effective in decreasing the oxidation rate of Ti-48A1. This excellent oxidation resistance is attributable to the formation of a protective Al2O3 layer on the surface of the Al-21Ti-23Cr film. It was found from the results of the tensile test that the protective Al2O3 layer on the surface of the Al-21Ti-23Cr film enabled the Ti-48A1 to maintain its tensile properties in an oxidizing environment.