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As the consciousness of energy saving and carbon reduction and comfortable environment is paid increasing attention to, the common objective of various countries with decreasing energy is to develop and popularize high efficiency and low running noise blowers. This study uses CFD to calculate the flow field and performance of a blower and compare with the experimental measurement. The characteristic curve of blower shows that the simulated and experimental values are close to each other, the difference between the values is only 0.4%. This analysis result proofs the CFD package is a highly reliable tool for the future blower design improvement. In addition, this study discusses the noise distribution of blower flow field, the periodic pressure output value calculated by CFD is used in the sound source input of sound pressure field, so as to simulate and analyze the aerodynamic noise reading of the flow field around the blower. The result shows that the simulated value of flow field around the fan has as high as 80.5 dB(A) ∼ 81.5 dB(A) noise level and is agree with measurement (82 dB(A)). The noise level is low but has a sharp noise. According to the numerical results, designer of the blower modify the tongue geometry and remove the sharp noise.
The Shang (c. 1500–1045 BC) and Zhou dynasties (c. 1045–771 BC) of China are famous for their sophisticated ritual bronze vessels. Sourcing the leaded tin-bronze has, however, proved to be a challenge. A new systematic approach to metal chemistry uses trace elements and isotopes to characterise the underlying circulation pattern. It reveals the complexity of the copper sources on which the late Shang capital at Anyang depended for its bronzes, suggesting the transport of copper from distant regions in the south, on the Yangtze, and from north-east China. The new interpretational system furthers our understanding of the network on which successive Chinese dynasties depended for copper, lead and tin, and attempts to give equal weight to the archaeological and chemical data.
Catalyst-free vapor phase transport was applied for the growth of ZnO nanoemitters. A single-crystalline ZnO:Al seed layer was deposited and used as a pseudo-catalyst. The desired morphology of nanostructures can be achieved by means of modifying the growth rates of crystal planes via adjustment in the growth conditions. The field emission characteristics of ZnO nanoemitters satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim relationship. The high aspect ratio of nanoemitters had a low turn-on electric field of 0.18 MV/m at emission current density of 0.1 μA/cm2. A stable electron emission with a variation of less than 14% was measured.
Disc rheological parameters regulate the mechanical and biological function of intervertebral disc. The knowledge of effects of degeneration on disc rheology can be beneficial for the design of new disc implants or therapy. We developed two material property identification protocols, i.e., inverse poroelas-tic finite element analysis, and biphasic closed form solution. These protocols were used to find the material properties of intact, moderate and severe degenerated porcine discs. Comparing these two computational protocols for intact and artificial degenerated discs showed they are valid in defining bi-phasic/poroelastic properties. We found that enzymatic agent disrupts the functional interactions of proteoglycans which decreased hydraulic permeability and aggregate modulus but increased the Poisson's ratio. The fatigue loading, which damages disc structure, and squeezes and occludes the matrix pores, further decreased the hydraulic permeability and the Poisson's ratio but increased the elastic modulus. The FE simulations showed the stress experienced during the creep test increases with severe degeneration but steady-state fluid loss decreases for the both moderate and severe degenerated discs. Discriminant analysis declared that the probability of correct classification using the FE analysis is higher than the results of the closed form solution. The specimen-specific models extracted from FE analysis can be additionally used for complimentary investigations on disc biomechanics.
In this study, the fictitious time integration method (FTIM) is applied to investigate wave propagation over an arbitrary bathymetry with measured uncertainty. The FTIM is used to convert the higher-order elliptic mild-slope equation (EMSE) into a FTIM like EMSE (FTIMEMSE). It has the advantage to describe wave transformation from deep water to shallow water region in a large coastal area with numerical efficiency. The validity of the noise resistance for the measured uncertainty of the bathymetry is also studied. In addition, typical examples for waves propagating over an elliptic shoal rest on a horizontal and sloping bottom is presented. It is concluded that the FTIM is robust in the numerical stability and capable of against the noise of the measurement.
Surveillance is integral for the monitoring and control of infectious diseases. We conducted prospective laboratory surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in five Singaporean public-sector hospitals from 2006 to 2010, using WHONET 5.6 for data compilation and analysis. Molecular profiling using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec classification and multilocus sequence typing was performed for a random selection of isolates. Our results showed overall stable rates of infection and bacteraemia, although there was significant variance among the individual hospitals, with MRSA rates increasing in two smaller hospitals and showing a trend towards decreasing in the two largest hospitals. The proportion of blood isolates that are EMRSA-15 (ST22-IV) continued to increase over time, slowly replacing the multi-resistant ST239-III. A new MRSA clone – ST45-IV – is now responsible for a small subset of hospital infections locally. More effort is required in Singaporean hospitals in order to reduce the rates of MRSA infection significantly.
In the past 15 years, stretchable electronic circuits have emerged as a new technology in the domain of assembly, interconnections, and sensor circuit technologies. In the meantime, a wide variety of processes using many different materials have been explored in this new field. In the current contribution, we present an approach inspired by conventional rigid and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) technology. Similar to PCBs, standard packaged, rigid components are assembled on copper contact pads using lead-free solder reflow processes. Stretchability is obtained by shaping the copper tracks as horseshoe-shaped meanders. Elastic materials, predominantly polydimethylsiloxanes, are used to embed the conductors and the components, thus serving as a circuit carrier. We describe mechanical modeling, aimed at optimizing the build-up toward maximum mechanical reliability of the structures. Details on the production process, reliability assessment, and a number of functional demonstrators are described.
Capacitive CMOS MEMS sensors are usually defined by anisotropic dry etching processes (RIE and DRIE). These processes can provide clean and vertical sidewall geometry. However, during the dry-etching processes, charges are added to the gate electrodes of the on-chip MOSFET’s through metal pads and micro-structures, and the voltage may be raised to the level of breaking down the gate oxide, which leads to large leakage current and fails the circuit. On another hand, the thin spring beams in capacitive CMOS MEMS accelerometers suffer from in-plane curling and out-of-plane curling caused by stress gradient. Furthermore, the stress in the layers of MEMS structure is a function of temperature. Therefore, the in-plane curling and out-of-plane curling vary with temperature, leading to varying electrode coupling area in the sensing beams. This in turn causes variation in the sensitivity and the DC offset of sensors, meaning that usually the thermal stability of CMOS MEMS capacitive accelerometers is very poor. To cope with these problems, this work develops a new wafer-level post-CMOS process for fabricating thermally stable capacitive accelerometers. The resultant MEMS structures have high aspect ratio (e.g. 2-2.5 μm gaps versus 57 μm depth) and are insensitive to residual stress as well as temperature change. Excellent thermal stability was achieved intrinsically by making the crystalline Si layer in the sensors thick. Moreover, this process totally avoids the charge damage problem during the dry-etching procedure. For demonstration, an accelerometer sensor was fabricated by using the proposed process and was integrated with an on-chip sensing circuit in commercial 0.35 μm 2P4M CMOS process. High detection sensitivity of 595 mV/g and very low thermal variation of 1.68 mg/°C were successfully achieved.
The hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-junction thin-film solar cells were fabricated on SnO2:F-coated glasses by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. The boron-doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) was served as the window layer (p-layer) and the undoped a-SiC:H was used as a buffer layer (b-layer). The optimization of the p/b/i/n thin-films in a-Si:H solar cells have been carried out and discussed. Considering the effects of light absorption, electron-hole extraction and light-induced degradation, the thicknesses of p, b, n and i layers have been optimized. The optimal a-Si:H thin-film solar cell having an efficiency of 9.46% was achieved, with VOC=906 mV, JSC=14.42 mA/cm2 and FF=72.36%.
This study was performed to determine the prevalence, distribution of specimen sources, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–Acinetobacter baumannii (Acb) species complex in Singapore. One hundred and ninety-three non-replicate Acb species complex clinical isolates were collected from six hospitals over a 1-month period in 2006. Of these, 152 (78·7%) were identified as A. baumannii, 18 (9·3%) as ‘Acinetobacter pittii’ [genomic species (gen. sp.) 3], and 23 (11·9%) as ‘Acinetobacter nosocomialis’ (gen. sp. 13TU). Carbapenem resistance was highest in A. baumannii (72·4%), followed by A. pittii (38·9%), and A. nosocomialis (34·8%). Most carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis possessed the blaOXA-23-like gene whereas carbapenem-resistant A. pittii possessed the blaOXA-58-like gene. Two imipenem-resistant strains (A. baumannii and A. pittii) had the blaIMP-like gene. Representatives of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii were related to European clones I and II.
The previous monolithic active grating bender design met some basic design requirements. However, after a real grating (BM-AGM) had been fabricated and installed for testing, the results showed that the usable length is a mere 60 mm because of the higher-order term error in the surface profile. A method was thus derived to eliminate the higher-order term error by modifying the width of the bender substrate through finite-element method simulation, reducing the residual error from about 100 nm to 6 nm. Owing to the closure of the grating department of Zeiss, ruling the monolithic bender is no longer available and the design has to be modified to a composite-type bender with Si substrate. A prototype was fabricated and assembled to examine all the design situations. The surface roughness of the width-modified Si substrate is around 30 nm before assembly. The residual error after assembly and bending is less than 10 nm. It proves that the design is feasible. However, due to the manufacturing capacity of the vendor, a short-length substrate is required and the design has to be modified. The detailed design modification and testing results are presented in this paper.
The electronic structures of five polycrystalline YNi2−xCoxB2C (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) borocarbide superconductors were studied by photoemission and photoabsorption spectroscopies and theoretical calculations. The valence-band (VB) photoemission spectrum is compared with the theoretical total and partial density-of-states (DOS) curves. The VB satellite is peaked at a binding energy (EB) of 6 eV. The Ni K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectra (XANES) are compared with the calculated XANES spectra for these intermetallic compounds. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra at the Ni and Co K edges are analyzed to yield the structural parameters. The decrease of the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) with addition of Co dopant in these compounds is due to a decrease of the total DOS at the Fermi level (EF).
In previous studies, low-k carbon-doped silicon oxide (SiOC) films were deposited using organosilicon precursor: (CH3)xSiH4−x. In this paper, we present the properties of PECVD low-k SiOC films produced by using conventional SiH4 based gas precursors. The SiH4 based SiOC films have similar gross physical and electrical characteristics to those of (CH3)xSiH4−x based SiOC. Since the precursors are inexpensive, commercially available and convenient to operate for existing tools, the process should not require additional cost as compared with that of PECVD silicon dioxide. We demonstrate the feasibility of integrating Cu with SiOC on damascene interconnection. The evaluation on electrical performance of the Cu/SiOC based damascene structure will be discussed.
Synthesis and characterization of a new carbon particle are investigated in this study. The carbon particle, which possesses a very high surface area (682 cm2/g), is suitable for catalysts loading in application of fuel cell. As well known, carbon materials are used to be a support of Pt catalyst to achieve high dispersion to enhance the activity of Pt. The synthesis was performed by conventional arc discharge process between two graphite electrodes in vacuum. A high-current range from 100∼ 300 ampere was utilized to evaporate the cathode electrode in order to produce carbon soot onto the wall of chamber, and further high production rate of 10 g/hr was achieved. The morphology and microstructure of the materials were investigated by SEM, HRTEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy.
Observations of the soot by SEM and HRTEM have shown that it consists agglomerations of carbon particles linked each other to form a chain-like structure. Most carbon particles are approximate 30 ∼ 60 nm in diameter. HRTEM observation reveals that a carbon particle is comprised of several defective onions with different diameters and extremely curled graphene sheets, which appear as double-sheet layers.
The beam position monitors (BPMs) with submicron-level resolution act as the major eyes of storage ring in detecting the position of electron beams and are used for feedback system to guide the beam orbit to the desired track. Compared to major improvements on backend electronics, the physical devices generate and transmit signals had little improvement due to the lack of control on manufacturing processes including all mechanical tolerance requirements. The design started with ANSYS to simulate mechanical deformation. Due to the small size (submillimetre) and complicated assembly of feedthrough structure, it is difficult to achieve 1 % tolerance (submicron) in all aspects including machining and brazing. The smallest tolerance for machining is 5 µ and the overall tolerance will be 30 µm. The influence of the tolerance on mechanical will be shown on time-domain reflectometry measurement. The resulted heat-related issue will also be discussed and addressed since the problem happened at SLAC (private communication with Albert Sheng at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and DIAMOND (presented at the RF Button Heating Mini-Workshop at EPAC 2008). Manufacturing steps will be described. The consequence of mismatch on manufacturing will be discussed. All related measurement and simulation data are presented in this paper.
Reactive YBa2Cu3O7-δ powders have been produced via freeze-drying, carbonate- and oxalate-coprecipitating methods. In the coprecipitating methods, sodium carbonate and sodium oxalate were used as precipitants. These powders were characterized by TGA, XRD, and SEM. The morphologies of the YBa2Cu3O7-δ powders produced from these methods are different from each other. The influence of hot-press process on the bulk density, micro-structure development and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ samples was also studied.
High‐T YBaCuO and BiSrCaCuO Superconducting wires have been fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. Copper and silver tubes were used as the external jackets. Thermal annealing treatments for all the wire‐type samples were performed between 773 K and 1223 K. Both electrical and magnetization studies show that the superconducting properties can be improved after properly thermal annealing these samples with silver jacket. Our experimental results show that proper thermal annealing treatment can enhance the intragrain critical current density more than 100 times; however, the intergrain critical current density improves only a few times.