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Death ideation (thinking about/wishing for one's own death, thinking that one would be better off dead) is linked to an increased mortality risk. However, comparatively little is known about more general thoughts of death (GTOD) where no wish to die or life value is expressed. This study examined whether GTOD predicted mortality in a community-based cohort of older adults.
Data came from the Komo-Ise cohort study in Gunma prefecture, Japan. The analytic sample comprised 8208 individuals (average age 61.3 (range 47–77)) who were asked in wave 2 of the study in 2000 if they had ‘Thought about death more than usual, either your own, someone else's or death in general?’ in the past 2 weeks. Death data were obtained from the municipal resident registration file. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine associations.
During the follow-up period (2000–2008), there were 672 deaths. In a model adjusted for baseline covariates, GTOD were significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazards ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.20–2.29). Stratified analyses showed an association between GTOD and mortality in men, older subjects (⩾70 years), married individuals and those with higher social support.
GTOD are associated with an increased mortality risk among older citizens in Japan. Research is now needed to determine the factors underlying this association and assess the clinical relevance of screening for GTOD in older individuals.
A radio continuum survey of the galactic plane has been made with the 45-m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory at 10.55 GHz, which is the highest frequency among such surveys. The sensitivity of the telescope was Tb/S = 0.47 K/Jy and the HPBW was 2!6, which was a great advantage because of the same beam size of the Bonn 5-GHz survey (Altenhoff et al. 1978). The receiver was a cooled parametric amplifier. The instantaneous bandwidth was 500 MHz, and the system noise temperature was about 100 K. The calibration source was NGC 7027, which was assumed to be 6.6 Jy. One circular polarization component was observed. The observational parameters are summarized in Table I.
Preliminary results of a 10-GHz radio-continuum survey of the galactic-plane region using the 45-m telescope at NRO are presented. An extensive study of a complex region at 22° ≦ ℓ ≦ 25°, |b|≳1° has been made.
Tabanids are haematophagous flies feeding on livestock and wildlife. In the absence of information on the relationship of tabanid flies and protozoan parasites in South Africa and Zambia, the current study was aimed at characterizing tabanid flies collected in these two countries as well as detecting protozoan parasites they are harbouring. A total of 527 tabanid flies were collected whereby 70·2% were from South Africa and 29·8% were from Zambia. Morphological analysis revealed a total of five different genera collected from the sampled areas namely: Ancala, Atylotus, Haematopota, Philoliche and Tabanus. DNA extracted from South African Tabanus par and Tabanus taeniola tested positive for the presence of Trypanosoma congolense (Savannah) and Trypanosoma theileri whilst one member from T. par was positive for Trypanosoma brucei species. DNA extracted from Zambian tabanid flies tested positive for the presence of Besnoitia species at 1·27% (2/157), Babesia bigemina 5·73% (9/157), Theileria parva 30·11% (30/157) and 9·82% (14/157) for Trypanosoma evansi. This study is the first to report on relationship of Babesia and Theileria parasites with tabanid flies. Further investigations are required to determine the role of tabanids in transmission of the detected protozoan parasites in livestock and wildlife in South Africa and Zambia.
To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people.
Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates.
The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs.
Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.
The objectives of this study were to infer phenotypic causal networks involving gestation length (GL) and calving difficulty (CD) for the primiparity of 1850 Japanese Black heifers, and the birth weight (BWT), withers height (WH) and chest girth (CHG) of their full blood calves, and to compare the causal effects among them. The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was employed to search for causal links among these traits; it was applied to the posterior distribution of the residual (co)variance matrix of a multiple-trait sire-maternal grand sire (MGS) model. The IC algorithm implemented with 95% and 90% highest posterior density intervals detected only one structure with links between GL and BWT (WH or CHG) and between BWT (WH or CHG) and CD, although their directions were not resolved. Therefore, a possible causal structure based on the networks obtained from the IC algorithm [GL→BWT (WH or CHG)→CD] was fitted using a structural equation model to infer causal structure coefficients between the traits. The structural coefficients of GL on BWT and of BWT on GL on the observable scale showed that an extra day of GL led to a 270-g gain in BWT, and a 1-kg increase in BWT increased the risk for dystocia by 1.1%, in the causal structure. Similarly, an increase in GL by 1 day resulted in a 2.1 (2.0)-mm growth in WH (CHG), and a 1-cm increase in WH (CHG) increased the risk of dystocia by 1.2% (0.9%). The structural equation model was also fitted to alternative causal structures, which involved the addition of a directed link from GL to CD, or GL→CD to the structures described above. The inferred structural coefficients with the alternative structures were almost the same as the corresponding ones that had GL→BWT (WH or CHG)→CD. However, the direct causal effect of the extra link from GL on CD was similar to the indirect causal effect of GL through the mediating effect of BWT (WH or CHG) on CD and significant (P<0.05). This suggest that maternal genetic effects might not be removed completely from the residual variance components in the sire-MGS model, and the application of the IC algorithm to the variances from the model could detect an incorrect structure. Nonetheless, fitting the structural equation model to the causal structure provided useful information such as the magnitude of the causal effects between the traits.
We report NH3 observations of the Sgr A complex region including Sgr A West and the 20 km/s and 50 km/s molecular clouds (M–0.13–0.08 and M–0.02–0.07) using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the 45m telescope. NH3(1,1) and (2,2) lines were simultaneously observed to estimate the kinetic temperature. Our results suggest strong interaction between the molecular clouds and the continuum sources in the Sgr A complex. The interaction with continuum sources might be an important factor in determining the physical conditions of molecular gas in the galactic center region.
ASCA DSS was intended to carry out unbiased surveys in wide energy range of 0.5-10 keV. The strategy of this project is to survey small sky region with extremely high sensitivity reaching to the source confusion limit of ASCA XRT, in contrast to the Large Sky Survey project (Ueda 1996) which covers much larger sky area with relatively shallow exposure.
The origin of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) radiation has been investigated extensively by soft X-ray deep survey imaging observations with Einstein and ROSAT. In contrast, the lack of telescopes capable of detecting hard X-rays has prevented us from extensive study of the nature of the CXB in the energy range above 2 keV before ASCA.
About 10 X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and LMC/SMC are considered to contain black hole candidates (BHCs). Among these objects, Cyg X-1 was identified as the first BHC, and it has led BHCs for more than 25 years(Oda 1977, Liang and Nolan 1984). It is a binary system composed of normal blue supergiant star and the X-ray emitting compact object. The orbital kinematics derived from optical observations indicates that the compact object is heavier than ~ 4.8 M⊙ (Herrero 1995), which well exceeds the upper limit mass for a neutron star(Kalogora 1996), where we assume the system consists of only two bodies. This has been the basis for BHC of Cyg X-1.
Absorption line features were detected at 4.1 keV from X 1636-536 with the Tenma satellite in the spectra of X-ray bursts (Waki et al., 1984). Similar features were also detected from X 1608-52 and EXO 1747-214 during bursts (Nakamura et al., 1988; Magnier et al., 1989). These features at 4.1 keV may be interpreted as the redshifted Kα absorption line of helium-like iron atoms. However, such interpretation requires extremely soft equation of state for the nuclear matter, and confirmation with high resolution detectors is urged (Lewin et al., 1993). To investigate the line features, we observed X 1636-536 with ASCA for ~ 240 ksec.
The X-ray background in the energy range above 2 keV is highly uniform except for an excess component along the Galactic plane. The excess along the plane is considered to be associated with our Galaxy, whereas the rest of the emission is believed to be of extragalactic origin. In this paper, the X-ray background at high Galactic latitude is discussed and is designated as the CXB (cosmic X-ray background) to distinguish it from the Galactic origin.
The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) is the first dedicated Space-VLBI mission. We report here on the planning for a second generation mission which builds on and extends the successful collaborations established for the VSOP mission, and which aims to improve both resolution and sensitivity by a factor of ∼10.
VLBA observations of water-vapor maser emission in the active nucleus of a Seyfert 2, IC 2560, show linear velocity gradient along the north-south elongation, suggesting a compact rotating disk. The binding mass density within the disk is 7.7 × 106 M⊙ pc−3. We are also monitoring the velocity variations of the maser features with single dish telescopes. By combining the velocity drift with the linear velocity gradient, we would be able to determine the rotation speed and radius of the nuclear disk, and hence the central mass.
On February 12, 1997 the world’s first dedicated VLBI spacecraft, HALCA, was successfully launched as the space borne element of the VSOP mission. This paper describes the calibration observations that have been undertaken so far with this spacecraft.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
We report the observations of compact steep-spectrum radio sources (CSSs) by VLBI at 22 and 43 GHz and single dich at 22, 43, and 92 GHz. Our results show that CSS also has an active core as well as other AGNs.