To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Postmortem and PET studies indicate increased serotonin (5-HT)-5-HT1A receptor density in frontal and temporal cortices in schizophrenia, suggesting up-regulation secondary to diminished 5-HT1A-receptor stimulation. We previously conducted a series of pilot studies of the effects of the addition of tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist and azapirone derivative, to ongoing treatment with small to moderate doses of typical antipsychotic drugs, on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. The addition of tandospirone (30 mg/day), but not placebo, for 4 to 6 weeks was found to improve executive function and verbal learning and memory.
Methods and Results:
We have conducted a randomly-assigned placebo-controlled double-blind study to investigate the ability of the addition of buspirone to enhance cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs). Buspirone, 30 mg/day, outperformed placebo in improving the performance on a measure of attention/speeded motor performance and index of general cognitive function. The distinct cognition-enhancing ability of buspirone suggests its usefulness for patients who have large deficits in attention in spite of treatment with AAPDs.
The findings from these clinical studies indicate 5-HT1A receptors are a promising target for the management of psychotic symptoms and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia. This concept has prompted the development of novel antipsychotic compounds with agonist actions at 5-HT1A receptors, e.g. F156063, SLV313, SSR181507, and bifeprunox. Evidence from basic studies with these drugs suggests an optimal balance of activity at 5-HT1A and dopamine-D2 receptors is required to gain cognitive benefits, which deserves further investigations.
As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays. Of the 188 pig serum samples tested for antibody responses to partially purified low-molecular-weight antigens of T. solium cyst fluid, positive responses were detected in 37 samples (19.7%). Based on these results, 16 pigs (10 seropositive and 6 seronegative) were necropsied for investigation of cysticerci and intestinal parasites. All seropositive pigs were coinfected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena cysticerci, except one, which was infected with T. hydatigena alone. Three of the six seronegative pigs were confirmed to be infected with T. hydatigena. Pigs infected with T. solium showed much stronger antibody responses than those infected with T. hydatigena. Our results demonstrate the co-occurrence of two swine cysticercoses due to T. solium and T. hydatigena in the studied areas. This study also reveals the importance of direct confirmation of the presence of cysticerci by necropsy after serological screening. In addition to the prevalence of swine cysticercosis in these endemic areas, our findings also reveal potential implications for the development of serological diagnostic assays for swine cysticercosis.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder–Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (P<0·001). However, the increase in NQ scores was significantly higher in the interactive group than in the lecture group, in the overall score (P=0·008) and in the healthy eating domain (P=0·009). The validated NQ is a short and useful tool to assess gain in nutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
The interactions between homogeneous turbulence and a planar shock wave are analytically investigated using rapid distortion theory (RDT). Analytical solutions in the solenoidal modes are obtained. Qualitative answers to unsolved questions in a report by Andreopoulos et al. (Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 524, 2000, pp. 309–345) are provided within the linear theoretical framework. The results show that the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is increased after interaction with a shock wave and that the contributions to the amplification can be interpreted primarily as the combined effect of shock-induced compression, which is a direct consequence of the Rankine–Hugoniot relation, and the nonlinear effect, which is an indirect consequence of the Rankine–Hugoniot relation via the perturbation manner. For initial homogeneous axisymmetric turbulence, the amplification of the TKE depends on the initial degree of anisotropy. Furthermore, the increase in energy at high wavenumbers is confirmed by the one-dimensional spectra. The enstrophy is also increased; its increase is more significant than that of the TKE because of the significant increase in enstrophy at high wavenumbers. The vorticity components perpendicular to the shock-induced compressed direction are amplified more than the parallel vorticity component. These results strongly suggest that a high resolution is needed to obtain accurate results for the turbulence–shock-wave interaction. The integral length scales (
) and the Taylor microscales (
) are decreased for most cases after the interaction. However,
are amplified. Here, the subscripts 2 and 3 indicate the perpendicular components relative to the shock-induced compressed direction. The dissipation length and TKE dissipation rate are amplified.
We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription–PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.
Ions that are moved by electric fields in gases follow quite exactly the electric field lines since these ions have substantially lost their kinetic energies in collisions with gas atoms or molecules and so carry no momenta. Shaping the electric fields appropriately the phase space such ion beams occupy can be reduced and correspondingly the ion density of beams be increased.
In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.
A discharge-emission spectrometer and a cavity ringdown spectrometer have been developed to aid in the solution to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) problem. A hollow cathode was used to generate molecular ions in a discharge because it has been suggested that molecular ions are probable DIB candidates. The discharge was produced by a pulsed voltage of 1300–1500 V. A wide wavelength range of optical emission from the discharge was examined by a HORIBA Jobin Yvon iHR320 monochromator. The dispersed discharge emission was detected by a photomultiplier and was recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The 2B3u–X2B2g electronic transition of the butatriene cation H2CCCCH2+ was observed in the discharge emission of 2-butyne H3CCCCH3. The frequency of the electronic transition was measured to be 20381 cm−1, and a comparison study was made with known DIB spectra.
The resolution of the discharge-emission spectrometer is insufficient to make precise comparisons between laboratory frequencies and astronomically observed DIB spectra. We therefore developed the cavity ringdown spectrometer using the same hollow cathode. The high sensitivity of this spectrometer was confirmed by the observation of the forbidden band of O2.
The fabrication of diamond-like carbon (DLC) micro-gear by room temperature curing nanoimprint lithography (RTC-NIL) using glass-like carbon (GC) molds as applications to the DLC-based medical MEMS (Micro Electronic Mechanical Systems) was investigated. The DLC film which has excellent properties similar to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond films was used as the patterning material. We propose GC as mold material because GC has higher etching selectivity than a diamond film. The etching selectivity of polysiloxane film against a GC substrate is about 5 times as high as that of a diamond film. Therefore we fabricated the GC molds that have micro-gear patterns with 30 µm-tip diameter and 500 nm-tooth thickness. We carried out the RTC-NIL process using the GC micro-gear molds under the following optimum conditions. 1 min-time from spin-coating to imprint: t1, 0.5 MPa-imprinting pressure: P and 5 min-holding time: t2, and then the imprinted polysiloxane pattern on DLC film was processed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) oxygen ion shower. However, we were not able to fabricate micro-gear patterns in high accuracy because of a remaining residual layer on the DLC film. Therefore we propose the removing process for the residual layer with trifluoromethane (CHF3) ion shower under the optimum conditions of 300 eV-ion energy and 4 min-etching time. As a result, we succeeded to fabricate concave DLC-based micro-gear patterns in high accuracy which has 30 µm-tip diameter and 1 µm-depth.
We study sub-critical fracture driven by thermally activated crack nucleation in the framework of a fiber bundle model. Based on analytic calculations and computer simulations we show that in the presence of stress inhomogeneities, thermally activated cracking results in an anomalous size effect, i.e. the average lifetime of the system decreases as a power law of the system size, where the exponent depends on the external load and on the temperature. We propose a modified form of the Arrhenius law which provides a comprehensive description of the load, temperature, and size dependence of the lifetime of the system. On the micro-level, thermal fluctuations trigger bursts of breaking events which form a stochastic time series as the system evolves towards failure. Numerical and analytical calculations revealed that both the size of bursts and the waiting times between consecutive events have power law distributions, however, the exponents depend on the load and temperature. Analyzing the structural entropy and the location of consecutive bursts we show that in the presence of stress concentration the acceleration of the rupture process close to failure is the consequence of damage localization.
Epitaxial magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films prepared on Si(0 0 1) substrates revealed the contraction of its lattice constants along both out-of-plane and in-plane directions. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) verified the epitaxial growth with the relation of MgO(1 0 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [cubic on cubic growth] with large lattice misfit of ~22% instead of the relation of MgO(1 1 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [45° rotation growth] with lattice mismatch of ~9%. Although the domain epitaxy explaining the cubic on cubic growth is preferred in terms of crystallography, structural stability is not considered in the concept of the domain epitaxy. In order to explain the contraction of lattice constant from point of view of structural stability, ab initio method was used to evaluate all-electron total energy, and optimal lattice constant was estimated with point defects in the MgO structure.
In order to decrease the use of cobalt element as in LiCoO2,which is mainly used for cathode materials in lithium ion secondary batteries, a newly pseudo-quintenary layered-type Fe-doped Li-Ni-Co-Ti oxides library was created using the combinatorial technology "M-ist Combi system" based on the electrostatic spray deposition method.
The starting materials used were LiNO3, Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, Co(NO3)2·6H2O, Fe(NO3)3·9H2O and TiO2 nano-slurry. These materials were dissolved or dispersed in a mixture of ethanol and butyl carbitol and mixed in a predefined ratio, respectively. Subsequently, each of the mixtures was sprayed and dried on a grounded reaction plate that was heated to 400˚C. The deposited powder was sintered at 700˚C for 5 hours in air atmosphere. Phase identification of the obtained powder library was evaluated by a combinatorial powder x-ray diffractometer. A reaction phase diagram was established from the structure information and chemical composition by ICP-AES measurement.
From all results, single-phase layered-type compounds showed the composition region that included many Co and Ni elements. On the other hand, single phase spinel-type compounds existed in the Ti-rich composition region.
Layered-type LiNi0.4Co0.6-xTixO2 (0≤x≤0.2) were prepared by conventional electrostatic spray deposition method for studying the correlation of crystal structure and electrode property. Starting materials used were LiNO3, Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, Co(NO3)2·6H2O and TiO2 nano-slurry. These materials were dissolved or dispersed in a mixture of ethanol and butyl carbitol and mixed by predefined ratio, respectively. Then, each of mixtures was sprayed and dried on the grounded reaction plate which was heated at 400 °C. Deposited powder was sintered at 700˚C for 10 hours in air atmosphere. Library of LiNi0.4Co0.6-xTixO2 (0≤x≤0.2) was indexed R-3m by powder X-ray diffraction patterns and its chemical compositions from ICP emission spectroscopy method corresponded to the initial composition conditions. From the diffracted intensity ratio of I(003)/I(104) and the structure refinement by Rietveld method, it was found that the proportion of cation mixing effect increased with increasing amount of Ti among of transition metals. And, from the observation by scanning electron microscope and the calculation by Scherrer’s method, the crystallite size decreased with increasing amount of Ti element. From the charge-discharge property of LiNi0.4Co0.6-xTixO2 (0≤x≤0.2) library, LiNi0.4Co0.5Ti0.1O2 showed better cycle behavior among the library.
A case of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in a domestic cat is described from Saint Petersburg, Russia. Ultrasonography showed numerous cysts with hyperechoic walls and anechoic contents within the cat's abdominal cavity. Molecular identification based on mitochondrial DNA genes indicated that the causative agent was Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 strain). This is the first report of CE in a cat caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto with molecular confirmation.