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Underwater endoscopic ear surgery does not require suction and so protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration that may damage its function in the treatment of labyrinthine fistula. A method of underwater endoscopic ear surgery is proposed for the treatment of superior canal dehiscence.
Underwater endoscopic ear surgery was performed for plugging of the superior semicircular canal through the transmastoid approach. Saline solution was infused into the mastoid cavity through an Endo-Scrub Lens Cleaning Sheath. The tip of the inserted endoscope was filled completely with saline water.
Using this underwater endoscopic view, the canal was clearly dissected to expose the semicircular canal membranous labyrinth and dehiscence area. No particular complication occurred during the surgical procedure.
The underwater endoscopic ear surgery technique for plugging in superior canal dehiscence secures an excellent visual field and protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration.
Infratemporal fossa abscess following odontogenic infection is not rare, and usually occurs as a sequela of dental disease. Infratemporal fossa abscess was previously treated with the combination of buccal incision and temporal incision, or via a transoral approach.
This paper reports a case of infratemporal fossa abscess in a 51-year-old female.
The abscess was drained transnasally via an endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy approach, preserving the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. The pain remitted the next day and trismus had diminished in one week.
The transnasal approach with endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy is a direct, minimally invasive method that provides a direct field of view for drainage of infratemporal fossa abscess. This approach is recommended for infratemporal fossa abscess.
An intraoral approach combined with tonsillectomy has been used to access the parapharyngeal space. However, the utility of this technique for parapharyngeal abscesses in paediatric patients has not been investigated. This paper describes an intraoral drainage technique combined with tonsillectomy for treating children with a parapharyngeal abscess that obviates the need for skin incision.
Clinical case records are presented, along with a description of the surgical procedure accompanied by a video clip.
Both cases encountered involved paediatric parapharyngeal space abscesses that extended to the skull base. The patients underwent an intraoral approach combined with tonsillectomy performed under surgical microscopy; this resulted in a good post-operative course without complications.
To our knowledge, no previous reports have addressed the use of surgical microscopy to help access the parapharyngeal space. The procedure described herein, performed under surgical microscopy, was specifically helpful in enabling access to these challenging spaces; it also meant that surgical procedures could be recorded clearly and findings shared with other medical staff.
This paper solves the known problem of elimination of unnecessary internal element construction as well as variable elimination in XML processing with (a subset of) XQuery without ignoring the issues of document order. The semantics of XQuery is context sensitive and requires preservation of document order. In this paper, we propose, as far as we are aware, the first XQuery fusion that can deal with both the document order and the context of XQuery expressions. More specifically, we carefully design a context representation of XQuery expressions based on the Dewey order encoding, develop a context-preserving XQuery fusion for ordered trees by static emulation of the XML store, and prove that our fusion is correct. Our XQuery fusion has been implemented, and all the examples in this paper have passed through the system.
To describe a case of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone which extended into the middle-ear cavity, and which was successfully treated surgically via a transmastoid approach, with hearing preservation.
A 37-year-old man presented with a one-year history of right-sided hearing loss, complicated by a three-month history of otalgia and a sensation of aural fullness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an osteolytic tumour lesion in the right temporal bone. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy from the mastoid lesion.
Investigation and intervention:
Pure-tone audiometry, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted, followed by total resection.
The giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone was completely resected, with preservation of hearing.
Although this patient's giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone extended into the middle-ear cavity, total resection was achieved, with preservation of hearing. To the best of our knowledge, hearing preservation following resection of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone has not previously been reported.
Buried quantum well structures have been fabricated in GaAs/AIGaAs system using an in situ lithography process. The process utilizes an ultrathin oxide layer formed in situ on a GaAs surface as a mask against Cl2 gas etching. An electron beam (EB)-induced Cl2 gas etching is used to locally remove the oxide mask for positive-type lithography. For negativetype lithography, the oxide mask is selectively formed on a GaAs surface by EB-stimulated oxidation. Subsequent Cl2 gas etching results in the formation of isolated quantum wells. After removing the oxide mask, overgrowth using molecular beam epitaxy is successfully carried out on the patterned surface. The cathodoluminescence image of the buried quantum well demonstrates the high quality of the resulting structure formed by this “in situ EB lithography” process. The photoluminescence intensity from the quantum well of the processed sample is proved to be the same order of magnitude compared with that from a successively grown sample, showing that the use of the oxide mask causes no serious degradation in the processed interface.
In-situ patterning of AlxGa1-xAs (0≦x≦0.7) using a electron-beam (EB) and chlorine gas (Cl2) and the application to “In-Situ EB Lithography” are investigated. In this patterning method, an ultra-thin GaAs oxide is utilized as a resist film. The oxide resist prevents C12 gas etching of the underlying material and can be also patterned by an EB irradiation under a C12 pressure, which brings about selective etching of GaAs/AlGaAs layers. Etch rates of AlxGa1-xAs (0<x≦0.7) are 20-30 nm/min, which is almost equal to that of GaAs (20 nm/min). Using this technique of EB-induced patterning, a novel concept “In-Situ EB Lithography” is proposed, where the whole processes for EB lithography are successively conducted in a ultra-high vacuum multi-chamber system. An overgrown layer on a GaAs surface patterned by this “In-Situ EB Lithography” shows a good morphology.
90nm-thick PZT capacitors using Pt/thinSRO stacked electrodes showed 2V operation capability, no remanence degradation after more than 1E10 switching cycles, and low imprint. Effects of SRO(SrRuO3) electrode have been studied for high-endurance PZT capacitors. In capacitors with only top SRO electrodes, the SRO increased polarization and improved saturation property compared to Pt electrode PZTs. Fatigue and imprint degradation was caused by Pt bottom electrode interface deterioration. It is thought that the oxygen vacancies created with Pb vacancies are important respecting endurance and retention. PZT films crystallized on SRO showed smaller coercive voltage Vc (2/3 of that for PZT/Pt) with random orientation. The SRO layers block Pb diffusion and supply oxygen, thereby resulting in less oxygen vacancy accumulation at PZT interfaces. We have improved the imprint property by the reduction of thermal budget in SRO/PZT/SRO structures.
We have discovered a novel chemisorption method using octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODMS), titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), water, and toluene  to form highly-ordered self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of ODMS. The SAMs were formed rapidly from the active solution even when it was kept for three months. The solution and layers were characterized by several methods. We propose a mechanism for the rapid formation of the ODMS-SAM.
The depth profiles of the constituent in iron oxide scales were investigated by X-ray diffraction measurement with controlling X-ray penetration depth at SPring-8. We successfully observed the interface region of scales non-destructively using X-ray with energy of 28 keV. The results indicated that the volume fraction ratio of Fe3O4 to FeO around the surface of samples increased by isothermal heat treatment. This suggested that the transformation of FeO to Fe3O4 due to isothermal heat treatment proceeds from surface into the inside of scale.
A patient (64-year-old, male) with familial cholinesterasemia caused
BChE deficiency was
studied. DNA sequence analysis of all exons identified a point mutation,
an A→G transition at codon
128, resulting in a Tyr→Cys substitution. The propositus showed extremely
low BChE activity, but
his other family members (three individuals) showed from intermediate to
normal BChE activity. An
immunological method revealed the absence of BChE protein in serum of the
propositus. Both PCR
primer introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA) and sequence analysis
revealed all three family members to be heterozygotes for this mutation.
One type of interplexiform cell (IPC) in the dace retina was discriminated physiologically from other cell classes and identified morphologically with HRP staining. This type responded with slow hyperpolarizing potentials to white diffuse light, and in addition a slow hyperpolarization (after potential) was observed after the cessation of light with relatively high intensities. The latency of the ON phase of the response was always longer than that of the second-order neurons and the amacrine cells. Morphologically, this type of IPC was similar in appearance with the dopaminergic IPC. The conventional synaptic specialization between this type of IPC and horizontal cells was observed, and the IPC was presynaptic.
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