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We present results from a multiwavelength study of the blazar PKS 1954–388 at radio, UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray energies. A RadioAstron observation at 1.66 GHz in June 2012 resulted in the detection of interferometric fringes on baselines of 6.2 Earth-diameters. This suggests a source frame brightness temperature of greater than 2 × 1012 K, well in excess of both equipartition and inverse Compton limits and implying the existence of Doppler boosting in the core. An 8.4-GHz TANAMI VLBI image, made less than a month after the RadioAstron observations, is consistent with a previously reported superluminal motion for a jet component. Flux density monitoring with the Australia Telescope Compact Array confirms previous evidence for long-term variability that increases with observing frequency. A search for more rapid variability revealed no evidence for significant day-scale flux density variation. The ATCA light-curve reveals a strong radio flare beginning in late 2013, which peaks higher, and earlier, at higher frequencies. Comparison with the Fermi gamma-ray light-curve indicates this followed ~ 9 months after the start of a prolonged gamma-ray high-state—a radio lag comparable to that seen in other blazars. The multiwavelength data are combined to derive a Spectral Energy Distribution, which is fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model with the addition of external Compton (EC) emission.
EURO-GANEX aims to recycle both major and minor actinides. As the final waste
composition is free from actinides, adapted immobilization matrices should be
developed. Synroc is a potential wasteform that has proven itself to be
efficient in immobilizing high-level wastes (HLW). In this study, a new
composition of Synroc, Synroc-Z, is designed and characterized. The key
modification is in decreasing the amount of zirconolite phase, which is the main
host phase for actinides and increasing the amount of other phases (hollandite
and perovskite). As designed the obtained amount of zirconolite is lower than in
Synroc-C compositions. Synroc-Z samples were synthesized with a waste loading of
20 wt.% at various temperatures and pressures via hot-pressing to determine the
optimum process parameters, which were determined to be 1150-1200°C and
20 MPa, respectively.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
PKS 1830-211 is a strong, flat-spectrum compact double source with a component spacing of 1 arcsecond. Observations of PKS 1830-211 were made with the Japanese domestic VLBI network at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz bands in sessions between December 1991 and November 1994. The Usuda 64 m (ISAS) and Kashima 34 m (CRL) telescopes were used for all observations, and were used in conjunction with the Mizusawa 10 m (NAO) for observations in 1994. In addition, the total flux was measured with the Usuda 64 m at both bands. Data was recorded using K3 and K4 formatters and recorders, and correlated with NAOCO (the New Advanced One-unit COrrelator of the National Astronomical Observatory).
The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) is the first dedicated Space-VLBI mission. We report here on the planning for a second generation mission which builds on and extends the successful collaborations established for the VSOP mission, and which aims to improve both resolution and sensitivity by a factor of ∼10.
The VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) combines an orbiting radiotelescope with arrays of ground radio telescopes to extend the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique to baselines up to almost three Earth diameters. In this paper, we present results from VSOP observations of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at 1.6 and 5 GHz from the first 3.5 years of the mission.
In this paper the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy program at the University of Adelaide is described. VHE gamma rays with energies above ~5 × 1011eV are observed using the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Results from the first three years observations at Woomera and the current upgrading of the telecope are described. The CANGAROO project, a collaboration between the University of Adelaide and a number of Japanese institutions, is also introduced.
The CANGAROO project incorporates two Čerenkov imaging telescopes at Woomera to obtain stereo images of very high-energy gamma-ray (and cosmic-ray) showers. The first stereo observations, with one imaging system, were made in March 1992, and preliminary stereo imaging observations began in July 1992. This paper describes the stereo imaging technique, the sources under investigation, and the indications from the first data sets.
This is the last triennial report of Commission 42 for this millennium. A great deal has been accomplished in the study of Close Binary Stars (CBS) since the discovery of the first close (eclipsing) binary, Algol, in 1783 by John Goodricke. Now, over 10,000 CBS (most eclipsing variables) are known. More than 5000 of these CBS were discovered over the last several years alone! And many more are expected to be detected over the next few years. Most of these stars were found as spin-offs of microlensing surveys. Interestingly, nearly half of these stars are found outside our Galaxy, primarily in the Magellanic Clouds and M31. Every type of star is represented as a member of a close binary. These include main sequence (as well as pre-main sequence) stars, giants, and supergiants, with the entire possible range of of spectral types and masses represented. Moreover, “dying” stars and “dead” stars, such as white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and, more recently, even brown dwarfs and giant planets (e.g., 51 Peg) have been found as members of close binary systems.
The Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a GAmma Ray Observatory in the Outback operates two large telescopes at Woomera (South Australia), which detect the Čerenkov light images produced in the atmosphere by electronpositron cascades initiated by very high energy (~1 TeV or 1012 eV) gamma rays. These gamma rays arise from a different mechanism than at EGRET energies: inverse Compton (IC) emission from relativistic electrons.
The spoke-like images are recorded by a multi-pixel camera which facilitates the rejection of the large numbers of oblique and ragged cosmic ray images. A field of view ~3.5° is required. The Australian team operates a triple 4 m diameter mirror telescope, BIGRAT, with a 37 photomultiplier tube camera and energy threshold 600 GeV. The Japanese operate a single, highly accurate 3.8 m diameter f/1 telescope and high resolution 256 photomultipler tube camera. In 1998 a new 7 m telescope is planned for Woomera with a design threshold ~;200GeV.
We describe the expected distribution of intensity for a scintillating source of finite size observed through a scattering medium, including systematic and instrumental effects. We describe measurements of the size of the Vela pulsar, using this technique.
The aim of this paper is to present an efficient tool for evaluating the economy part of the sustainability of pig farming systems. The selected tool IDEA was tested on a sample of farms from 15 contrasted systems in Europe. A statistical analysis was carried out to check the capacity of the indicators to illustrate the variability of the population and to analyze which of these indicators contributed the most towards it. The scores obtained for the farms were consistent with the reality of pig production; the variable distribution showed an important variability of the sample. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis separated the sample into five subgroups, in which the six main indicators significantly differed, which underlines the robustness of the tool. The IDEA method was proven to be easily comprehensible, requiring few initial variables and with an efficient benchmarking system; all six indicators contributed to fully describe a varied and contrasted population.
The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding Programmes (BP), Environment (EN), Meat Safety (MS), Market Conformity (MC), Economy (EC) and Working Conditions (WC). A total of 37 primary indicators were identified and used for the evaluation of 15 much contrasted pig farming systems in five EU countries. The results show that the eight themes were not redundant and all contributed to the observed variation between systems. The tool was very robust for highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the systems along the eight themes that were considered. The number of primary indicators could be reduced from 37 to 18 with limited impact on the strengths/weaknesses profile of the individual systems. Integrating the eight theme evaluations into a single sustainability score is based on hypotheses or presumptions on the relative weights that should be given to the eight themes, which are very dependent on the context and on the purpose of the users of the tool. Therefore, the present paper does not have the ambition to provide a ready-for-use tool, rather to suggest an approach for the integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems.
Although a few studies consider the sustainability of animal farming systems along the three classical main pillars (economy, environment and society), most studies on pig farming systems address only one of these pillars. The present paper is the introduction to a series of companion papers presenting the results of a study undertaken within the EU-supported project Q-PorkChains, aiming at building a comprehensive tool for the evaluation of pig farming systems, which is robust to accommodate the large variability of systems existing in Europe. The tool is mostly based on questions to farmers and comprises a total of 37 dimensions distributed along eight themes: Animal Welfare, Animal Health, Breeding Programmes, Environmental Sustainability, Meat Safety, Market Conformity, Economy and Working Conditions. The paper describes the procedure that was used for building the tool, using it on 15 contrasted pig farming systems and analysing the results. The evaluated systems are briefly described and a short overview of the dimensions is provided. Detailed descriptions of the theme-wise tools and results, as well as the results of an integrated evaluation, are available in the companion papers.
Cold debris disks have the potential to answer many outstanding questions in wide-orbit planet formation and evolution. We characterized the infrared excess SEDs of 174 cold debris disks with Spitzer IRS and MIPS. We found a trend between the temperature of the disks and the stellar type of the stars they orbit. This argues against the importance of strictly temperature-dependent processes (e.g. ice lines) in setting the dimensions of cold debris disks. We also found no evidence that delayed stirring causes the trend. The trend may result from outward planet migration that traces the extent of the primordial protoplanetary disk, or from planet formation that halts at an orbital radius limited by the efficiency of core accretion. For the full details of this work, see Ballering et al. (2013).