To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Recent studies suggest that depression is associated with somatic pain. Despite growing research interest in the topic, the effects of depression-related somatic pain remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate the relationships between depression-related somatic pain, treatment satisfaction, and functions of daily living, and to compare them with the relationships between these factors and mental health measures.
We administered an Internet-based survey to 663 patients with depression in Japan, including questions about pain symptoms, mental health, functions of daily living, and dissatisfaction with depression treatment. The SF-8 questionnaire was used to assess functions of daily living. We conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between depression-related somatic pain, functions of daily living and treatment satisfaction, and between mental health measures, somatic pain and functions of daily living.
An increase per unit in the number of pain symptoms was associated with a 1.04-unit decrease in physical functioning score (P < 0.001), a 0.67-unit decrease in the role functioning-physical score (P < 0.001), and a 0.53-unit decrease in role functioning-emotional score (P = 0.0010). Meanwhile, we found no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and patients’ satisfaction with treatment, and no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and social functioning.
These results suggest that even when patients report satisfaction with their treatment, they may be suffering from reduced physical functioning and role functioning. These impairments may escape clinical recognition when clinicians or patients fail to discuss pain symptoms.
There is increasing recognition that pain often coexists with depression. the current survey was undertaken to ascertain patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of pain as a physical symptom associated with depression.
Web-based surveys were undertaken for patients with depression, and for physicians treating patients with depression (psychiatrists, psychosomatic physicians, general internists).
848 patients aged 20–59 years entered the main survey, of whom 663 returned the completed survey (78.2%). of the respondents, 424 (64.0%) experienced at least one painful symptom, with almost three-quarters (72.1%) reporting that the pain affected mental symptoms and 68.6% indicating that it prevented recovery from depression itself. Among 337 patients who discussed their painful symptoms with their physician, 52.5% initiated the discussion.
456 physicians completed the physician survey. When asked about the influence of pain associated with depression, 61.7% of physicians indicated that they ask their patients about pain during a consultation, and 79.9% considered that painful symptoms might disturb the patients’ daily life and 52.8% felt that they would delay recovery from depression.
The survey provides further evidence of the association between depression and pain, highlighting the fact that pain is prevalent in this patient population. Increased patient and physician awareness of pain in association with depression and improved doctor-patient communication, enabling patients to discuss painful symptoms with their physicians, and vice-versa, should lead to better overall management and treatment strategies.
Risperidone is a common psychopharmacological treatment for irritability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not well-established how effective risperidone is across the initial symptom severity range. This study aims to examine the influence of baseline severity on the efficacy of risperidone in the treatment of ASD.
Participants were from the NIMH funded RUPP multisite, randomized, double-blind trial that compared risperidone to placebo to treat autistic disorder with severe tantrums, aggression, or self-injury. Participants were aged 5 to 17, and randomly assigned to risperidone (n = 49) or placebo (n = 52). Baseline and change scores were computed with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) parent assessed scales with irritability as the primary outcome, as well as the clinician assessed ABC Irritability subscale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale.
The relationship between baseline severity and change scores for the risperdone and placebo groups was examined with eight competing three-level mixed-effects models for repeated measure models. Significant (P < 0.01) interactions between treatment and baseline severity were observed for parent ABC ratings of irritability and lethargy only. Greater magnitudes of the differences between risperidone and placebo were observed from moderate to very severe baseline severity on irritability and lethargy. Initial severity values over approximately 30 had a strong effect on symptom change [irritability: effect size (ES) = 1.9, number needed to treat (NNT) = 2, lethargy ES = 0.9, NNT = 5].
Parents may expect benefits of risperidone on irritability and lethargy with moderate to severe symptoms of ASD.
A method is developed to adjust a vorticity field to satisfy specified values for a finite number of Casimir invariants. The developed method is tested numerically for a neutral fluid in two dimensions. The adjusted vorticity field is adopted as an initial condition for simulated annealing (SA) of an incompressible, ideal neutral fluid and its magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), where SA enables us to obtain a stationary state of the fluid. Since the Casimir invariants are kept unchanged during the annealing process, the obtained stationary state has the required values of the Casimir invariants specified by our method.
In this study we investigated whether an Internet-based computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program can decrease the risk of DSM-IV-TR major depressive episodes (MDE) during a 12-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of Japanese workers.
Participants were recruited from one company and three departments of another company. Those participants who did not experience MDE in the past month were randomly allocated to intervention or control groups (n = 381 for each). A 6-week, six-lesson iCBT program was provided to the intervention group. While the control group only received the usual preventive mental health service for the first 6 months, the control group was given a chance to undertake the iCBT program after a 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome was a new onset of DSM-IV-TR MDE during the 12-month follow-up, as assessed by means of the web version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), version 3.0 depression section.
The intervention group had a significantly lower incidence of MDE at the 12-month follow-up than the control group (Log-rank χ2 = 7.04, p < 0.01). The hazard ratio for the intervention group was 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.06–0.75), when estimated by the Cox proportional hazard model.
The present study demonstrates that an iCBT program is effective in preventing MDE in the working population. However, it should be noted that MDE was measured by self-report, while the CIDI can measure the episodes more strictly following DSM-IV criteria.
We investigated the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Eu-doped GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The thickness of the active layer was varied to increase the light output power. With increasing the active layer thickness, the light output power monotonically increased. The maximum light output power of 50 μW was obtained for an active layer thickness of 900 nm with an injected current of 20 mA, which is the highest value ever reported. The corresponding external quantum efficiency was 0.12%. The applied voltage for the LED operation also increased with the active layer thickness due to an increase in the resistance of the LED. Therefore, in terms of power efficiency, the optimized active layer thickness was around 600 nm. These results indicate that the optimization of the LED structure would effectively improve the luminescence properties.
A novel tantalum precursor, bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)hydridocarbonyltantalum (Ta(EtCp)2(CO)H EtCp:ethylcyclopentadienyl), for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD) was synthesized. The molecular structure of this precursor was determined by 1H and 13C NMR, IR, ICP-AES and elemental analysis. This precursor is liquid at room temperature, and its vapor pressure and decomposition temperature indicates that this precursor is suitable for CVD and ALD process.
The composition analysis of metal tantalum films deposited by thermal CVD revealed that the concentration of carbon was larger than tantalum. On the other hand, an argon plasma CVD technique reduced the carbon concentration drastically.
Simultaneous consideration of the irradiation time and the cumulative dose is necessary for evaluating the risk of long-term exposure to radiation at low dose. This study intends to examine several numerical relationships between doses and dose rates in biological responses to gamma radiation. Data on inhibition of [3H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation in human osteosarcoma cells were analyzed using the median effective dose (MED) as a measure of the risk. MEDs were calculated using parameters estimated by fitting general logistic curves to the dose-response relationships for each group defined by irradiation time. Both biological responses, the inhibition of [3H] thymidine uptake and micronucleus formation, decreased sharply when the dose rates were less than 0.01 Gy/h. Exponential functions were fitted to the log relationships between MEDs and dose rates. This modified exponential model described well the quantitative effect of dose rates on MEDs, and suggested that risk is extremely low at very low dose rates.
A drastic increase of electrical conductivity was observed in the composite of amorphous phosphate and ion-exchange resins (Nafion) as phosphorus concentration increased. Incorporation of amorphous phosphate into Nafion caused a large increase of conductivity to about 4×10−1S/cm at 23°C. However, the fabricated composite showed very low chemical stability.
A high proton conductivity was also observed in a new inorganic-organic hybrids through incorporating PMA(molibdo-phosphoric acid)/PWA(tungsto-phosphoric acid) as a proton source in amorphous silicophosphate gel structure. Obtained gels were homogeneous and chemically stable. Resulting proton conductivity is very high (up to 5.5×10−3S/cm) compared to those of silicophosphate gels.
The pyroelectric response of a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene was measured as a function of time by applying a laser pulse to give an abrupt increase in temperature. The response curve shows several processes: the thickness extensional mode TEM, the length extensional mode LEM and the heat transfer to the environment. By fitting a theoretical curve for the TEM mode, the pyroelectric primary and secondary effects are separated. The primary effect is found to be small at room temperature. Additional gradual response shows that there exists a surface layer which has smaller polarization than in the bulk.
The temperature dependence of the pyroelectric response curve shows that the primary effect increases with temperature. It dominates the response at just below the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition temperature.
Composites of perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane and gold electrodes bend in response to low-voltage electric stimuli and work as soft actuators like muscles. The composites were prepared by chemical plating. Charge on the electrode induces electric double layer and electro-osmotic drag of water by cation from anode to cathode through narrow channels in the perfluorinated ion-exchange resin. The electro-osmotic flow of water swells the polymer near the cathode rather than anode, and the membrane bends to the anode. The actuator comprises polymer electrolyte, electrodes, counter ion, solvent, lead wires, etc. Each component affects the performance of the actuator. Surface area of electrode and species of counter ion have drastic effect on voltage-displacement response. The response may depend on water channel structure of the polymer electrolyte. Modification of these factors improved the performance and resulted in the deflection over 360 degrees at a film actuator of 10 mm length. A tubular actuator was demonstrated as a multidirectional actuator. These actuators are applicable to artificial muscle, micro robots, or micro medical equipment inside body.
Recently it has been demonstrated that using a high electron energy irradiation, the electromechanical properties of polyvinylidene fluoride - trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers can be improved significantly for example; high electric field induced strain (∼ 4.5%) with high elastic energy density, high dielectric constant (∼ 65 with loss less than at 1kHz), high piezoelectric coefficient (∼ 350 pm/V ) and high electro-mechanical coupling coefficient (∼0.45). It was found, depending on sample processing and electron irradiation conditions these properties can be controlled. In this talk we will present the experimental data on the effect of processing and irradiation conditions on structural and transitional behavior of copolymers. These structural information coupled with the electro-mechanical properties will be presented in order to show the possibilities for further improvement.
In recent years, electroactive polymers (EAP) materials have gained recognition as potential actuators with unique capabilities having the closest performance resemblance to biological muscles. Ion-exchange membrane metallic composites (IPMC) are one of the EAP materials with such a potential. The strong bending that is induced by IPMC offers attractive actuation for the construction of various mechanisms. Examples of applications that were conceived and investigated for planetary tasks include a gripper and wiper. The development of the wiper for dust removal from the window of a miniature rover, planned for launch to an asteroid, is the subject of this reported study. The application of EAP in space conditions is posing great challenge due to the harsh operating conditions that are involved and the critical need for robustness and durability. The various issues that can affect the application of IPMC were examined including operation in vacuum, low temperatures, and the effect of the electromechanical and ionic characteristics of IPMC on its actuation capability. The authors introduced highly efficient IPMC materials, mechanical modeling, unique elements and protective coatings in an effort to enhance the applicability of IPMC as an actuator of a planetary dust-wiper. Results showed that the IPMC technology is not ready yet for practical implementation due to residual deformation that is introduced under DC activation and the difficulty to protect the material ionic content over the needed 3-years durability. Further studies are under way to overcome these obstacles and other EAP materials are also being considered as alternative bending actuators.