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In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the thickness of N radical irradiated InN template with crystallographic quality and electrical properties of InN film grown with the previously proposed method, in situ surface modification by radical beam irradiation. In this study, three InN samples were grown with this method on different thickness of irradiated templates. The crystallographic quality of InN films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the electrical properties were studied by Hall effect measurement. InN grown on 100 nm thick irradiated template shows lower full-width at half-maximum of X-ray rocking curves and lower carrier concentration compared to InN grown on 200 nm and 450 nm thick irradiated templates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation density in the InN film decreased by an order of magnitude to ∼4.6×109cm-2. These results suggest that this method is possible for reduction of threading dislocation density in InN and the thickness of irradiated template should be minimized for higher crystallographic quality and electrical properties of the entire InN film.
Recent studies suggest that depression is associated with somatic pain. Despite growing research interest in the topic, the effects of depression-related somatic pain remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate the relationships between depression-related somatic pain, treatment satisfaction, and functions of daily living, and to compare them with the relationships between these factors and mental health measures.
We administered an Internet-based survey to 663 patients with depression in Japan, including questions about pain symptoms, mental health, functions of daily living, and dissatisfaction with depression treatment. The SF-8 questionnaire was used to assess functions of daily living. We conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between depression-related somatic pain, functions of daily living and treatment satisfaction, and between mental health measures, somatic pain and functions of daily living.
An increase per unit in the number of pain symptoms was associated with a 1.04-unit decrease in physical functioning score (P < 0.001), a 0.67-unit decrease in the role functioning-physical score (P < 0.001), and a 0.53-unit decrease in role functioning-emotional score (P = 0.0010). Meanwhile, we found no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and patients’ satisfaction with treatment, and no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and social functioning.
These results suggest that even when patients report satisfaction with their treatment, they may be suffering from reduced physical functioning and role functioning. These impairments may escape clinical recognition when clinicians or patients fail to discuss pain symptoms.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Epitaxial Fe-Te-Se thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition at 250 ~ 600 °C on SrTiO3 (100, STO), MgO (100), LaAlO3 (100, LAO) and CaF2 (100) single crystal substrates. Best superconducting film was grown on CaF2: Tconset = 20.0 K and Tc0 = 16.18 K with Tdep = 300 °C, 45000 pulses, 3 Hz. The critical current density Jc at 4.2 K was 0.41×106A/cm2 at 0 T and 0.23×106 A/cm2 at 9 T. Angular dependence of Jc showed broad c-axis correlated peak when B ≥ 3 T.
Changes in critical current properties depending on growth temperature (Ts) were clarified for Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) films deposited by YAG- and excimer-PLD. Due to the introduction of Ba-Nb-O-nanorods, a vortex-Bose-glass-like behavior emerged as irreversibility lines and in-field critical current densities (Jcs) were improved. Crossover magnetic fields (Bcr) and in-field Jcs increased with the increase in Ts for the Y123 films with nanorods. These Ts-dependent critical current properties were attributable to the changes in morphology of the nanorods with Ts and were independent of laser source in PLD apparatuses. For the fabrication of RE123 coated conductors containing nanorods, optimization of Ts with taking both materials of RE123 matrix and nanorod into account is necessary to achieve higher in-field Jc.
There is increasing recognition that pain often coexists with depression. the current survey was undertaken to ascertain patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of pain as a physical symptom associated with depression.
Web-based surveys were undertaken for patients with depression, and for physicians treating patients with depression (psychiatrists, psychosomatic physicians, general internists).
848 patients aged 20–59 years entered the main survey, of whom 663 returned the completed survey (78.2%). of the respondents, 424 (64.0%) experienced at least one painful symptom, with almost three-quarters (72.1%) reporting that the pain affected mental symptoms and 68.6% indicating that it prevented recovery from depression itself. Among 337 patients who discussed their painful symptoms with their physician, 52.5% initiated the discussion.
456 physicians completed the physician survey. When asked about the influence of pain associated with depression, 61.7% of physicians indicated that they ask their patients about pain during a consultation, and 79.9% considered that painful symptoms might disturb the patients’ daily life and 52.8% felt that they would delay recovery from depression.
The survey provides further evidence of the association between depression and pain, highlighting the fact that pain is prevalent in this patient population. Increased patient and physician awareness of pain in association with depression and improved doctor-patient communication, enabling patients to discuss painful symptoms with their physicians, and vice-versa, should lead to better overall management and treatment strategies.
Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers were fabricated with an association of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by electrospinning. A mixture of P3HT/PVP in a mixed solvent of chlorobenzene and methanol was electrospun to form composite fibers with 60 nm - 2 μm in diameter, followed by getting rid of PVP by selective extraction. After extraction, pure P3HT nanofibers were obtained as a spindle-like structure with wrinkled surface. The nanofibers obtained exhibit specific features of strong interchain contribution as investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron investigations. Bulk heterojunction P3HT:PCBM nanofibers with ~200 nm in diameters were also successfully fabricated by using the same technique. The preliminary results from the study of P3HT:PCBM nanofiber-based photovoltaic cells with conversion efficiency over 0.2% could be achieved.
A direct calorimetry method was developed and used to measure the electrocaloric effect (ECE). A temperature change ΔT of over 20 °C and an entropy change ΔS of over 95 J/(kgK) were procured at 33 °C and 160 MV/m in the high-energy electron irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) 68/32 mol% copolymers, which were larger than those of terpolymer blends (ΔT = 9 °C, ΔS=46 J/(kgK) at 180 MV/m and room temperature) and our earlier report on P(VDF-TrFE) 55/45 mol% normal ferroelectric copolymer (12 °C and 55 J/(kgK) at 80 °C). We observed that the β value ((8.7±0.6)×107 JmC-2K-1) in the equation of ΔS=1/2βΔD2 derived from ΔS - ΔD2 relation for irradiated copolymers was larger than that of the terpolymer blends ((5.4±0.5)×107 JmC-2K-1). It was also found that the irradiated copolymer showed a sharp depolarization peak at Td < Tm (maximum permittivity temperature), which is frequency independent, in the dielectric constant - temperature characteristics, a larger depolarization value at Td in the thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) - temperature relationship, and a larger volume strain/longitudinal strain ratio over terpolymer blends. The giant ECE in irradiated copolymer is regarded as due to the greater randomness present in the relaxor state. In irradiated copolymers, the long all-trans chains are broken by the high-energy electrons, which make the small sized all-trans sequences more easily reorient along the electric field, more remarkably affecting the permittivity, TSDC, and volume strain.
In order to measure precisely the polarization of Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1, we have been developing a hard X-ray polarimeter for balloon-borne experiments called PHENEX (Polarimetry of High ENErgy X-rays). It consists of several detectors called unit counters. The unit counter has a detection efficiency of 20% and a modulation factor of 53% at 80 keV. Up to now, we have finished the installation of eight unit counters to the polarimeter, that will be launched in Spring 2009 to observe the Crab Nebula. If the polarization of this source is more than 30%, the PHENEX polarimeter will be able to measure the degree and the direction of the polarization with errors less than 10% and 10°, respectively.
X-ray astronomy has been much advanced by three observations: spectroscopy, timing, and imaging. Also in the hard X-ray region, these three observations will be realized by ASTRO-H and XEUS. However, the observation of the polarization is at the moment left out in spite of its potential usefulness. This is because of the difficulty of developing polarimeters with high sensitivity. Since the origin of the polarization is often due to nonthermal radiation processes such as synchrotron radiation, observations in the hard X-ray region are possibly more important than those in the soft X-ray region: it is expected that the degree of polarization in the hard X-ray region would be higher than that at lower energies.
Following an outbreak of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium in 2005 in Kyoto prefecture, regional surveillance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was initiated. This revealed vanA- or vanB-positive Enterococcus gallinarum in multiple facilities. Eighty-eight vanA-positive E. gallinarum faecal carriers from 12 facilities and ten vanB-positive E. gallinarum faecal carriers from eight facilities were found. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the first isolate from each facility showed that 11 of the 12 vanA isolates and three of the eight vanB-positive E. gallinarum isolates belonged to a single clone. This study confirms the clonal spread of vanA- or vanB-positive E. gallinarum in a region and underlines the importance of surveillance of VRE for the presence of vancomycin resistance determinants.
We performed family psychoeducation for depression, and investigated the association between the education and expressed emotion of patients’ families and relapse of depression.
Of 103 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and their primary family members, 53 patients and their primary family members gave consent. The patients were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group, consisting of 24 and 30 patients, respectively. The intervention group underwent 4 educational sessions and education in coping techniques. The relapse rate was compared between the intervention and control groups. In addition, the subjects were divided into high- and low-EE groups based on the EE judgment, and the effect of psychoeducation was compared in each group.
The relapse rate during a 9-month period was 8.3% in the intervention group, being significantly lower than that (50%) in the control group. The relapse rate in the intervention group was slightly lower than that in the control group in the high-EE group, and significantly lower in the low-EE group. Regarding the influence of EE, in the control group, the relapse rate was 70% in the high-EE group, being significantly higher than that (40%) in the low-EE group. On multiple logistic regression analysis, psychoeducation (odds ratio: 25.53, 95% CI: 2.83-229.92) and the Hamilton score at the time of entry (odds ratio: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.045-1.298) were significantly associated with relapse.
It was suggested that the psychoeducation of families is very effective for the prevention of relapse in adult depressive patients.
An overview on current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation is given. This report is based on the results of the “Second International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation” held in Potsdam/Germany in September 2007. The properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering are presented for the compensation of phase distortions in combination with novel laser technology like ceramics materials but also for e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, and slow light. Photorefractive nonlinear mirrors and resonant refractive index gratings are addressed as phase conjugating mirrors in addition.
Field rodent surveys for Babesia infection were performed from 2002 to 2005 in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and mainland China. Babesia microti was identified by microscopical examination and/or PCR in 1 Rattus coxinga and 1 Crocidura horsfieldii in central Taiwan and in 13 Niviventer confucianus and 1 Apodemus agrarius in Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of southeastern China. Of 15 B. microti samples detected by PCR, all except 1 were shown to be the Kobe-type, the aetiological small subunit rRNA gene-type of the first Japanese patient; the exception was also a Kobe-related type. The Kobe-type had been found in rodents only in a few places including the human infection occurrence place in Japan. The internal transcribed spacer 1 to 2 sequences of the Taiwanese and Chinese Kobe-types were very similar to each other but considerably different (approx. 94% pairwise identities) from that of the Japanese Kobe-type. A Taiwanese Kobe-type strain was serologically differentiated from the Kobe strain originating from the Japanese first patient. The distribution of the Kobe-type in the vicinities of human babesiosis occurrences in Taiwan and China as well as in Japan is suggestive of involvement of the Kobe-type in Asian human babesiosis.
We fabricated a laser diode (LD) exhibiting a lasing from strained GaInAs quantum wells (QWs) embedded in Er,O-codoped GaAs (GaAs:Er,O) by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The lasing wavelength was designed to tune to the energy separation between the second excited states 4I11/2 and the ground state 4I15/2 of Er3+ ions. The threshold current for the lasing at room temperature was six times larger than that of a GaInAs QW-LD without Er doping, reflecting ultrafast carrier capture by an Er-related trap in GaAs:Er,O. The Er intensity revealed initially steep increase with injected current density in the region for spontaneous emission from the GaInAs QWs. In the stimulated QW emission region, the intensity continued to increase with the current density.
Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) thin films were prepared by using drop casting under high gravity condition and p- and n-type PPV based field effect transistors (FET) have been fabricated. PPV FETs with gold source-drain electrodes showed the p-channel FET conduction. The FET characteristics of PPV were improved by annealing and the field-effect hole mobility was 8.8×10−4cm2V−1s−1. On the other hand, PPV FET with calcium source-drain electrodes showed the n-channel FET conduction and the field-effect electron mobility was 1.0×10−6cm2V−1s−1.
High reproducible electrical bistability was observed and we deliberated its working mechanism through measurements of dynamic dielectric response in single organic layer sandwiched structure using top Ag electrode. The electrical transition between high-impedance state (OFF state) and low-impedance state (ON state) happened by the change of applied voltage patterns. Distinction between the OFF state and the ON state was not induced by change of static charge accumulation but reflected the difference of the response of mobile electric careers in the organic film. We proposed plausible working mechanism of transition from the pristine state to the bistable state. Namely, the electrical bistable state of our device is generated by penetration of Ag nanoparticles and creation of charge pathways across the organic film.
Background and objective: Continuous spinal analgesia (CSA) offers considerable pain relief, and has been used in various procedures such as for surgery and cancer pain control. In Japan, portable and disposable infusion kits are increasingly employed for continuous epidural analgesia and CSA. In CSA, the use of a microcatheter is expected to reduce the incidence of spinal headache previously encountered with larger catheters. However, the flow rate of disposable infusion kits is reduced when used in conjunction with a microcatheter.
Methods: This study aimed to investigate the influence of catheter length on the flow rate of two different devices: 20- or 91-cm 28-G microcatheters connected to balloon- or syringe-type infusion pumps were examined (50 mL, 1 mL h−1). There were four groups each of 10 experiments: Group A: balloon-type infuser, 91 cm catheter; Group B: balloon-type infuser, 20 cm catheter; Group C: syringe-type infuser, 91 cm catheter; Group D: syringe-type infuser, 20 cm catheter.
Results: The mean flow rate in Group A was significantly less than that in Group B and the mean flow rate in Group C was significantly less than Group D (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: These results indicated that the use of a shorter microcatheter achieves a better flow rate during CSA.