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Developing alternatives to antibiotics is an urgent need in livestock production. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as powerful antibiotic substitutes (ASs) because AMPs have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and growth-promoting ability. Here, we aimed to comprehensively assess the effects of AMPs on the growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal morphology and immunity of healthy or challenged piglets, compared with an antibiotics group or negative control group. We performed a set of meta-analyses of feeding trials from database inception to 27 May 2019. Among the 1379 identified studies, 20 were included in our meta-analyses (56 arms and 4067 piglets). The meta-analyses revealed that (1) compared with the negative control group, AMPs significantly improved the healthy piglets’ average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), gain : feed ratio (G/F), levels of immune globulin (Ig) IgM and IgG, and intestinal villus height : crypt depth ratio (V/C) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, AMPs significantly increased the challenged piglets’ ADG, ADFI, G/F and V/C of the jejunum and ileum, and notably deceased the diarrhea rate (P < 0.05); (2) compared with antibiotics group, the effects of AMPs were slightly weaker than those of antibiotics in the healthy piglets, but AMPs have similar effects to those of antibiotics in challenged piglets. In a higher purity, the optimal dose of AMPs may be approximately 0.01%. Our findings indicate that AMPs can improve piglet growth performance, enhance immunity, benefit intestinal morphology and decrease the diarrheal rate. AMPs could be great ASs especially under infection conditions.
This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
Compare baseline and 6-month follow-up plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid β peptides 1–40 (Aβ1–40) and 1–42 (Aβ1–42), total tau protein (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau at threonine 231 (P-tau231) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD).
21 patients with AD and 7 patients with VD based on the criteria of Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4th edition were assessed at baseline and 7 with AD and 6 with VD were re-assessed 6 months later. Assessments included the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), the Global Deteriorate Scale (GDS), plasma and CSF levels of Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42, and CSF levels of T-tau and P-tau231 (using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
At baseline there were significant differences between AD and VD patients in the mean CSF levels of T-tau (t=2.580, P=0.016), P-tau231 (t=4.014, P=0.000) and Aβ1–40 (t=2.766, P=0.010). At baseline in AD patients, duration of illness was negatively correlated with CSF P-tau231 levels (r=-0.485, P=0.026), MMSE scores (r=-0.565, P=0.008) and GDS scores (r=-0.482, P=0.027); and CSF Aβ1–42 levels were positively correlated to MMSE scores (r=0.565, P=0.008) and negatively correlated with GDS scores (r=-0.634, P=0.002). In the AD patients plasma Aβ1–40 levels increased significantly over the 6-month follow-up period (t=-2.735, P=0.041).
Plasma Aβ1–40 levels increased significantly in AD patients after 6-months of follow-up, that means levels of plasma Aβ1–40 could imply the development of Alzheimer disease. Moreover, CSF P-tau231 and CSF Aβ1–42 levels are associated with the severity of dementia and cognitive impairment.
Explore the relationship between levels of plasma Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) and in elderly non-demented controls.
23 patients with AD and 21 patients with VD who meet diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual 4th edition and 20 control subjects were enrolled, administered the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Activity of Daily Living (ADL) inventory and their levels of plasma Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and HSP70 were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
The levels of plasma Aβ1–40, Aβ1–42 and the Aβ1–40/Aβ1–42 ratio were not significantly different across groups, but levels of plasma HSP70 in VD patients was significantly higher than in AD patients and in normal controls (3.19 vs 1.91 vs 1.43ng/ml, respectively; F=6.464, P=0.003). In the AD group MMSE scores were inversely correlated with ADL scores (r=-0.617, P=0.002) and with levels of plasma HSP70 (r=-0.437, P=0.037); but HSP70 levels were positively correlated with age (r=0.616, P=0.002) and with plasma Aβ1–40 (r=0.497, P=0.016) in AD group. In the VD group levels of plasma HSP70 were positively correlated with plasma Aβ1–40 (r=0.436, P=0.048).
Our findings provide further evidence that high plasma HSP70 levels may play a role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of AD. HSP70 levels in AD patients is inversely associated with cognitive performance and positively correlated with plasma Aβ1–40. Plasma HSP70 in VD patients is significantly elevated and positively correlated with plasma Aβ1–40.
To demonstrate whether the communication between two SD rats base on the similar genetic basis or the same living environment, who separated (including visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and tasting inputs)from each other, occurs.
One SD rat (RECEIVER) was examined by EEG spectral analysis and ECG analysis under anesthesia while the other SD rat (SENDER) received optimal stimuli or malignant stimuli. The course was conducted in the shielded and the unshielded. Compare the EEG and ECG of RECEIVER between the stimulation state and resting state of SENDER.
This study show no significant difference in EEG (index: percentile weight and average weight of EEG on frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus of each frequency band) and ECG (index: R, PR segment, ST segment, QRS segment, QT segment) of RECEIVER during the time that the SENDER suffered from malignant stimulation, experienced optimal stimulation and of resting state.
The communication of SD rats, not through common five sense organ may not exist, even though the same genetic basis or the common living surrounding.The optimal stimuli and the malignant stimuli of SENDER cannot influence the EEG of Frontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus and ECG on RECEIVER. There is no sufficient evidence for the existence of this communication of animal.
To estimate the heritability of personality of children by using a twin design method of quantitative genetic analysis. To analysis the influences of family environment on children personality.
EPQ(Eysenck Personality questionnaire) applying on twins children aged 6-16years to evaluate the children personality.
The general questionnaire, PSDQ Parenting Style and Dimension Questionnaire, FAD-GFS(The General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE(stressful life events), FSQ(Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ(Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ(Everyday Feelings) were used to collect information about family environment from parents. Zygosity was determined by the DNA picked up from cheek mucosa of twins children. Holzinger analysis was employed to estimate the heritability of mental health.
122 pairs(244 children) of twins (103 twin pairs DNA were picked up successfully), including 54 MZ twin pairs and 49 DZ twin pairs.The heritability of personality:N(Extrovision-Introvision):0.71,P(Psychoticism):0.56,L(Lie):0.43,E(Neuroticism):0.07.
In twins family educated-year of father was significantly correlated with EPQ-E,EPQ-N(r = 0.167,0.145);educated-year of mather was significantly correlated with EPQ-N(r = -0.145);the score of FAD-GFS was significantly correlated with EPQ-E(r = - 0.235);FLQ was significantly correlated with EPQ-n(r = 0.356);the score of father authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with EPQ-p r = -0.196 ;the score of mather authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with EPQ-e r = 0.230. the score of family cohesion was significantly correlated with EPQ-n(r = 0.198).
Emotional problems were influenced by genetic factors most followed by inattention-hyperactivity problems and total difficulties environment factors play a main role in conduct problems and prosocial degree while peer problems were only influenced by environment factors. Each aspect of family environment, influence children personality and mental differently.
To introduce some questionnaires related to family environment such as FAD-GFS (The General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE (stressful life events), FSQ (Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ (Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ (Everyday Feelings Questionnaire) and evaluate their validity and reliability.
Using cross-sectional design. The general questionnaire, FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from 504 parents of only children FACESII-CV and Index of General Affect were used as scale of criteria related.
The reliability and validity of FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ is: Cronbach coefficient were 0.695 to 0.749; re-test reliability were 0.712 to 0.901; The scores of the scale in those questionnaires were correlated with each factor significantly and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of those scales. The correlation between the scores of FSQ, EFQ and the scores of Index of General Affect was-0.192, 0.539; The correlation between the scores of FAD-GFS, FLQ the score of total and three factor differently and the scores of family cohesion scores (FACESII-CV) was -0.423, 0.237, 0.514, 0.302, 0.210.
FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of psychometric and is useful as a tool to evaluate the family environment.
To demonstrate whether communication phenomenon of brain electrical activity, NOT through modalities including visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and tasting inputs,related to emotional or cognitive content, between two adults individual (named as SENDER and RECEIVER) exists.
We applying high density ERP technique, using CAPS, letter pictures, CAFPS as stimuli⌧compare the information of ERP differences on RECEIVER at the same time the SENDER perform a standard categorization task which lead to significant difference in ERP.
We found ERP of SENDER show difference significantly in the s1 (neutral pictures), s2 (extremely negative pictures) and s3 (letter pictures), simultaneously, under the different stimuli of SENDER, the ERP of RECEIVER show that there is the significant difference in late potentials between s2 and s1, between s2 and s3 which may be much wider. There is no difference between happy face⌧sad face⌧angry face pictures in ERP of RECEIVER.
This finding support the communication between brain electrical activity of two separated subjects isolated from five sensory channels may happen, it may occur at the same time or delay, Cognitive and emotional experience may arouse electrical activity of different brain region, the detail of communication tend to affective content about self-experience.
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of PSDQ Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire, PSDQ.
443 parents whose children aged 6 to 16 who lived in Chongqing were selected. 52 of them were retested 6 weeks later in order to assess the retest reliability. Determination of reliability include:internal consistency: to calculate Cronbach coefficient; coefficient of retest reliability: to calculate Person correlation of results of the results in every subscale in twice measurements of 52 parents. Determination of validity: content validity, structural validity, discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis.
For each subscale and factor, the values of kappa for inter - rater reliability were 0.625 to 0.884 (p < 0. 05); retest reliability were 0.537 to 0.832 (p < 0. 05) ; The scores of the subscale in the PSDQ were correlated with each factor significantly (coefficient of correlation: 0.732 to 0.951,p < 0. 05) and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of this subscale(coefficient of correlation: 0.382-0.834,p < 0. 05). Maker of confirmatory factor analysis show met the criteria standard for adequacy of fit. CMIN/df: 2.218-3.745; TLI: 0.808-0.920; RMSEA: 0.052-0.079; MECVI of default model is very close to that of saturated model, most of proliferation index are more than 0.8.
Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of Psychometric is useful as a tool to evaluate the parenting styles from parents.
To analysis the influences of family environment on only-children personality.
Using cross-sectional design only-children aged 6–16years were recruited. using EPQ applying on children to evaluate the children personality. the general questionnaire▮ PSDQ▮FAD-GFS▮SLE▮FSQ▮FLQ▮EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from parents.
In only-child family, standardized regression equation of family environment influence on children personality and mental health:
EPQ-p = 0.087*sle+0.207*father autocratic parenting+0.131*educational of father + 0.110 *family type -0.110*role of discipline-0.080*parental attitude+0.087* family adaptability; EPQ-e=0.105*EFQ -0.088* SLE- 0.101 * family income; EPQ-n = 0.143*SLE-0.090*family cohesion+0.089* family income +0.117 *the attitude of the old-0.138*the role of child experiments of FLQ-0.101* parents shaping the behavior of children of FLQ▮EPQ - l = - 0.136* SLE - 0.093* relationship between parents -0.155*attitude of the old▮
Each aspect of family environment, influence children personality and mental differently.
Using cross-sectional design▮twins and only children aged 6–16years were recruited. Using SDQ which was examined by parents and children (> = 11) to evaluate the children mental health and using EPQ applying on children to evaluate the children personality. the general questionnaire, PSDQ▮FAD-GFS▮SLE▮FSQ▮FLQ▮EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from parents. Zygosity was determined by the DNA picked up from cheek mucosa of twins children. Holzinger analysis was employed to estimate the heritability of personality and mental health. the stastic methods include t-test, nonparametric test, pearson correlation, spearman correlation.
122 pairs(244 children) of twins and 504 only children were participated in this study. the scores of four dimension of EPQ and five factor of SDQ have significant difference(Except for inattention-hyperactivity factor) between twin child and only child, the scores of EFQ,FLQ,FACES = 2 * ROMAN II-CV, FSQ, FAD-GFS have significant difference between the twins children family and the only child family.
Except for inattention-hyperactivity problems, there is obvious different in children personality▮mental health and their family environment between twin and only-child.
To demonstrate whether communication phenomenon of brain electrical activity, NOT through conventional sense such as look⌧listen⌧touch⌧smell⌧taste⌧related to emotional or cognitive content, between two adults individual (named as SENDER and RECEIVER) exists.
Applying high density ERP technique, using CAPS⌧CAFPS as stimuli⌧compare the information of ERP differences on RECEIVER at the same time the SENDER perform a standard categorization task which lead to significant difference in ERP.
The ERP of SENDER show difference significantly in the s1 (neutral pictures), s2 (extremely negative pictures), simultaneously, under the different stimuli of SENDER, the ERP of RECEIVER show that there is the significant difference in late potentials between s2 and s1. There is no difference between happy face⌧sad face⌧angry face⌧pictures in ERP of RECEIVER.
The communication between brain electrical activity of two separated subjects isolated from five sensory channels may occur,it may occur at the same time or delay, Cognitive and emotional experience may arouse electrical activity of different brain region, the detail of communication tend to affective content about self - experience.
To estimate the heritability of mental health of children by using a twin design method of quantitative genetic analysis. To analysis the influences of family environment on children mental health.
Using cross-sectional design twins aged 6–16 years were recruited. Using SDQ(Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire)which was examined by parents (>=11)to evaluate the children mental health. The general questionnaire, FADGFS (General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE (stressful life events), FSQ (Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ (Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ (Everyday Feelings Questionnaire) were used to collect information about family environment from parents. Zygosity was determined by the DNA picked up from cheek mucosa of twins children. Holzinger analysis was employed to estimate the heritability of mental health.
122 pairs of twins (103 pairs DNA were picked up successfully, including 54 MZ and 49 DZ twin pairs.Heritability of mental health: emot (emotion): 0.86, hyper (hyperactivity): 0.75, total: 0.61, cond (conduct): 0.4, proso (prosocial): 0.12, peer (peer): −0.97. In twins family the score of FAD-GFS was significantly correlated with proso (r = −0.200), the score of FSQ, EFQ was significantly correlated with total (r = 0.206, −0.304), FLQ(include three factor) was significantly correlated with total, proso (r = − 0.472, 0.389; r = −0.277,.247; r = −0.298,0.364), the score of father authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with total, proso r = −0.244,0.207 the score of mather authoritative parenting style was significantly correlated with total, proso r = −0.437, 0.342. The score of family cohesion was significantly correlated with total proso (r = −0.315,0.432), the score of family adaptability was significantly correlated with total, proso r = −0.359, 0.357.
Emotional problems were influenced by genetic factors most followed by inattention-hyperactivity problems and total difficulties environment factors play a main role in conduct problems and prosocial degree while peer problems were only influenced by environment factors. Each aspect of family environment influence children mental health differently.
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection has been a major public health threat globally. Monitoring and prediction of CT epidemic status and trends are important for programme planning, allocating resources and assessing impact; however, such activities are limited in China. In this study, we aimed to apply a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model to predict the incidence of CT infection in Shenzhen city, China. The monthly incidence of CT between January 2008 and June 2019 in Shenzhen was used to fit and validate the SARIMA model. A seasonal fluctuation and a slightly increasing pattern of a long-term trend were revealed in the time series of CT incidence. The monthly CT incidence ranged from 4.80/100 000 to 21.56/100 000. The mean absolute percentage error value of the optimal model was 8.08%. The SARIMA model could be applied to effectively predict the short-term CT incidence in Shenzhen and provide support for the development of interventions for disease control and prevention.
White-light continuum can be induced by the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with condensed materials. By using two orthogonal polarizers, a self-induced birefringence of continuum is observed when focusing femtosecond laser pulses into bulk fused silica. That is, the generated white-light continuum is synchronously modulated anisotropically while propagating in fused silica. Time-resolved detection confirms that self-induced birefringence of continuum shows a growth and saturation feature with time evolution. By adjusting laser energy, the transmitted intensity of continuum modulated by self-induced birefringence also varies correspondingly. Morphology analysis with time evolution indicates that it is the focused femtosecond laser pulses that induce anisotropic microstructures in bulk fused silica, and the anisotropic structures at the same time modulate the generated continuum.
In the livestock husbandry compensatory growth may be explored as a means to improve nutrient utilization, to reduce gut health problems due to excess protein intake, to simplify feeding strategies and thus to improve production efficiencies. This study investigated the effects of early protein restriction (EPR) and early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, colonic bacteria, metabolites and mucosal gene expressions during the restriction phase and re-alimentation phase. A total of 64 piglets (10.04 ± 0.73 kg) were randomly divided into four treatment groups according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of proteins (14% v. 20%) and two levels of antibiotics (0 v. 50 mg/kg kitasamycin and 20 mg/kg colistin sulphate). After a 30-day restriction phase with four kinds of diets, all groups were fed the same diets for another 74 days. The results showed that EPR decreased BW, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake in the restriction phase (P < 0.01) and increased ADG on days 66 to 104 of the late re-alimentation phase. Early protein restriction could decrease the villus height in the jejunum (P < 0.05), while shifting to the same diets restored the villus height. Meanwhile, during the re-alimentation phase, pigs in the protein restriction groups had increased concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (P < 0.05), and modified the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the colon. Furthermore, the lower microbial diversity caused by EPR was improved, and gene expression analysis indicated a better barrier function in the colon. During the whole trial, EAI had no interaction with EPR and played a dispensable role in compensatory growth. Collectively, the retardation of growth caused by EPR can be compensated for in the later stages of pig raising, and accompanied by altered intestinal morphology, microbial composition.
Potential planting area for tuber mustard was simulated using the Maxent model under current and future conditions based on 591 coordinates and 22 environmental layers. Model accuracy was excellent, with area under the receiving operator curve values of 0.967 and 0.958 for model training and testing, respectively. Dominant factors were mean diurnal range, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, annual mean temperature and minimum temperature of the coldest month, with thresholds of 6.5–7.5, 5.5–9, 16–19 and 2.0–6.5 °C, respectively. Under current conditions, suitable habitat areas (2.16% of total land in China) were concentrated mainly in Central, Southwest and East China, which can be defined as three occurrence and diffusion centres. In the 2050s and 2070s, suitable habitat areas are predicted to change to 3.72 and 3.92%, and 3.60 and 3.73% under scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP6.0, respectively, indicating that suitable habitat areas will increase slightly. However, future distribution of tuber mustard was predicted to differ among provinces or cities, i.e. predicted suitable habitat areas in Sichuan Province increased up to the 2050s but remained relatively unchanged between the 2050s and 2070s; in Chongqing city they first increased and then decreased; in Hunan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces they increased continuously; and in Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi Provinces and Shanghai city they first decreased, and then increased. The results from the current study provide useful information for management decisions of tuber mustard.
Dietary delivery of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has a great potential for management of Leptinotarsa decemlineata. An important first step is to discover possible RNA-interference (RNAi)-target genes effective against larvae, especially the old larvae. In the present paper, five putative Broad-Complex (BrC) cDNAs (Z1-Z4, and Z6) were identified in L. decemlineata. The expression of the five LdBrC isoforms was suppressed by juvenile hormone signaling, whereas the transcription was upregulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone signaling at the fourth (final) instar larval stage. Feeding of bacterially expressed dsBrC (derived from a common fragment of the five LdBrC variants) in the third- and fourth-instar larvae successfully knocked down the target mRNAs. For the fourth-instar LdBrC RNAi hypomorphs, they had a higher larval mortality compared with the controls. Moreover, most dsBrC-fed beetles did not pupate normally. After removal of the apolysed larval cuticle, a miniature adult was found. The adult head, compound eyes, prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax were found on the dorsal view. Distinct adult cuticle pigmentation was seen on the prothorax. The mouthparts, forelegs, midlegs, and hindlegs could be observed on the ventral view of the miniature adults. For the third-instar LdBrC RNAi specimens, around 20% moribund beetles remained as prepupae and finally died. Therefore, LdBrC is among the most attractive candidate genes for RNAi to control the fourth-instar larvae in L. decemlineata.
Dipetalonema gracile is a common parasite in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which can cause malnutrition and progressive wasting of the host, and lead to death in the case of massive infection. This study aimed to identify a suspected D. gracile worm from a dead squirrel monkey by means of molecular biology, and to amplify its complete mitochondrial genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. The results identified the worm as D. gracile, and the full length of its complete mitochondrial genome was 13,584 bp, which contained 22 tRNA genes, 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, one AT-rich region and one small non-coding region. The nucleotide composition included A (16.89%), G (20.19%), T (56.22%) and C (6.70%), among which A + T = 73.11%. The 12 protein-coding genes used TTG and ATT as start codons, and TAG and TAA as stop codons. Among the 22 tRNA genes, only trnS1AGN and trnS2UCN exhibited the TΨC-loop structure, while the other 20 tRNAs showed the TV-loop structure. The rrnL (986 bp) and rrnS (685 bp) genes were single-stranded and conserved in secondary structure. This study has enriched the mitochondrial gene database of Dipetalonema and laid a scientific basis for further study on classification, and genetic and evolutionary relationships of Dipetalonema nematodes.