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Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Studies have consistently shown that subthreshold depression is associated with an increased risk of developing major depression. However, no study has yet calculated a pooled estimate that quantifies the magnitude of this risk across multiple studies.
We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal cohort studies containing data on the association between subthreshold depression and future major depression. A baseline meta-analysis was conducted using the inverse variance heterogeneity method to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of major depression among people with subthreshold depression relative to non-depressed controls. Subgroup analyses were conducted to investigate whether IRR estimates differed between studies categorised by age group or sample type. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to test the robustness of baseline results to several sources of study heterogeneity, such as the case definition for subthreshold depression.
Data from 16 studies (n = 67 318) revealed that people with subthreshold depression had an increased risk of developing major depression (IRR = 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.28–2.97). Subgroup analyses estimated similar IRRs for different age groups (youth, adults and the elderly) and sample types (community-based and primary care). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that baseline results were robust to different sources of study heterogeneity.
The results of this study support the scaling up of effective indicated prevention interventions for people with subthreshold depression, regardless of age group or setting.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
We estimate the column density of the Galactic foreground interstellar medium (GFISM) in the direction of extragalactic sources. All-sky AKARI FIS infrared sky survey data might be used to trace the GFISM with a resolution of 2 arcminutes. The AKARI based GFISM hydrogen column density estimates are compared with similar quantities based on HI 21cm measurements of various resolution and of Planck results. High spatial resolution observations of the GFISM may be important recalculating the physical parameters of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using the updated foreground parameters.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
We present a systematic review providing estimates of the overall and regional burden of infectious complications following prostate biopsy. A directly standardized prevalence estimate was used because it reflects the burden of disease more explicitly. Complications included sepsis, hospitalization, bacteraemia, bacteriuria, and acute urinary retention after biopsy. There were 165 articles, comprising 162 577 patients, included in the final analysis. Our findings demonstrate that transrectal biopsy was associated with a higher burden of hospitalization (1·1% vs. 0·9%) and sepsis (0·8% vs. 0·1%) compared to transperineal biopsy, while acute urinary retention was more prevalent after transperineal than transrectal biopsy (4·2% vs. 0·9%). The differences were statistically non-significant because of large heterogeneity across countries. We also demonstrate and discuss regional variations in complication rates, with Asian studies reporting higher rates of sepsis and hospitalization.
Formation of domain structures in two-step phase separation in Fe-based Fe-Ni-Al alloys are investigated by applying a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) model. The present authors recently developed a TDGL formulation for ordering processes of B2 and D03 in binary alloys, taking into account the symmetrical relationships between these ordered phases. In this formulation, multiple types of variants of the structures are represented by three order parameters which can be measured independently through crystal structure factors. Mean-field free energies are defined in a form of Landau type expansion with the order parameters and a composition parameter. Interfacial energies due to local variations of degrees of order and composition are given in a gradient square approximation. Kinetic equations for time-evolution of the order parameters and the composition one are derived from the Ginzburg-Landau type potential consisting of the mean-field free energies and the interfacial energy terms. On the other hand, coauthors have investigated domain structures in two-step phase separation of Fe-based Fe-Ni-Al alloys. The evolution of three-dimensional domain structures and composition profiles has been analyzed by electron tomography imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In this work the authors performed three-dimensional numerical simulations assuming the thermal processing. The results of the simulations well reproduced the characteristics of the micro-structures obtained from the observations.
We present VLBI maps of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission in 32 sources obtained using the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) and the East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN). All of the observed sources provide new VLBI maps, and the spatial morphologies have been classified into five categories similar to the results obtained from European VLBI Network observations (Bartkiewicz et al. 2009). The 32 methanol sources are being monitored to measure the relative proper motions of the methanol maser spots.
The depth profiles of the constituent in iron oxide scales were investigated by X-ray diffraction measurement with controlling X-ray penetration depth at SPring-8. We successfully observed the interface region of scales non-destructively using X-ray with energy of 28 keV. The results indicated that the volume fraction ratio of Fe3O4 to FeO around the surface of samples increased by isothermal heat treatment. This suggested that the transformation of FeO to Fe3O4 due to isothermal heat treatment proceeds from surface into the inside of scale.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
The AKARI (formerly known as ASTRO-F) mission is the first Japanese satellite dedicated for large area surveys in the infrared (Murakami et al. 2004). AKARI was launched successfully on February 22nd 2006 (JST) from JAXA's Uchinoura Space Centre, Japan. AKARI is now orbiting around the Earth in a Sun-synchronous polar orbit at the altitude of 700 km. The 68.5 cm aperture telescope and scientific instruments are cooled to 6K by liquid Helium and mechanical coolers. The expected liquid Helium holding time is now found to be at least one year after the successful aperture lid-opening on 2006 April 13th (JST). AKARI will perform the most advanced all-sky survey in 6 mid- to far-infrared wavebands since the preceding IRAS mission over 2 decades ago. Deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys near the ecliptic poles with pointed observations are also on-going in 13 wavelength bands at 2-160 μm (see Table 1, details are given in Matsuhara et al. 2006). AKARI is a perfect complement to Spitzer in respect of its wide sky area and wavelength coverage. Two unique aspects of the pointing deep surveys with AKARI are: many imaging bands including the wavelength gap of Spitzer (8-24 μm), and the slitless spectroscopic capability (Ohyama et al. in this proceeding). Not only the All-Sky Survey but also the deep pointing surveys near the ecliptic poles over ~15 deg2 in total will be particularly well suited to construct the luminosity functions of the infrared galaxies, to evaluate their clustering nature, and also to discover rare, exotic objects at various redshifts out to z ~ 3. AKARI is also capable of detecting and measuring the spectrum and the fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background. The in-orbit sensitivity and spatial resolution of the surveys are found to be sufficient to achive the scientific goals listed above.
The FIRBE (Far-Infrared Balloon-Borne Experiment) pro ject is focused on mapping of the far-infrared emission from the Galaxy and external galaxies with the same spatial resolution as that of the IRAS.
Two dimensional array on a low emissivity telescope is a powerful facility for wide-area survey.
The results of FIR spectroscopic mapping observations of the Carina and
Sharpless 171 regions
with ISO/LWS and SWS are presented. Quite strong [SiII]35 μm emission
has been detected in
both regions. It is well correlated with [NII]122 μm emission,
indicating that it originates mostly from
low-density ionized gas. The ratio of the lines shows that S+ gas
must be more than 35% of the
solar abundance in the ionized medium, suggesting clear observational evidence
for the dust destruction
in the interstellar medium. We have also found a small line ratio of
[OI]63 μm to 145 μm
lines (<10) in both regions. The observed large ratio as well as their
cannot be accounted for by standard PDR models, even if
taking account of the pumping by ultraviolet radiation. We propose
that [OI]63 μm line is absorbed
in the cold gas between the line emitting region and us.
The adhesion of conidia of Pestalotiopsis neglecta occurs in four stages in a specific manner which allows the first cell most likely to
germinate to become firmly attached its substrate while leaving the other two fertile cells free to be dispersed further, thereby
increasing the chance of further successful infections. The first stage of adhesion involves the mucilaginous coating acquired from the
conidial matrix and appears weak. The second stage of adhesion is also relatively weak and occurs at the bases of the pedicel. The
third stage occurs with the release of a fibrillar adhesive substance from along the length of the pedicel to the top of the basal cell
and at times a lesser amount of fibrillar material is released from the apical appendages. The fourth stage involves the release of
fibrillar material at the point of germtube emergence. The third and fourth stages provide strong attachment.
A germination inhibitor in the spore matrix of Pestalotiopsis neglecta was strongly inhibitory to other mitosporic fungi, especially
coelomycetes. Germination of conidia of P. neglecta was enhanced by an exogenous source of certain carbohydrates, especially pectin
but also some sugars. Light was not important for germination or growth, and was not essential for reproduction, although the
number of acervuli trebled when light intensity was increased from 210 μmol m−2 s−1
to 300 μmol m−2 s−1. The possible significance
of these adaptations in the ecology of P. neglecta is discussed.
We observed three 0.44 square degree fields centered on the Coma cluster center (Coma-1), about 1 degree SW of the Coma center (Coma-3), and on a control field in SA57 with the mosaic CCD camera at the prime focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. We detected 5628, 5020, and 4323 galaxies down to R = 22 mag in Coma-1, Coma-3, and SA57 fields, respectively. We measure the magnitude and color within the variable aperture r90 in which about 90% of the total flux is included. The histograms of (B–R) colors of galaxies are made for four magnitude bins of width ΔR = 2 mag covering 13 < R < 21 mag for each of the three fields. The mean colors and the 1σ scatters of the Coma galaxies are obtained by a histogram subtraction technique (Coma-1/3 minus SA57). We find a very shallow slope of the color-magnitude relation (CMR), Δ(B–R)/ΔR=−0.0037, which indicates nearly a constant (B–R) color over 6 magnitude in 15 < R < 21 mag (−19.5 < MR < −13.5 at Coma cluster). Dwarf galaxies are dominant in this magnitude range, and we conclude that the mean color of dwarf galaxies in the Coma clusters is nearly constant at (B–R) ∼ 1.6–1.7, which is similar to the color of the faint end of giant elliptical galaxies.
New bone formation around implants is one of preferable conditions for the successful implantation. In this study, formable carbonate apatite ceramics were prepared and implanted in cavities (φ 400 μm, depth 400 μm) on the surface of pure titanium implant (ASTMB348-GR2) to enhance new bone formation around the titanium implant.
At present, the photometric data for clusters at z ≲ 0.2 mainly come from photographic photometry. The lack of CCD data for such clusters is simply due to the fact that no CCD camera had been available until recently that covers the wide extension of clusters within a reasonable amount of observing time. We have developed a large mosaic CCD camera and conducted multicolor imaging observations of z ≲ 0.2 clusters using the 40-inch Swope telescope at Las Campanas Observatory.