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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the most common and severe symptoms of schizophrenia, but the neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying AVHs are not well understood. The present study aims to investigate whether AVHs are associated with cortical thinning.
Participants were schizophrenia patients from four centers across China, 115 with AVHs and 93 without AVHs, as well as 261 healthy controls. All received 3 T T1-weighted brain scans, and whole brain vertex-wise cortical thickness was compared across groups. Correlations between AVH severity and cortical thickness were also determined.
The left middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was significantly thinner in schizophrenia patients with AVHs than in patients without AVHs and healthy controls. Inferences were made using a false discovery rate approach with a threshold at p < 0.05. Left MTG thickness did not differ between patients without AVHs and controls. These results were replicated by a meta-analysis showing them to be consistent across the four centers. Cortical thickness of the left MTG was also found to be inversely correlated with hallucination severity across all schizophrenia patients.
The results of this multi-center study suggest that an abnormally thin left MTG could be involved in the pathogenesis of AVHs in schizophrenia.
Nanosecond (ns) pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is investigated numerically in an attempt to gain some new insights into the understanding of ns DBD actuation mechanism. Special emphasis is put on the examination, separation and comparison of behaviors of discharge induced micro shock wave and residual heat as well as on the investigation of response of external flow to the two effects. The shock wave is found to introduce highly transient, localized perturbation to the flow and be able to significantly alter the flow pattern shortly after its initiation. The main flow tends to quickly recover to close to its undisturbed state due to the transient nature of perturbation. However, with the shock decay and final disappearance, another perturbation source in the vicinity of discharge region, which contains contribution from both residual heat and shock, becomes increasingly pronounced and eventually develops into a perturbation wave train in the boundary layer. The perturbation is relatively weak and may not be a Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave and not trigger the laminar-turbulent transition of boundary layer. Instead, it is more likely to manipulate the flow stability to achieve the strong control authority of this kind of actuation in the case of flow separation control. In addition, a parametric study over the different electrical and hydrodynamic parameters is also conducted.
Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at ‘clinical high-risk (CHR)’ for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. A total of 86 (of 117) CHR participants completed the clinical follow-up of at least 2 years (73.5%). Conversion was determined using the criteria of presence of psychotic symptoms (in SIPS). Analyses examined baseline demographic and clinical predictors of psychosis and trajectory of symptoms over time. Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier) methods along with Log-rank tests were performed to illustrate the relationship of baseline data to either conversion or non-conversion over time. Cox regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of conversion by the 2-year follow-up.
In total 25 (29.1%) of 86 completers transitioned to a psychotic disorder over the course of follow-up. Among the CHR sample, the mean time between attenuated symptom onset and professional help-seeking was about 4 months on average, and converters developed fully psychotic symptoms about 12 months after symptom onset. Compared with those CHR participants whose risk syndromes remitted over the course of the study, converters had significantly longer delays (p = 0.029) for their first visit to a professional in search of help. At baseline assessment, the conversion subgroup was younger, had poorer functioning, higher total SIPS positive symptom scores, longer duration of untreated prodromal symptoms, and were more often given psychosis-related diagnoses and subsequently prescribed antipsychotics in the clinic.
Chinese CHR identified primarily by a novel clinical screening approach had a 2-year transition rate comparable with those of specialised help-seeking samples world-wide. Early clinical intervention with this functionally deteriorating clinical population who are suffering from attenuated psychotic symptoms, is a next step in applying the CHR construct in China.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted.
We derive zphot for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) H-HDF-N field with the EAzY code, based on PSF-matched broad-band (U band to IRAC 4.5 μm) photometry. Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We find σNMAD = 0.029 for non-X-ray sources. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through SED fitting. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms CDF-N main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources, we improve their zphot quality (σNMAD = 0.035) by adding three additional AGN templates. We make our photometry and zphot catalog publicly available.
Gattini and CSTAR have been installed at Dome A, Antarctica, which provide time-series photometric data for a large number of pulsating variable stars. We present the study for several variable stars with the data collected with the two facilities in 2009 to demonstrate the scientific potential of observations from Dome A for asteroseismology.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
The self-referential memory (SRM) effect refers to the phenomenon that stimuli processed with reference to the self are better remembered than those referenced to others. Studies have shown that schizophrenia patients do not have this memorial advantage for self-referenced information. The current study investigated the electrophysiological mechanism of the abolished SRM effect in schizophrenia.
Twenty schizophrenia patients and 22 controls were recruited to complete an SRM task. We used a high-time resolution event-related potential (ERP) technique to analyze the electrophysiological differences between patients and controls during self- and other-reflection processing.
Behavior data indicated that healthy controls had a typical SRM bias that was absent in the schizophrenia patients. ERP comparison between groups showed that the schizophrenia patients presented smaller voltages in both self- and other-reflection conditions in the 160–260 ms (P2 component) and 800–1200 ms (positive slow wave) time windows over the pre/frontal cortex. Furthermore, the N2 amplitudes (270–380 ms) differed between self- and other-reflection conditions in patients but not in normal controls. More importantly, we found that the P3 amplitudes in the parietal cortex correlated significantly with the SRM bias score in the patients (r = –0.688).
These results provide comprehensive and direct electrophysiological evidence for self- and other-reflective dysfunction in schizophrenia patients and contribute to our understanding of the underlying neural substrates of the abolished SRM effect in schizophrenia.
Carbon nanotube-spinel lithium titanate (CNT-Li4Ti5O12) nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and higher-temperature calcinations with LiOH·H2O and TiO2 precursors in the presence of carbon nanotubes sources. The CNT-Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The particles exhibited a spinel cubic crystal phase and homogenous size distribution, with sizes around 50-70 nm. HAADF imaging confirmed that carbon content exists on the surface of the CNT-Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles with graphitic carbon coating of 3-5 nm thickness under 800oC in the Ar gas. The graphitic carbon phase was further confirmed with Raman spectroscopy analysis on powder samples. Electrochemical characteristics were evaluated with galvanostatic discharge/charge tests, which showed that the initial discharge capacity is 172 mA·h/g at 0.1C. The nanoscale carbon layers uniformly coated the particles, and the interconnected carbon nanotube network is responsible for the improved charge rate capability and conductivity.
Immune mapped protein 1 (IMP1) is a newly discovered protein in Eimeria maxima. It is recognized as a potential vaccine candidate against E. maxima and a highly conserved protein in apicomplexan parasites. Although the Neospora caninum IMP1 (NcIMP1) orthologue of E. maxima IMP1 was predicted in the N. caninum genome, it was still not identified and characterized. In this study, cDNA sequence encoding NcIMP1 was cloned by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from Nc1 tachyzoites. NcIMP1 was encoded by an open reading frame of 1182 bp, which encoded a protein of 393 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 42·9 kDa. Sequence analysis showed that there was neither a signal peptide nor a transmembrane region present in the NcIMP1 amino acid sequence. However, several kinds of functional protein motifs, including an N-myristoylation site and a palmitoylation site were predicted. Recombinant NcIMP1 (rNcIMP1) was expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified rNcIMP1 was used to prepare specific antisera in mice. Mouse polyclonal antibodies raised against the rNcIMP1 recognized an approximate 43 kDa native IMP1 protein. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that NcIMP1 was localized on the membrane of N. caninum tachyzoites. The N-myristoylation site and the palmitoylation site were found to contribute to the localization of NcIMP1. Furthermore, the rNcIMP1-specific antibodies could inhibit cell invasion by N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro. All the results indicate that NcIMP1 is likely to be a membrane protein of N. caninum and may be involved in parasite invasion.
We investigated defects in CdZnTe crystals produced from various conditions and their impact on fabricated devices. In this study, we employed transmission and scanning transmission electron microscope (TEM and STEM), because defects at the nano-scale are not observed readily under an optical or infrared microscope, or by most other techniques. Our approach revealed several types of defects in the crystals, such as low-angle boundaries, dislocations and precipitates, which likely are major causes in degrading the electrical properties of CdZnTe devices, and eventually limiting their performance.
Amorphous carbon nitride films (a-CNx) were synthesized by using single ion beam sputtering of a graphite target in argon and nitrogen sputtering gases. This thin film could be used as a novel photovoltaic material. The films were characterized with the technique of laser Raman, spectroscopic ellipsometry and electron spin resonance spectrometer (ESR). In this paper we report the effects of ion impacting and nitrogenation on the microstructure, density of defect states, bonding character, optical and photovoltaic properties. Effective decreasing of intensity of the ESR signal and formation of C-N bonding were observed, which could be attributed to the increment of the impinging ions on the growing films. The nitrogenation of a-CNx films could decrease the Tauc optical gap (0.62∼0.86eV) and the intensity of ESR signal, increase photon absorption coefficient of the films (106∼104cm−1).
The primary photovoltaic values of the devices having Schottky structure of ITO/CNx/Al are Isc 1.56 μ A/cm2 and Voc 250 mV, respectively, when exposed to AM1.5 illumination ( 100mW/cm2, 25°C).
The (ZnSe) /(ZnS ), strained layer super-lattices (SLSs) on (100) GaAs and (ZnTe)/(ZnSe) SLSs on (100) InP have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The structural characteristics of these SLSs were investigated in situ RHEED observation, low-angle X-ray diffraction spectra, TED image and AES analysis. The optical properties of the SLSs, such as refractive index of superlattice materials, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, transient PL spectra, Raman spectra, far-infrared reflectivity spectra and Optical nonlinear have been studied.
CNx films with x around 1.0 have been made by inverted cylindrical DC magnetron sputtering. RBS, XPS, IR spectroscopy, ERD and SEM were used to characterize the composition and bonding properties of the films, while X-ray diffraction was used for crystal structure determination. XPS data indicated the existence of the tetrahedral C3N4 phase in the CNx films, which was consistent with the C-N single bond suggested by IR spectra. The annealing effect on CNx films will also be discussed.
The J-U relation of the KTP crystal along its z-axis under low DC field deviates from linearity, which is different from that of the crystal along the other two principle axis. The resistance of the crystal along its z-axis increases with the time under high DC stress and the crystal becomes dark. The dark color can be removed by annealing. Electrode reactions were also observed. The phenomena are related to the easy movement of ions along the z-axis of the KTP crystal.
A new kind of TiO2 film catalyst was prepared by the Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The surface photovoltaic spectroscopy (SPS) results showed that its photoresponse was extended into the visible region. Photooxidation experiments showed that this kind of TiO2 film had high photocatalytic activity on degradation of phenol in aqueous solution. The influence of the thickness of TiO2 film on its photocatalytic activity was also discussed.
We present proof-of-concept experiments for developing a highly-sensitive and fast-response miniaturized single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (SWNT-FET) biosensor for electrically detecting adenovirus using ligand-receptor-protein specificity. SWNTs are mildly oxidized to form carboxylic groups on the surfaces without compromising the electronic integrity of the nanotubes. Then the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is covalently functionalized onto the nanotube surface via diimide-activated amidation process. Upon exposure of the device to adenovirus protein, Ad12 Knob (Knob), specific binding of Knob to CAR decreases the current that flows through the SWNT-FET device. For control experiment, the CAR-SWNT device is exposed to YieF, which is a virus protein that does not bind specifically to CAR, and no current change is observed. The biological activity of the CAR and Knob proteins that are immobilized on SWNTs has been confirmed by previous fluorescence studies . AFM analysis is done to show height increase of a few nanometers at specific spots where the CAR-Knob complex are covalently linked to the nanotube surface. Therefore, our results show that the human receptor protein CAR does immobilize on SWNT surface while fully retains its biological activity. Moreover, the specific binding of CAR to its complementary adenovirus Knob can be electrically detected using individual SWNT-FET devices. These findings suggest that CAR-functionalized SWNT-FETs can ably serve as biosensors for detection of environmental adenoviruses.
We functionalized nanowires with three different probe peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequences, and assembled the three populations onto a lithographically patterned chip. Electrofluidic assembly enabled positioning each set of nanowires to span a different pair of guiding electrodes. Fluorescence imaging was used to probe whether the PNA on the individual nanowires remained able to selectively bind complementary DNA targets following assembly and integration of the positioned nanowires onto the chip surface.
We report flexible synthesis of III-Nitride nanowires and heterostructures by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) via a catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. Indium is used as an in-situ catalyst to facilitate and sustain the stability of liquid phase droplet for VLS growth based on thermodynamic consideration. The employment of mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) helps to prevent the coalescence of catalyst droplets and to promote nucleation statistics. Cathodoluminescence (CL) of GaN nanowires shows near band-edge emission at 370nm, and strong E2 phonon peak is observed at room temperature in Raman scattering spectra. Both binary GaN and AlN nanowires have been synthesized by MOCVD. Three-dimensional AlN/GaN trunk-branch nanostructures are reported to illustrate the versatility of incorporating the VLS mechanism into MOCVD process.