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We present herein a joint physical/physico-chemical study and, more specifically, the first application of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization coupled with Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to analyze small-sized ZnO quantum dots (QDs) (2.8-3.1 nm diameter range) synthesized by sol-gel chemistry and stabilized through an aminosilane coating. A careful investigation of the stability of ZnO QDs was initiated once these dots were dispersed in different media (water, biological buffer) for a period up to 3 weeks. Positive ion mode mass spectra MALDI-TOF-MS combined with optical spectrometry was used to monitor the stability of ZnO QDs when aging. Such a unique combination of MALDI-TOF-MS and physico-chemical techniques is likely to bring new insights into the structure analysis, the stability and consequently the potential toxicity of QDs.
It has been shown in previous studies that a miscibility gap exists in the hypo-stoichiometric region UO2-PuO2-Pu2O3 with one phase poor in oxygen, and the other with an O/M (Oxygen to Metal ratio) close to 2.00. Data on the evolution of this region in temperature, especially in the vicinity of the oxygen content corresponding to the highest temperature at which the gap can be observed, is scarce. A high temperature X-ray diffractometer with a dedicated gas control setup was used to study the described region in-situ. We have observed reflections of the two cubic phases, with one increasing and the other decreasing in intensity during the thermal plateaus lasting up to 20 h. We compare the calculated lattice parameters with literature. We estimated the O/M evolution of our samples from a comparison of phase fractions values obtained by Rietveld refinement and calculations using the Calphad method.
In the framework of the study of long-term storage of the spent nuclear fuel, polycrystalline UO2 samples have been implanted with He ions. The thin implanted layer, close to the free surface is subjected to elastic stresses which are studied by x-ray diffraction (micro Laue diffraction) and a mechanical modeling. A simple expression of the displacement gradient tensor has been evidenced; it concerns only three terms (ε3, ε4 and ε5) which strongly evolve with considered grain orientations. Finally, we show that results obtained with micro diffraction are in very good agreement with conventional x-ray diffraction measurements done in laboratory at macro scale.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
The Al2Cu and Al9Co2 intermetallic compounds share structural similarities: they are bothdescribed in terms of coordination polyedra with a tetragonal symmetry and covalent-like bonding occur in both compounds. In this paper, the (001) surface structure of Al2Cu and Al9Co2 is described based on a combined scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) and density functional theory (DFT) study. Surface models are elaborated from stoichiometric ideal compounds, leading to a pure aluminium plane as the surface termination in both cases. The nature of the constitutional defect in Al9Co2 is determined using density functional theory calculations. The influence of the surface atomic density, of the surface composition and of off-stoichiometric effects on the (001) surface structures of Al2Cu and Al9Co2 are discussed.
La3-xTe4 is a state-of-the-art high temperature n-type thermoelectric material with a previously reported maximum zT∼1.1 at 1273 K. Computational modeling suggests the La atoms play a crucial role in defining the density of states for La3-xTe4 in the conduction band. In addition to controlling charge carrier concentration, substitution with Ca2+ atoms on the La3+ site is explored as a potential means to tune the density of states and result in larger Seebeck coefficients. High purity, oxide-free samples are produced by ball milling of the elements and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. Powder XRD and electron microprobe analysis are used to characterize the material. High temperature thermoelectric properties are reported and compared with La3-xTe4 compositions. A maximum zT of 1.3 is reached at 1273 K for the composition La2.22Ca0.775Te4.
We are developing a purely commensal survey experiment for fast (<5 s) transient radio sources. Short-timescale transients are associated with the most energetic and brightest single events in the Universe. Our objective is to cover the enormous volume of transients parameter space made available by ASKAP, with an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and field of view. Fast timescale transients open new vistas on the physics of high brightness temperature emission, extreme states of matter and the physics of strong gravitational fields. In addition, the detection of extragalactic objects affords us an entirely new and extremely sensitive probe on the huge reservoir of baryons present in the IGM. We outline here our approach to the considerable challenge involved in detecting fast transients, particularly the development of hardware fast enough to dedisperse and search the ASKAP data stream at or near real-time rates. Through CRAFT, ASKAP will provide the testbed of many of the key technologies and survey modes proposed for high time resolution science with the SKA.
We present the synthesis and characterization of a novel lithium iron polyphosphate LiFe2P3O10 prepared by wet-chemical technique from nitrate precursors. The crystal system is shown to be monoclinic (P21/m space group) and the refined cell parameters are a=4.596 Å, b=8.566 Å, c=9.051 Å and β=97.46°. LiFe2P3O10 has a weak antiferromagnetic ordering below the Néel temperature TN=19 K. Electrochemical measurements carried out at 25 °C in lithium cell with LiPF6-EC-DEC electrolyte show a capacity 70 mAh/g in the voltage range 2.7-3.9 V.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been developed to characterize the free-volume properties of polymers. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements give direct information about the dimension, content, and hole-size distributions of free-volume in amorphous materials. The angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation measurements give additional information about the shape of the free-volume holes in oriented polymeric materials. The unique capability of PAS to probe free-volume properties is from the fact that positronium atom is preferentially trapped in the atomic-scale holes which have a size ranging from 1 to 10 Å.
During the five years of the mission, the Gaia spectrograph, the Radial Velocity
Spectrometer (RVS) will repeatedly survey the celestial sphere down to magnitude
V ~ 17–18. This talk presents: (i) the system which is currently developed within
the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) to reduce and calibrate the
spectra and to derive the radial and rotational velocities, (ii) the RVS expected
performances and (iii) scientific returns.
Positron-annihilation-lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been utilized to
investigate the free-volume properties of two types of polymer blends, a
miscible blend of bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) and tetramethyl bisphenol-A
polycarbonate (TMPC), and an immiscible blend of PC and polystyrene (PS). In
the miscible blend, the free-volume hole size and its fraction follow a
linear relationship with respect to the weight fraction while in the
immiscible blend, the relationship is not linearly additive. The free-volume
hole distributions in the immiscible blend are found to be significantly
broader than those in the pure polymers. The difference is thought to be a
result of the free volume formed and associated with the conformation and
interchain packing between the dissimilar chains in incompatible
Most of the algorithms for cavity dielectric measurements use a full network frequency scan for the perturbation method. At high temperature the measurement points in one frequency scan will have different temperatures due to the fast cooling of the sample inside the cold cavity. This paper presents a new approach for the perturbation method to measure dielectric constants at high temperatures with a two port, two piston cylindrical cavity and external furnace. Special features of this cavity are the possibility to work with different modes and different relative positions of the coupling aperture.
The dielectric properties are extracted from the full sets of S-parameters for two successive frequency points corresponding to approximately the same temperatures. An extraction algorithm is developed and programmed.
Positron annihilation lifetime measurements are made in a series of polyaniline polymers with different chemical compositions and protonation ratios at room temperature. Two positron lifetimes are observed in these materials: one is assigned to annihilation in the bulk and the other to voids created due to protonation. A relationship between conductivities and positron annihilation probabilities is found.
The potential for microwave processing of a single phase material is often limited due to the dependence of dielectric losses upon the chemical bonding and temperature of the material. We will present results showing the effect of microwave absorption on bulk crystallization of glasses belonging to M2O-CaO-SiO2-ZrO2 system (where M+ Li, Na, K). The glass samples were devitrified using both microwave and conventional heating. The effect of Li+, Na+, K+ on crystallization is quite remarkable and is a function of ion size. This is true especially in the microwave heating where the important dielectric losses observed in silicate glasses are related to the motion of alkali cations throughout the glass matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on the powdered samples to determine crystalline phases. Results of microstructure and microanalysis on these glass-ceramic samples will also be presented.
Gels in the CaO-A12O3-SiO2 (CAS) system were successfully converted into glass in a single mode, tuneable, cylindrical microwave applicator, operating at 2.45 GHz in the TM012 mode. Transparent glasses were formed as a result of the direct microwave heating of homogeneous CAS gels to well above their melting temperature (1170°C). The effect of processing parameters, such as incident power level, sample mass and location, and thermal insulation has been investigated. The excellent coupling of the CAS gel with microwave can be understood from the structural evolution during sol-gel processing.