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Ions that are moved by electric fields in gases follow quite exactly the electric field lines since these ions have substantially lost their kinetic energies in collisions with gas atoms or molecules and so carry no momenta. Shaping the electric fields appropriately the phase space such ion beams occupy can be reduced and correspondingly the ion density of beams be increased.
Mg2Si bulk was fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) nano-powder, and the thermoelectric characteristics of the bulk sample were evaluated at temperatures up to 873 K. A pre-synthesized all-molten commercial polycrystalline Mg2Si source (un-doped n-type semiconductor) was pulverized into powder of 75 μm or less. To obtain nano-sized fine powder, the powder was milled using planetary ball mill equipment under an inert atmosphere. Fine Mg2Si nano-powder with a mean grain size of about 500 nm was obtained. XRD analysis confirmed that no MgO existed in the nano-powder. The fine powder was put in a graphite die to obtain a sintering body of Mg2Si and treated by SPS under vacuum conditions. The resulting Mg2Si bulk had high density and did not crack. However, the XRD analysis revealed a small amount of MgO in it. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity) were measured from room temperature to 873 K. The microstructure of the sintered body was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The maximum dimensionless figure of merit of a sample made from Mg2Si nano-powder was ZT = 0.67 at 873 K.
Thermoelectric power generation has been attracting attention as a technology for waste heat utilization in which thermal energy is directly converted into electric energy. It is well known that layered cobalt oxide compounds such as NaCo2O4 and Ca3Co4O9 have high thermoelectric properties in p-type oxide semiconductors. However, in most cases, the thermoelectric properties in n-type oxide materials are not as high. Therefore, n-type magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) has been studied as an alternative due to its non-toxicity, environmental friendliness, lightweight property, and comparative abundance compared with other TE systems. In this study, we fabricated π-structure thermoelectric power generation devices using p-type NaCo2O4 elements and n-type Mg2Si elements. The p- and n-type sintering bodies were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). To reduce the resistance at the interface between elements and electrodes, we processed the surface of the elements before fabricating the devices. The end face of a Mg2Si element was covered with Ni by SPS and that of a NaCo2O4 element was coated with Ag by silver paste and soldering.
The thermoelectric device consisted of 18 pairs of p-type and n-type legs connected with Ag electrodes. The cross-sectional and thickness dimensions of the p-type elements were 3.0 mm × 5.0 mm × 7.6 mm (t) and those of the n-type elements were 3.0 mm × 3.0 mm × 7.6 mm (t). The open circuit voltage was 1.9 V and the maximum output power was 1.4 W at a heat source temperature of 873 K and a cooling water temperature of 283 K in air.
The thermoelectrical properties of α and γ phases of NaxCo2O4 having different amounts of Na were evaluated. The γ NaxCo2O4 samples were synthesized by thermal decomposition in a metal-citric acid compound, and the α NaxCo2O4 samples were synthesized by self-flux processing. Dense bulk ceramics were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS), and the sintered samples were of high density and highly oriented. The thermoelectrical properties showed that γ NaxCo2O4 had higher electrical conductivity and lower thermal conductivity compared with α NaxCo2O4 and that α NaxCo2O4 had a larger Seebeck coefficient. These results show that γ NaxCo2O4 has a larger power factor and dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, than α NaxCo2O4.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
A solar eclipse is one of the most popular events in astronomy. Although it is the single astronomical event, it gives different images from place to place and changes in time. It is the most important message from astronomy to the public that an apparent face depends on the viewpoint and we should get the comprehensive view.
The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for
schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting
that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We
examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk
factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels (‘carbonyl stress’) and a
frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also
had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene
associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine
deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have
exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.
Little is known about antibiotic use in the elderly receiving home care. We found that 6,873 (5.4%) of 126,339 home care patients in Ontario received antibiotic treatment; 26% of the antibiotics administered were fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic treatment was most frequent in patients less than 65 years of age and among those with a poorer health status.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
Growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) was observed in situ in a transmission electron microscope. Bi liquid particles were dispersed on the substrates of diamond or SiO2. Introduction of oxygen up to ∼5 × 10−4 Pa resulted in formation of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers. The growth mechanism of the whisker was discussed in terms of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. It is suggested that the liquid droplet of Bi acts as a physical catalyst for growth of bismuth oxide (most probably Bi2O3) whiskers.
The telescope geometry of JASMINE should be stabilized and monitored with the accuracy of about 10 to 100 pm or 10 to 100 prad of rms over about 10 hours. For this purpose, a high-precision interferometric laser metrology system is employed. Useful techniques for measuring displacements on extremely small scales are the wave-front sensing method and the heterodyne interferometrical method. Experiments for verification of measurement principles are well advanced.
Chemical modification of chromian spinel at low-T alteration was examined in detail for a podiform chromitite from a Tethyan ophiolitic mélange belt at Rayat, northeastern Iraq. The chromitite is highly brecciated and the matrix has been completely altered, producing chlorite and carbonate (dolomite and calcite). High-Cr, low-Fe3+ spinel has formed along the margins and cracks of chromian spinel grains throughout the alteration, associated with unaltered primary spinel and magnetite without ferritchromite. In associated harzburgites, only ferritchromite is found instead of the high-Cr, low-Fe3+ spinel. The high-Cr, low-Fe3+ secondary spinel apparently has chemical properties of mantle origin, plotted at the extension of ordinary mantle spinels on compositional spaces. The character is due to subtraction of Al as chlorite with the addition of an amount of magnetite component from the silicate matrix, which is small in volume relative to peridotite and composed of highly magnesian olivine (up to Fo97). We should treat high-Cr chromian spinels with caution in highly altered mantle-derived rocks, especially chromitite and other rocks with highly magnesian olivine, as well as in detrital particles for provenance study.
Forearc peridotite is generally characterized by low Mg# (= Mg/[Mg + Fe2+] atomic ratio) at a given Cr# (= Cr/[Cr + Al] atomic ratio) of chromian spinel compared to common abyssal peridotite. This may be due to (1) smaller modal abundance of spinel and/or (2) lower equilibrium temperature, for the forearc peridotite. Forearc peridotite has the same amount of spinel as abyssal peridotite, eliminating the first possibility. Spinel in harzburgite and dunite from the Hahajima Seamount at the Izu-Bonin forearc, has a large Cr#, >0.57, and the Mg# is slightly variable towards low values at a given Cr#. The Mg# of spinel cores decreases strongly with a decrease in size. This is due to cooling along with hydration, which gave rise to a compositional variation of Ca-amphibole, from edenitic hornblende (high-temperature) to tremolite (low-temperature) in the Hahajima peridotite. The average two- pyroxene temperature of the Hahajima peridotite, 921°C, is less than that of the abyssal peridotite (1138°C), which is not consistent with a size-dependent Mg# of spinel for the latter. Forearc peridotite has been cooled effectively by H2O released from the subducted slab, causing a small Mg# of their spinels.