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To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
We analyse the chemical abundances of stars in the local group dwarf galaxies using the SAGA database. The inspection of the relationship between Eu and Ba abundances confirms an anomalously Ba-rich population in Fornax, which indicates a pre-enrichment of interstellar gas with r-process elements.
Urocanic acid (UCA) is known as a major chemoattractant for Strongyloides stercoralis infective third-stage larvae (L3). Since Brugia pahangi is a skin-penetrating parasitic nematode similar to S. stercoralis, UCA was expected to be a chemoattractant for B. pahangi L3. Thus, the chemoattractant activity of UCA for B. pahangi L3 was assessed. The chemotactic responses of B. pahangi L3 to UCA or acetic acid (CH3COOH) dissolved in amine solutions were assessed using an agar-plate assay. A test solution of 200 mm UCA dissolved in aqueous 270 mm tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) significantly attracted B. pahangi L3 compared with deionized water (DW), while neither a solution of 200 mm UCA dissolved in aqueous 230 mm ammonia (NH3) nor 290 mm triethylamine (TEA) significantly attracted L3. Similarly, a test solution of 200 mm CH3COOH dissolved with 200 mm Tris significantly attracted L3, but neither a test solution of 200 mm CH3COOH plus 200 mm NH3 nor 200 mm TEA attracted L3. Furthermore, L3 were significantly attracted to 200 mm Tris alone, compared with DW, but avoided 200 mm NH3 and 200 mm TEA. Moreover, the chemoattractant activity of Tris for L3 was observed even at a low concentration of 25 mm, and it was observed in a mild alkaline condition but not in an acidic condition. The present study reveals that Tris is a potential chemoattractant for B. pahangi L3 while UCA is not. This finding will contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of skin-penetrating infection of filarial L3.
We report the results of abundance analysis for high-resolution spectra of eight extremely metal-poor turn-off stars selected from SDSS/SEGUE. Based on differential analysis adopting stellar parameters from Balmer line profiles, we obtain the following results: i) Statistically significant scatter is found in [X/Fe] (X=Na, Mg, Cr, Ti, Sr and Ba), among which [Na/Fe] shows an apparent bimodal distribution, ii) Li abundances are ~0.3 dex lower in [Fe/H]<−3.5 than the Spite plateau value without significant scatter.
We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription–PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.
We prepared silicon hyperdoped with sulfur by ion-implantation followed by pulsed laser melting. Effects of laser fluence during pulsed laser melting and of post-annealing on the silicon hyperdoped with sulfur are investigated. The structure of hyperdoped layer changes from poly-to mono-crystal with increasing laser fluence. Interface between sulfur-implanted-layer and single-crystal substrate disappear above 1.1 J/cm2. The spectral intensity of mid-infrared (MIR) optical absorption increases with crystallinity and spectral shape depends on whether the melt depth during pulsed laser melting reaches interface between implanted layer and single-crystal silicon substrate or not. The MIR absorption intensity rapidly decreases with thermal annealing temperature and almost disappears at 750 °C. The activation energy of conductivity decreases with increasing laser fluence and further decreases with increasing post thermal-annealing temperature. The insulator-metal transition is observed for the sample annealed at 750 °C. These results indicate that there is no direct correlation between MIR optical absorption band and insulator-metal transition.
The transmission of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) among family members is not well understood. We identified 15 families in which multiple members were diagnosed with hMPV infection by real-time PCR in 2008 and 2010. Index patients ranged in age from 2 years to 11 years (median 5 years), and all 15 index cases were children who attended primary school, kindergarten, or nursery school. Contact patients ranged in age from 2 months to 46 years (median 6 years). Excluding five adult cases, contact patients were significantly younger than index patients (P = 0·0389). Of the 12 contact children, seven (58%) were infants who were taken care of at home. The serial interval between the onset of symptoms in an index patient and the onset of symptoms in a contact patient was estimated to be 5 days. These results suggest that the control of school-based outbreaks is important for preventing hMPV infection in infants.
In vitro chemotactic responses of infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Brugia pahangi to NaCl, Na2HPO4, KCl, K2HPO4, MgCl2 and CaCl2 were assessed. Compared to deionized water as a control, 200 mm NaCl and 100 mm Na2HPO4 significantly attracted L3 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01), whereas L3 were likely to avoid 200 mm KCl and 100 mm K2HPO4 (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05). L3 showed no significant tendency to avoid or to be attracted to 200 mm CaCl2 and 200 mm MgCl2. Furthermore, NaCl exhibited a significant chemoattractant activity for L3 at a low concentration of 100 mm.
The significance of the potential impacts of microbial activity on the transport properties of host rocks for geological repositories is an area of active research. Most recent work has focused on granitic environments. This paper describes pilot studies investigating changes in transport properties that are produced by microbial activity in sedimentary rock environments in northern Japan. For the first time, these short experiments (39 days maximum) have shown that the denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas denitrificans, can survive and thrive when injected into flow-through column experiments containing fractured diatomaceous mudstone and synthetic groundwater under pressurized conditions. Although there were few significant changes in the fluid chemistry, changes in the permeability of the biotic column, which can be explained by the observed biofilm formation, were quantitatively monitored. These same methodologies could also be adapted to obtain information from cores originating from a variety of geological environments including oil reservoirs, aquifers and toxic waste disposal sites to provide an understanding of the impact of microbial activity on the transport of a range of solutes, such as groundwater contaminants and gases (e.g. injected carbon dioxide).
The antibody responses of 194 volunteers were studied for up to 3 years after primary immunization with one, two or three doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine, administered either in 0·1 ml volumes intradermally (i.d.) or as 1·0 ml intramuscularly (i.m.). Sero-conversion occurred in 95% of subjects after the first injection and in 100% after the second. The highest titres and most durable antibody responses were induced by three injections of vaccine.
Booster doses were administered either by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or i.d. route, after 6, 12 or 24 months to randomly grouped volunteers; these induced responses ≥ 5·0 i.u. per ml in 95% of subjects. The responses were rapid and were neither influenced by the primary regimen nor by the timing and route of the booster dose.
Antibody titres after i.d. immunization were only two-fold lower than those induced by the larger volume of vaccine. The findings suggest that the i.d. route is both effective and economic.
We explore the general characteristics of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Galaxy using the Stellar Abundances for Galactic Archaeology (SAGA) database (Suda et al. 2008, PASJ, 60, 1159). The overall trend of EMP stars suggests that there are at least two types of extra mixing to change the surface abundances of EMP stars. One is to deplete lithium abundance during the early phase of giant branch and another is to decrease C/N ratio by one order of magnitude during the red giant branch or AGB phase. On the other hand, these mixing processes are different from those suggested in the Galactic globular clusters because of the different relations between O, Na, Mg, and Al abundances.
The effect of artesunate (ART) on the survival time of adult worm pairs of Schistosoma mansoni and on their egg output during in vitro culture was assessed. ART significantly decreased the survival time of both paired male and female worms at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg l− 1 during in vitro cultivation. An inhibitory effect of ART on the daily egg output of paired female worms during in vitro cultivation was also observed.
We propose a parallel resistance model (PRM) in which total resistance (Rtotal) is given by the parallel connection of resistance of a filament (Rfila) and that of a film excluding the filament (Rexcl)—that is, 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl—to understand direct current (dc) electric properties of resistive random-access memory (ReRAM). To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the resistance on temperature, R(T), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of RHRS of Pt/NiO/Pt on the area of a top electrode, S, are investigated. It is clarified that both the R(T) and RSD depended on S, and all such dependencies can be explained by the PRM. The fact that Rtotal is decided by the magnitude relation between Rfila and Rexcl makes transport properties S-dependent and hinders the correct understanding of ReRAM. Smaller S is essential to observe the intrinsic transport properties of ReRAM filaments.
The transition from a differentiated germ cell into a totipotent zygote during oogenesis and preimplantation development is critical to the creation of a new organism. During this period, cell characteristics change dynamically, suggesting that a global alteration of gene expression patterns occurs, which is regulated by global changes in various epigenetic factors. Among these, transcription factors (TFs) are essential in the direct regulation of transcription and also play important roles in determining cell characteristics. However, no comprehensive analysis of TFs from germ cells to embryos had been undertaken. We used mRNA amplification systems and microarrays to conduct a genomewide analysis of TFs at various stages of oogenesis and preimplantation development. The greatest alteration in TFs occurred between the 1- and 2-cell stages, at which time zygotic genome activation (ZGA) occurs. Our analysis of TFs classified by structure and function revealed several specific patterns of change. Basic transcription factors, which are the general components of transcription, increased transiently at the 2-cell stage, while homeodomain (HD) TFs were expressed specifically in the oocyte. TFs containing the Rel homology region (RHR) and Ets domains were expressed at a high level in 2-cell and blastocyst embryos. Thus, the global TF dynamics that occur during oogenesis and preimplantation development seem to regulate the transition from germ-cell-type to embryo-type gene expression.
A parallel resistance model (PRM), in which the total resistance, Rtotal, is given by a parallel connection of resistance of a filament, Rfila, and that of a film excluding a filament, Rexcl, was proposed to understand DC electric properties of resistive RAM (ReRAM). Here, the relationship of 1/Rtotal = 1/Rfila + 1/Rexcl is satisfied. To prove the validity of this model, the dependence of the relationship between resistance and temperature, R(T), of Pt/NiO/Pt on an area of a top electrode, S, was investigated. It was clarified that R(T) depended on S, which is the result definitely expected by the PRM. It was also clarified that smaller S is crucial to observe intrinsic properties of a filament of ReRAM.
The characteristic of the electrostatic mode excited in non-neutral plasma in the equilibrium state is closely related to the internal state of plasma. This relationship has been used for non-destructive diagnosis of non-neutral plasma. Under the present conditions, this diagnosis is only supported by simplified theory. We employ numerical simulation reflecting actual experimental conditions and examine the characteristic of this electrostatic mode.
Pseudoelastic behavior of Fe3Ga single crystals regardless of a thermoelastic martensitic transformation was investigated focusing on the dislocation structure and the phase constituent. Large pseudoelasticity of 5 % recoverable strain appeared in Fe3Ga single crystals sufficiently annealed in the D03 single-phase region. In the crystals, uncoupled and paired 1/4 superpartial dislocations moved dragging the nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest neighbor (NNN) anti-phase boundaries (APBs) during loading, respectively. During unloading, these APBs pulled back the superpartials resulting in large pseudoelasticity, which is similar to D03-ordered Fe3Al crystals. The dislocation configuration was closely related to the ordered domain structure developed in the D03 phase. Moreover, the precipitation of the thermally stable L12 phase was so slow that the metastable D03 phase developed even if the crystals were annealed in the (a+ L12) and (D03+ L12) phase fields in Fe-Ga equilibrium phase diagram. The metastable D03 phase also demonstrated large pseudoelasticity of which recovery ratio was above 80 %. On the other hand, if the L12 phase precipitated by long time annealing in the (a+ L12) region, the reversible motion of 1/4 superpartials was suppressed by the L12 phase resulting in a decrease in recovery ratio. In addition, the crystals aged in the (a+ D03) phase region showed small strain recovery.
We present detailed abundance measurements of neutron-capture elements for the two very metal-poor stars HD 6268 and HD 122563, based on very high-quality, near-UV spectra (S/N >140 @3100A) using Subaru/HDS. Abundances have been obtained for a total of 26 and 19 neutron-capture elements in these two stars, respectively, including Nb, Mo, Ru, Pd, Ag, Pr, and Sm. We have confirmed that the abundance pattern of neutron-capture elements in HD 6268 agrees very well with that of previously known r-process-enhanced stars. In contrast, the elemental abundances of HD 122563 are found to steeply decrease with increasing atomic number than those of HD 6268, and are much lower than than the r-process pattern in solar-system material. This result provides a new, strong constraint on models of the nucleosynthetic process that has provided light neutron-capture elements in the very early Galaxy.