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Public stigma alters attitudes towards people with mental illness, and is a particular concern for young people since most mental health problems occur in adolescence and young adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term effects of repeated filmed social contact (FSC) on reducing mental health-related stigma among young adults in the general population, compared with self-instructional Internet search (INS) and control interventions.
This study is a parallel-group randomised controlled trial over 12 months conducted in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 259 university students (male n = 150, mean age = 20.0 years, s.d. = 1.2) were recruited from 20 colleges and universities between November 2013 and July 2014, without being provided information about the mental health-related survey or trial. Participants were assigned to one of three groups before completion of the baseline survey (FSC/INS/control = 89/83/87). The FSC group received a computer-based 30-min social contact film with general mental health education and five follow-up web-based FSCs at 2-month intervals. The INS group undertook a 30-min search for mental health-related information with five follow-up web-based reminders for self-instructional searches at 2-month intervals. The control group played PC games and had no follow-up intervention. The main outcome measures were the future (intended behaviour) domain of the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale at 12 months after the intervention. Analysis was conducted in September 2015.
At the 12-month follow-up, 218 participants completed the survey (84.1%, 75:70:73). The FSC group showed the greatest change at the 12-month follow-up (FSC: mean change 2.11 [95% CI 1.49, 2.73], INS: 1.04 [0.29, 1.80], control: 0.71 [0.09, 1.33]; FSC v. INS p = 0.037, FSC v. controls p = 0.004). No adverse events were reported during the follow-up period.
FSC was more successful in reducing stigma at 12 months after intervention than INS or control interventions. FSC could be used to reduce stigma in educational lectures and anti-stigma campaigns targeted at young people.
This study is registered at UMIN-CTR (No. UMIN000012239).
We have made a CO(J=2-1) observations using the Nobeyama 45m telescope aimed at examining the physical properties of the molecular gas in this object. The upper limit obtained is 1.8 mK (3σ) at a velocity resolution of 100 km s−1, which leads to an upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 5.3 × 1011M⊙, if we assume a line width of 250 km s−1 obtained in the CO(J = 5 - 4) line (rest-frame) and the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 4.5 (M⊙ K km s−1 pc2). The line ratio between the 2–1 line and the 5–4 line as well as those from the 7–6 and the 4–3 lines (Omont et al. 1996, Nature, 382, 428) imply that the mean gas density is as high as 103–5 cm−3, which is comparable to that in nearby star burst galaxies (e.g., Solomon et al. 1992, ApJ, 387, L55).
RXJ 13434+0001 is a rare example of radio-quiet type-2 quasars at high redshift. It was discovered through deep ROSAT observations and identified with a galaxy with a strong but narrow Lyα emission line at z = 2.35. In order to constrain the hard-X-ray properties we observed RXJ 13434+0001 with ASCA. The main purpose is to study the origin of the X-ray emission observed with ROSAT. If it is a scattered component from a strongly absorbed AGN, we could see it much brighter in the hard X-ray band.
To reveal the origin of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the hard band, we are now conducting a wide (~ 7 deg2) and deep (~ 1 × 10−13 erg sec−1 cm−2 in the 2-10 keV band) survey with the ASCA (the ASCA Large Sky Survey, hereafter LSS). We have detected 83 sources above 4 sigma level in the 0.7-10 keV band with the GIS and resolved ~30% of the CXB in the 2-10 keV band into discrete sources (Ueda 1996). AGNs (type 1 and type 2) and clusters of galaxies are expected to be major contributers to these X-ray sources.
ASCA DSS was intended to carry out unbiased surveys in wide energy range of 0.5-10 keV. The strategy of this project is to survey small sky region with extremely high sensitivity reaching to the source confusion limit of ASCA XRT, in contrast to the Large Sky Survey project (Ueda 1996) which covers much larger sky area with relatively shallow exposure.
The origin of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) radiation has been investigated extensively by soft X-ray deep survey imaging observations with Einstein and ROSAT. In contrast, the lack of telescopes capable of detecting hard X-rays has prevented us from extensive study of the nature of the CXB in the energy range above 2 keV before ASCA.
We have made a CO (J=2−1) observation using the Nobeyama 45m telescope aimed at examining physical properties of the molecular gas in the object. Upper limit obtained is 1.8 mK (3σ) at a velocity resolution of 100 km s−1, which leads to an upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 5.3 × 1011M⊙, if we assume a line width of 250 km s−1 obtained in J = 5–4 line and the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 4.5 M⊙ K km s−1 pc2. The line ratio between 2–1 line and 5–4 line as well as those from 7–6 and 4–3 lines (Omont et al. 1996) imply that the mean gas density is as high as 103–5 cm−3, which is comparable to that in nearby star burst galaxies (e.g., Solomon et al. 1992).
Since the bulk of the energy density of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) resides in the harder energy band than that of the ROSAT band (0.5-2 keV) and since the X-ray sources identified in the ROSAT band have X-ray spectra softer than that of the CXB, investigation of nature of the X-ray sources at the harder energy band is indispensable to solve the origin of the CXB. However, only 2-3% of the CXB in the hard band (2-10 keV) had been resolved into discrete sources (Piccinotti et al. 1982, ApJ 253, 485). We present our preliminary results of optical follow-up observations of the ASCA Lynx deep survey.
A balloon-borne X-ray instrument with the modulation collimator was designed and constructed to study the structure of solar X-ray flares. The angular resolution was approximately one arc minute. The instrument was used on an occasion of X-ray flare on Sept. 27, 1970.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.
Porous silicon oxidized by thermal, anodic and plasma processes has been investigated mainly using transmission microscopy, ion scattering techniques for compositional depth analysis (including H) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Suitable thermal oxidation of PS can increases in PL peak energy: the largest peak energy attained in the present study is 2.6eV (475nm). In the case of anodic oxidation, PL excitation spectra measured suggest the presence of some effect other than the quantum confinement effect at the initial oxidation stage while the latter may be effective at the subsequent anodic oxidation stage and in the thermal oxidation process. Electroluminescence was also observed from the oxidized porous silicon.
We have fabricated two kinds of n-type microcrystalline silicon carbon (μc-SiC) / porous silicon (PS) / p-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) pn junctions and demonstrated a visible light emission from them. We have observed three types of visible light emission; an uniform red light emission at a forward current above 12mA/cm2 for the pn junction using a 0.2–0.4 Qcm c-Si substrate, and a very weak white light emission at a forward current of about 90 mA/mm2 and a strong orange-red light emission at a forward current from 200 to 619 mA/mm2for the pn junction using a 3.5–4.5 Ωcm c-Si substrate.
Delafossite-type CuAlO2 thin films have been deposited by radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering on sapphire using a CuAlO2 ceramic target. A study of structural and optical properties was performed on films of varying deposition parameters such as substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure and also post annealing. The crystalline phase in the films was identified to be the delafossite structure by x-ray diffraction. The optical properties, such as the wavelength dependence of the transmittance and the band gap, were determined. The average transmittance is 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1500 nm and the band gap is 3.81 eV.
We have measured electrical properties and electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of the light-emitting diode (LED) based on a pn junction of n-type microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC) and porous silicon (PS). The μc-SiC/PS pn junctions showed rectification behavior, and a uniform red EL was observed at a forward voltage larger than 15V. From the relationship between the EL intensity and the forward current, the EL mechanism is interpreted as the recombination of electron-hole pairs doubly injected into the PS layer. No degradation was observed in the EL intensity during the measurements over 8 hours. These results means that μc-SiC serves well as a electron injector to the PS.