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A variety of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) develops a broad spectrum of both ataxia and non-ataxia symptoms. Cognitive and affective changes are one such non-ataxia symptoms, but have been described only in hereditary SCAs with exonic CAG gene expansion.
We newly found intronic hexanucleotide GGCCTG gene expansion in NOP56 gene as the causative mutation (=SCA36) in nine unrelated Japanese familial SCA originating from Asida river area in the western part of Japan, thus nicknamed Asidan for this mutation. These patients show unique clinical balance of cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron disease (MND), locating on the crossroad of these two diseases. We examined cognitive and affective analyses on 12 Asidan patients who agreed to join the examination.
The 12 Asidan patients demonstrated a significant decrease in their frontal executive functions measured by frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) compared with age- and gender-matched controls, whilst mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa dementia score-revised (HDS-R) were within normal range. the decline of frontal executive function was related to their disease duration and scale for the assessment and rating of ataxias (SARA). They also demonstrated mild depression and apathy. Single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) analysis showed that these Asidan patients showed decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a particular areas of cerebral cortices such as Brodmann areas 24 and 44-46.
These data suggest the patients with Asidan mutation show unique cognitive and affective characteristics different from other hereditary SCAs with exonal CAG expansion or MND.
We previously reported that high concentrations (≥3.42 mM) of calcium during in vitro fertilization (IVF) disturbed the extrusion of the second polar body (PBII) in C3H/He inbred mice. In this study, the substrain specificity of this phenomenon was examined under 1.71–6.84 mM calcium concentration in ova from six C3H/He mouse commercially available substrains in Japan. PBII extrusion in ova from J substrains was not affected by calcium concentrations (<10% at any calcium level), but was grossly disturbed at high calcium levels in the ova of other substrains. This result has practical applications for the efficient production of normal zygotes by IVF, therefore contributing to the reduction in the numbers of donor animals for further zygote or embryo manipulation. Care must be taken in choosing IVF medium for particular strains and substrains.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Public stigma alters attitudes towards people with mental illness, and is a particular concern for young people since most mental health problems occur in adolescence and young adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term effects of repeated filmed social contact (FSC) on reducing mental health-related stigma among young adults in the general population, compared with self-instructional Internet search (INS) and control interventions.
This study is a parallel-group randomised controlled trial over 12 months conducted in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 259 university students (male n = 150, mean age = 20.0 years, s.d. = 1.2) were recruited from 20 colleges and universities between November 2013 and July 2014, without being provided information about the mental health-related survey or trial. Participants were assigned to one of three groups before completion of the baseline survey (FSC/INS/control = 89/83/87). The FSC group received a computer-based 30-min social contact film with general mental health education and five follow-up web-based FSCs at 2-month intervals. The INS group undertook a 30-min search for mental health-related information with five follow-up web-based reminders for self-instructional searches at 2-month intervals. The control group played PC games and had no follow-up intervention. The main outcome measures were the future (intended behaviour) domain of the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale at 12 months after the intervention. Analysis was conducted in September 2015.
At the 12-month follow-up, 218 participants completed the survey (84.1%, 75:70:73). The FSC group showed the greatest change at the 12-month follow-up (FSC: mean change 2.11 [95% CI 1.49, 2.73], INS: 1.04 [0.29, 1.80], control: 0.71 [0.09, 1.33]; FSC v. INS p = 0.037, FSC v. controls p = 0.004). No adverse events were reported during the follow-up period.
FSC was more successful in reducing stigma at 12 months after intervention than INS or control interventions. FSC could be used to reduce stigma in educational lectures and anti-stigma campaigns targeted at young people.
This study is registered at UMIN-CTR (No. UMIN000012239).
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.
We report an extremely rare case of maxillary haemangioma.
Case report and review of the literature concerning haemangioma arising from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Maxillary haemangioma is rare and sometimes requires wider resection than nasal haemangioma if a large tumour is found. We present a case of maxillary haemangioma in a 37-year-old Japanese woman, which was completely resected by pre-operative embolisation and endoscopic sinus surgery.
Our findings suggest that if a large maxillary haemangioma is diagnosed pre-operatively, the treatment of choice is pre-operative embolisation followed by endoscopic sinus surgery, in order to avoid the surgical complications associated with wide resection.
In order to reveal the stellar mass distribution of z ~ 3 galaxies, we are conducting deep imaging observations of U-dropout Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems in K-band, which corresponds to rest-frame V-band of z ~ 3 galaxies. The results of the Subaru intensive-program observations with AO36/NGS/IRCS indicate that 1) the K-band peaks of some of the LBGs brighter than K = 22.0 mag show significant offset from those in the optical images, 2) the z ~ 3 LBGs and serendipitously observed Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) have flat profiles similar to disk galaxies in the local universe (i.e., Sérsic with n < 2), and 3) the surface stellar mass densities of the LBGs are 3-6 times larger than those of disk galaxies at z = 0 − 1. Considering the lack of n > 2 systems among the luminous z ~ 3 LBGs and DRGs, and their strong spatial clustering, we infer that the dense n < 2 disk-like structures evolve into the n > 2 spheroids of nearby galaxies through relaxations due to major merger events.
Procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei remain and propagate in the midgut of tsetse fly where iron is rich. Additional iron is also required for their growth in in vitro culture. However, little is known about the genes involved in iron metabolism and the mechanism of iron utilization in procyclic-form cells. Therefore, we surveyed the genes involved in iron metabolism in the T. b. brucei genome sequence database. We found a potential homologue of vacuole protein sorting 41 (VPS41), a gene that is required for high-affinity iron transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cloned the full-length gene (TbVPS41). Complementation analysis of TbVPS41 in ΔScvps41 yeast cells showed that TbVPS41 could partially suppress the inability of ΔScvps41 yeast cells to grow on low-iron medium, but it could not suppress the fragmented vacuole phenotype. Further RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knock-down in procyclic-form cells resulted in a significant reduction of growth in low-iron medium; however, no change in growth was observed in normal culture medium. Transmission electron microscopy showed that RNAi caused T. b. brucei cells to have larger numbers of small intracellular vesicles, similar to the fragmented vacuoles observed in ΔScvps41 yeast cells. The present study demonstrates that TbVPS41 plays an important role in the intracellular iron utilization system as well as in the maintenance of normal cellular morphology.
A study of electric-pulse-induced crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) was conducted by in situ scanning electron microscopy observation and resistance measurement. A lateral phase-change memory with a top GST channel connected by two separate underlying electrodes was adopted in this study to easily observe the crystallization process. At a low voltage pulse, randomly distributed nuclei were initiated. At the first growth stage, these nuclei grew fast with the pulse amplitude at a rate of around 60 nm/V and then growth rate slowed down to around 14 nm/V when the grain diameter was closed to film thickness. Device resistance during crystallization dropped by around one order of magnitude, which should be due to amorphous to face-centered-cubic transition.
In this paper, characterizations of sputtered undoped and nitrogen-doped Sb2Te3 (ST and STN) films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and resistance measurements are described and their application of lateral phase-change memory (PCM) is presented. Nitrogen concentration of the films was controlled by changing the flow rate ratio of N2/Ar during sputtering. Resitivity of STN films drops by 3-4 orders of magnitude due to crystallization. Resistivity increase of the STN film (N2/Ar=0.15) at above 270°C results from phase precipitation of SbN. Experimental results reveal that the temperature of crystallization to face-centered cubic (fcc) significantly increases from below 100°C to 160–220°C with increasing the ratio of N2/Ar (in the range of 0–0.15) and crystal structure further transforms from fcc to hexagonal. At high flow rate ratio of N2/Ar (>0.15), hexagonal Te phase firstly appears at 160°C and then orthorhombic SbN appears at 290°C.
Transverse cracking may occur in high strength low alloy CC slabs.
This phenomenon is associated to a hot ductility trough resulting
from intergranular ferrite that forms at the beginning of the γ-α
transformation. Sumitomo has developed a hot tensile machine and a
unique slab surface microstructure control process to improve hot
ductility. The process based on controlled accelerated secondary
cooling has been successfully implemented on Kashima n°2 caster.
Infective larvae of an intestinal nematode, Strongyloides venezuelensis, enter rodent hosts percutaneously, and migrate through connective tissues and lungs. Then they arrive at the small intestine, where they reach maturity. It is not known how S. venezuelensis larvae develop during tissue migration. Here we demonstrate that tissue invasion ability of S. venezuelensis larvae changes drastically during tissue migration, and that the changes are associated with stage-specific protein expression. Infective larvae, connective tissue larvae, lung larvae, and mucosal larvae were used to infect mice by various infection methods, including percutaneous, subcutaneous, oral, and intraduodenal inoculation. Among different migration stages, only infective larvae penetrated mouse skin. Larvae, once inside the host, quickly lost skin penetration ability, which was associated with the disappearance of an infective larva-specific metalloprotease. Migrating larvae had connective tissue migration ability until in the lungs, where larvae became able to settle down in the intestinal mucosa. Lung larvae and mucosal larvae were capable of producing and secreting adhesion molecules.