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Cats are known to be the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the agents of ‘cat-scratch disease’ in humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the two Bartonella species on 1754 cat bloods collected from all prefectures in Japan during 2007–2008 by a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 4·6% (80/1754) of the cats examined. The nested-PCR showed that 48·8% (39/80) of the positive cats were infected with B. henselae mono-infection, 33·8% (27/80) with B. clarridgeiae mono-infection and 17·5% (14/80) were infected with both species. The prevalence (5·9%; 65/1103) of Bartonella infection in the western part of Japan was significantly higher than that (2·3%; 15/651) of eastern Japan (P < 0·001). Statistical analysis of the cats examined suggested a significant association between Bartonella infection and FeLV infection (OR = 1·9; 95% CI = 1·1–3·4), but not with FIV infection (OR = 1·6; 95% CI = 1·0–2·6).
In the fields of engineering, nanoscience, and biomechanics, thin structural members, such as beams, plates, and shells, that are supported by an elastic medium are used in several applications. There is a possibility that these thin structures might buckle under severe loading conditions; higher-order, complicated elastic buckling modes can be found owing to the balance of rigidities between the thin members and elastic supports. In this study, we have shown a new and simple ‘power law’ relation between the critical buckling strain (or loads) and rigidity parameters in structural members supported by an elastic medium, which can be modelled as a Winkler foundation. The following structural members have been considered in this paper: i) a slender beam held by an outer elastic support under axial loading, ii) cylindrical shells supported by an inner elastic core under hydrostatic pressure (plane strain condition), and iii) complete spherical shells that are filled with an inner elastic medium.
We have been carrying out solar wind measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) method. Our IPS observation system is operated at a frequency of 327MHz and consists of four stations located at Toyokawa, Fuji, Sugadaira and Kiso. The present system, however, has insufficient sensitivity to measure enough IPS sources for observing the solar wind with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. Therefore we have been excuting the upgrade project since 1994 in order to observe a larger number of compact radio sources. The Fuji system has been improved successfully and has achieved sensitivity by a factor over five compared with the previous system. The upgrade project is now in progress for the Toyokawa and Sugadaira station.
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.
The superbubble (SB) 30 Dor C with the strong non-thermal X-ray emission is one of the best targets for study of the cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration. We investigated X-ray spectral properties of the SB with a high spatial resolution of ~10 pc. Consequently, the spectra in the east regions can be described with a combination of absorbed thermal and non-thermal models while the spectra in the west regions can be fitted with an absorbed non-thermal model. We found that the observed photon index and intensity in 2-10 keV show variations of 2.0-3.5 and (0.6-8.0) × 10−7 erg s−1 cm−2 str−1, respectively. The results are possibly caused by the spatial variation of the CR acceleration efficiency and/or the circumstellar environment.
Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20·7% of the farms and 19·5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing.
Electroabsorption spectroscopy of well-identified index-defined semiconducting carbon nanotubes is reported. The measurement of high definition electroabsorption spectra allows direct indexation with unique nanotube chirality. Results show that at least for a limited range of diameters, electroabsorption is directly proportional to the exciton binding energy of nanotubes. Electroabsorption is a powerful technique which directly probes into carbon nanotube excitonic states, and may become a useful tool for in situ study of excitons in future nanotube-based photonic devices such as electroabsorption modulators.
Generation of C60 at a rate of more than 10 grams per day has been accomplished by operation of a carbon arc in an atmosphere of helium. Optimum yield of 15% was found to occur near 100–200 torr, but yields greater than 3% were found throughout the range between 50 and 760 torr. A model is proposed to explain the observed behavior based on competition between annealing of graphitic sheets to curve so that they minimize dangling bonds, and further rapid growth of these sheets in the gas phase to form giant fullerenes. In agreement with predictions of this model, laser vaporization of graphite targets was found to produce macroscopic quantities of C60 only when performed in an oven above 1000 C.
It has been confirmed that avalanche multiplication occurs in amorphous semiconductors, especially in amorphous selenium. The obtained hole and electron ionization rates, β and α, have single exponential dependence on the reciprocal electric field. This phenomenon has been successfully applied for the first time to a highly-sensitive image-pickup tube with quantum efficiency as high as 10. This avalanche vidicon has excellent S/N characteristics. This may be due to the large ratio of hole to electron ionization rates from the shot noise analysis.
Lihgt-induced change in photovoltaic performance of p-i-n solar cell was studied. The behavior of degradation of the solar cell strongly depends on the intensity and the spectrum of illumination light. The results of these light soaking tests are presented and discussed. On the basis of these results, the superiority of double-stacked a-Si/a-Si tandem solar cells is discussed.
Using a Kr ion laser (λ = 647.1 nm) to produce a carrier generation rate G of 3 × 1020 cm−3s−1, we have saturated the light-induced defect generation in hydrogenated (and fluorinated) amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(F)), within a few hours near room temperature. While the defect generation rate scales roughly with 1/G2, the saturation defect densities Ns,sat are essentially independent of G. The saturation is not due to thermal annealing. We have further measured Ns,sat m 37 a-Si:H(F) films grown in six different reactors under different conditions. The results show that Ns,sat lies between 5 × 1016 and 2 × 1017 cm−3, that Ns,sat drops with decreasing optical gap and hydrogen content, and that Ns,sat is not correlated with the initial defect density or with the Urbach energy.
We light-soaked two a-Si:H, F films up to 1,300 hours at a generation rate of 5×1020 cm−3s− 1. The films differ in fluorine content (1 vs. 5 at.%) and in hydrogen content (8 vs. 15 at.%). At each step, we measured the subgap absorption with the constant photocurrent method, the dark- and the photoconductivity. The magnitude and rate of light-induced defect production is similar to that of a-Si:H films.
We describe a detailed study of surface states on a-Si:H, F films deposited by DC-plasma from SiF4 and H2. In the a-Si:H, F growth from these source gases, the density of surface states (Nss) and the Urbach Energy (Eu) show a reciprocal relation, meaning that the film grown with less bond distortion is accompanied by a higher density of surface states. These surface states can be reduced by keeping the films at growth temperature after termination of growth; immediate cooling produces a high density. This suggests that bonds can rearrange on or near the film surface at growth temperature, after growth termination. Nss can be made as high as l×1014 cm−2. The surface states can be measured by optical subgap absorption, but do not give an ESR signal. A high density of these surface states lowers the Pd-Schottky barrier height. Time-of flight electron collection data show that the surface states act as deep electron traps, located at about 0.4eV below the conduction band edge. We present and discuss other experimental results to help understand these nature of the surface state on a-Si:H, F.
Recent studies of electronic structure of solid fullerenes have revealed many interesting properties of these systems. In the present paper, the effects of substitution of carbon atoms by nitrogen and/or boron. We have modified our C60 fcc band-structure program to calculate the electronic properties of the C58BN fcc crystal, where we adopt the mixed-basis approach in which the Is, 2s, and 2p orbitals in addition to about 2000 plane waves are included. The band structure and the charge density distribution are calculated for the first time. When B and N are substituted in places of two C atoms sharing a double bond in C60, we found that there is no donor nor accepter level, and no net charge transfer between B and N. This character is considerably different from the boron-substituted fullerenes.
The effects of C60 molecular orientation and rotation on the electronic structure of fcc C60 solid have been investigated by performing a band structure calculation with self-consistent mixed-basis all electron and full-potential approach within local density approximation. We present an angle-dependent density of states of HOMO and LUMO bands, which should be compared to the angle-resolved photoemission data.
A pressure controlled vapor source was developed for the gas source doping of (Hg,Cd)Te alloys. The dopant source has been subjected to extensive tests, and the flow characteristics determined. The dopant source was used to control the flow rates of ethyliodide for the n-type doping of CdTe. Highly conductive CdTe:l films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy.
Carbon powders prepared by the RF thermal plasma treatment of phenolic resin were examined for the anode materials of lithium secondary battery. Modification of these carbon powders in chemical composition, crystal structure and surface morphology was characteristics of the thermal plasma treatment The treated powders showed the unique microstructure. TEM observation showed the non-uniform distribution of graphitized and amorphous areas in the particles. The electrochemical measurements as an anode for lithium secondary battery were examined in IM LiClO4 in a 50:50 mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate. While the electrochemical extraction of lithium ion from plasma-prepared carbon powders proceeded in three stages, the electrochemical insertion looked to proceed in two stages. These electrochemical features can be associated with the uncommon microstructure characteristics.
The modification of surface reactions with an inert gas plasma treatment method has been investigated for the first time in order to improve the properties of a-Si:H for solar cells. The deposition of a thin a-Si:H layer and exposure to inert gas plasma such as He, Ar or Xe were repeated by using RF plasma CVD at a substrate temperature of 200 °C. It has been found that the hydrogen content (CH) can be controlled in a wide range from about 18 atomic% to about 35 atomic%, although it is a hydrogen-free process. Experimental results show that the change in CH of a-Si:H films is mainly determined by the decrease in CH of the treated a-Si:H surface and the increase in CH of the a-Si:H deposited on the treated surface. Furthermore, the plasma treatment probably promotes the surface reaction, which reduces SiH2ISiH and CH. Consequently, wide-gap (1.64 eV by ( a h ν )1/3 versus h ν plots, 1.75 - 1.85 eV by Tauc's plot) a-Si:H films with high stabilized photoconductivity (> 10-5 Ω-1cm-1 under AM-1, 100 mW/cm2 irradiation) have been obtained by the inert gas plasma treatment method.