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Fornax A (NGC 1316) is a radio galaxy with prototypical double lobes. Feigelson et al. (1995 ApJ 449, L149) and Kaneda et al. (1995 ApJ 454, L13) detected inverse Compton X-rays for the first time from its radio lobes, and unambiguously derived the lobe magnetic field intensity of 2-4 μG. Accordingly, the radio-emitting electrons in the lobes are inferred to have a Lorentz factor of 104, and hence a synchrotron life time of ~108 yr. This means that Fornax A was highly active at least 108 years ago.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
All-oxide S-N-S (superconductor-normal layer-superconductor) junctions having a planar structure are fabricated and their electrical characteristics in the normal state are investigated. The superconducting electrodes are composed of HoBa2Cu3O7−x, and the normal layer is La1.5Ba1.5Cu3O7-y. Conductance characteristics are measured and their behaviors are explained by the geometrical resonance of quasiparticles. A pair potential distribution in the normal layer is estimated from the resonance structure.
The metal abundances in the hot X-ray emitting interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies give us important information about the present metal supply into the ISM through supernovae (SNe) Ia and stellar mass loss. In addition, O and Mg abundances should reflect the stellar metallicity and enable us to directly look into the formation history of these galaxies. The XIS instrument onboard the Suzaku satellite has an improved line spread function due to a very small low-pulse-height tail below 1 keV coupled with a very low background.
Positive surgical indications for an only hearing ear were evaluated in order to improve patients' quality of life. Fifteen cases of surgery involving an only hearing ear over the past eight years were retrospectively reviewed. Of eight perforated chronic otitis media cases, seven underwent type one tympanoplasty and one underwent simple underlay myringoplasty regardless of otorrhoea at the time of surgery. Of six cholesteatoma cases, two received the canal wall up method and four received the canal wall down method. Ossiculoplasty was carefully performed in six cases. Hearing was improved in seven cases, whereas it remained unchanged in seven cases and deteriorated in one case. Of nine patients, two did not need a hearing aid after surgery. Five patients with severe combined hearing loss (>90 dB) were able to communicate with a hearing aid, alleviating their anxiety regarding hearing loss. Only hearing ears with chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma can be successfully treated by tympanoplasty with or without ossiculoplasty.
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