Background: Surgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in eloquent areas is significantly associated with greater surgical morbidity. We describe a functional approach for surgical treatment of these lesions Methods: A total of 20 patients with AVMs in eloquent areas were surgically treated and retrospectively analyzed. Individualized functional approach, using brain mapping and/or neurophysiological monitoring was performed in each case according to every case specific features and location. Seventeen patients underwent surgery under assleep conditions and 3 -patients underwent awake intraoperative mapping Results: There was no mortality. Four patients had hemorrhagic complications (20%). Ten (50%) presented neurological immediate postoperative worsening. Eight of them achieved complete recovery in follow up and 2 showed a permanent deficit. At 6 months follow up all the patients (100%) had good clinical outcome (mRS less than 2). There were no intraoperative seizures but 5 patients (26.3%) developed postoperative seizures. Fifteen patients (75%) had total AVM resection. Language and/or motor function were identified in all but one patient (95%). Each case required changes in surgical strategy to preserve the motor and/or language functions during surgery. Conclusions: Intraoperative monitoring and brain mapping are valuable and safe for the treatment of eloquent AVMs by indentifying and protecting motor and language function during resection.