A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic DNA of Phialophora gregata f. sp. sojae, the causal agent of soybean brown stem rot. Specific oligonucleotide primer pairs were designed to flank individual microsatellite loci, and used in PCR to detect polymorphisms among 118 contemporary and archival isolates of P. gregata from several countries, which represent two distinct, but sympatric populations delineated by rDNA genotypes. In general, low levels of genetic variation were observed and manifested in two ways. First, the number of polymorphic loci was low. Among 24 microsatellite loci screened, four polymorphic loci were detected, and two of them were located on the same clone. Second, the number of alleles in the polymorphic loci was low. Only two alleles were observed in each polymorphic locus. Alleles of the polymorphic microsatellite loci were invariant within, but different between, the two populations of P. gregata. From all evidence available, P. gregata f. sp. sojae exhibits several genetic features characteristic of clonal genetic structure, namely widespread distribution and stability of identical genotypes, absence of recombinant genotypes, and correlation of independent genetic traits including three sets of molecular markers, defoliating and nondefoliating pathotypes, and differential pathogenic fitness.