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A walking robot consisting of double Stewarts parallel legs was designed by our research team in the past time, which was mainly used for the transportation of the wounded after the disaster. In order to promote stability of control locomotion and ensure invariably horizontal state of the robot platform in the process of motion, the central pattern generator (CPG) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is presented to optimize the kinematic model. The purpose of optimization is to solve the hysteresis problem of displacement variation among the electric cylinders. Moreover, the dynamic model of the robot is established, which can provide mechanical basis for the feedback of control signal and make the robot move stably. The simulation results show that the displacement hysteresis problem of the electric cylinders is solved well. Meanwhile, compared with simulation results based on GA-CPG method, it is demonstrated that the robot motion planned using PSO-CPG method has better motion stability and can avoid the impact of legs landing during the transition phase of the motion cycle. The experimental results show that the platform on the robot can maintain an invariably horizontal state, and the locomotion is more stable. It verifies the feasibility of PSO-CPG model and the correctness of the dynamic model of the parallel mobile rescue robot.
Precise prediction of unsteady flapping aerodynamics in insect flight is of potential importance in the analysis of maneuverability and flight control. While the quasi-steady model is a cheap while reasonable tool, accurate evaluation of unsteady dynamic effects in complex flight behaviours remains a challenge. Here we develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data-driven aerodynamic model (CDAM), which is informed by high-fidelity CFD simulations using overset meshes to enable the precise and fast prediction of both cycle-averaged and transient aerodynamic force, torque and power with various flying motions and wing kinematics. The CDAM comprises a quasi-steady model for flapping wings and an aerodynamic model for a moving body. The least square method and a surrogate method are employed to achieve aerodynamic coefficient fitting through training using a CFD database. With comparison to CFD test data, the CDAM is validated to be capable of accurately evaluating the aerodynamic force, torque and power of a wing-body bumblebee model in various flight velocities. A genetic optimization algorithm embedded with CDAM is proposed to determine trimmed states for forward flight through adjusting wing kinematics, indicating that bumblebees likely fly in a minimized mass-specific aerodynamic power consumption. The CDAM is further applied to proportional-derivative-based longitudinal flight control of bumblebee hovering, with the control parameters optimized by Laplace transformation and the root locus method, which is implemented consistently in both CDAM and CFD environments. Our results demonstrate that CDAM provides a versatile tool to achieve fast and precise aerodynamical prediction for flying insects in various flight behaviours.
This study proposed a novel ensemble analysis strategy to improve hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) prediction by integrating environmental data. The approach began by establishing a vector autoregressive model (VAR). Then, a dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) model was used for variable selection of environmental factors. Finally, a VAR model with constraints (CVAR) was established for predicting the incidence of HFMD in Chengdu city from 2011 to 2017. DBN showed that temperature was related to HFMD at lags 1 and 2. Humidity, wind speed, sunshine, PM10, SO2 and NO2 were related to HFMD at lag 2. Compared with the autoregressive integrated moving average model with external variables (ARIMAX), the CVAR model had a higher coefficient of determination (R2, average difference: + 2.11%; t = 6.2051, P = 0.0003 < 0.05), a lower root mean-squared error (−24.88%; t = −5.2898, P = 0.0007 < 0.05) and a lower mean absolute percentage error (−16.69%; t = −4.3647, P = 0.0024 < 0.05). The accuracy of predicting the time-series shape was 88.16% for the CVAR model and 86.41% for ARIMAX. The CVAR model performed better in terms of variable selection, model interpretation and prediction. Therefore, it could be used by health authorities to identify potential HFMD outbreaks and develop disease control measures.
The particular environment with high temperature and low plasma density in the corona results to the formation of some forbidden emission lines, in which the well-known green line at 530.3 nm has been utilized to diagnose the corona for a few decades. For the green line, besides its contribution on revealing the long-term coronal cycles as well as their relationship to the other solar phenomena, it is also helpful to detect limb coronal waves and ejections originated from the lower corona which seems not to be paid close attention to. Suggestions are presented that we not only need to keep the green line observation as a routine task for current coronagraph observations, but need to develop larger coronagraphs with advanced technology.
The coronal is the origins of large-scale solar activity and disastrous space weather, it contains extremely rich information and various physical processes. The coronal loop is a kind of bright structure with hot plasma which is bounded by magnetic field in the coronal, it is a good reflection of the magnetic structure that we can hardly observe directly. It is also the energy channel between the photosphere and coronal, and the study of coronal loop is helpful for us to understand the magnetic line foot movement.
The link between lithosphere thinning and formation of world-class gold deposits is well established in the Jiaodong Peninsula within the eastern North China Craton (NCC). However, the timing of initiation and duration of the lithospheric thinning process as well as the depth of formation of the mineralization remain uncertain. Since these parameters are fundamental to formulate exploration strategies, in this study we perform fission track (FT) analysis on zircon and apatite grains in Late Mesozoic granitoid samples from the Jiaodong Peninsula and provide new constraints for the mode and duration of lithospheric evolution and mineralization depth. The zircon FT ages range from 64.3 to 90.9 Ma and those of apatite show a range of 32.8–50.9 Ma. The data collectively display age peaks at ~60–80 and ~30–50 Ma. Reverse modelling of the apatite FT results indicates rapid crustal uplift during ~30–80 Ma in the Jiaodong Peninsula. This period coincides with the timing of maximal sedimentation in the neighboring basins and voluminous basaltic eruptions in the eastern NCC. We suggest that the Jiaodong Peninsula has experienced two stages of crust uplift in the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene as a consequence of the continuing lithosphere thinning, together with the surrounding basins, forming the horst–graben system in the eastern NCC. The Late Mesozoic granitoids are the main wall rocks for gold deposits in Jiaodong, and thus the crust denudation history gathered from the FT data suggest that the gold mineralization formed at depths of c. 6–11 km.
Excellent sites are necessary for developing and installing ground-based large telescopes. For very-high-resolution solar observations, it had been unclear whether there exist good candidate sites in the west areas in China, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Pamirs Plateau. The project of solar site survey for the next-generation large solar telescopes, i.e., the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) and the large coronagraph, has been launched since 2011. Based on the close collaboration among Chinese solar society and the scientists from NSO, HAO and other institutes, we have successfully developed the standard instruments for solar site survey and applied them to more than 50 different sites distributed in Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan and Ningxia provinces. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Tibet and the large Shangri-La to take systematic site data. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that a few potential sites in the large Tibetan areas should obtain the excellent astronomical conditions for our purpose to develop CGST and large coronagraph. We introduce the fresh site survey results in this report.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
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