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Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
A magnetic dipole quasi-Yagi antenna based on a dielectric resonator (DR) is proposed in this letter. The dominate TE1δ1 mode of the rectangular DR is used as a magnetic dipole which can be differentially fed by the coplanar strip line (CPS). Thanks to the DR employment, the proposed antenna has several advantages such as compact size and flexible design which means the 3-D dimensions of the DR can be easily adjusted to cater for various applications. Meanwhile, the gain of the proposed DR quasi-Yagi antenna is higher than that of traditional electric dipole counterparts. Furthermore, since the DR driver is horizontally polarized, both the metal strip and DR can be used as a director for enhancing the end-fire gain. To verify the design concept, a prototype operating at the X-band is fabricated and measured. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results can be observed.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Crack propagation behaviors in a precracked single crystal Ag under mode I loading at different temperatures are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results show that the crack propagation behaviors are sensitive to external temperature. At 0 K, the crack propagates in a brittle manner. Crack tip blunting and void generation are first observed followed by void growth and linkage with the main crack, which lead to the propagation of the main crack and brittle failure immediately without any microstructure evolution. As the temperature gets higher, more void nucleations and dislocation emissions occur in the crack propagation process. The deformation of the single crystal Ag can be considered as plastic deformation due to dislocation emissions. The crack propagation dynamics characterizing the microstructure evolution of atoms around the crack tip is also shown. Finally, it is shown that the stress of the single crystal Ag changes with the crack length synchronously.
The Sun drives most events of space weather in the vicinity of the Earth. Because the activities of the Sun are complicated, a visualized chart with key objects of solar activities is needed for space weather forecast. This work investigates the key objects in research during the past forty years and surveys a variety of solar observational data. We design the solar synoptic chart (SSC) that covers the key objects of solar activities, i.e., active regions, coronal holes, filaments/prominences, flares and coronal mass ejections, and synthesizes images from different heights and temperatures of solar atmosphere. The SSC is used to analyze the condition of the Sun in March 2012 and October 2014 as examples. The result shows that the SSC is timely, comprehensive, concise and easy to understand. It has the potentiality for space weather forecast and can help in improving the public education.
Post-flare loops (PFLs) usually appear in the late phase of eruptive flares as an arcade-like loop system. The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) delivers continuously high temporal and spatial resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations, providing a unique chance to study the PFLs. In this work, we use SDO/AIA high-quality EUV images to study the dark loop-like features in post-flare loops (DPFLs) of an X5.4 flare. Our analysis shows that: 1) the DPFLs are darker than their surrounding and the bright loops, but are brighter than the EUV background; 2) the DPFLs appear in multiple EUV channels, which indicates that they are absorption features; 3) the DPFLs are associated with downflows that are caused by the thermal instability in the cooling process of the flare.
We investigated the boron isotopic composition in loess–paleosol sequences in five different profiles in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Three possible boron sources are identified: atmospheric input, carbonates, and weathered silicate rocks. Variations of [Sr], [B], δ11B and the magnetic susceptibility correlate well with the pedogenetic intensity in three out of the five studied profiles, where pedogenesis under a cold–dry climate indicates lower δ11B, lower [B], lower magnetic susceptibility and higher [Sr] values. Exceptions to the variations between the δ11B and other known proxies were observed in arenaceous soils and the Red Clay sequence: the former suggested that vertical redistribution probably occurred with the boron migration, and the latter indicated an unknown mechanism of susceptibility enhancement. A better correlation between the δ11B and magnetic susceptibility and the quantitative estimation of boron budget from each source confirms the influence of paleoenvironmental changes on boron geochemical cycle. Significant positive correlations in Sr/Ca vs. B/Ca and Mg/Ca vs. B/Ca reflect consistent enrichment behavior of those mobile elements into calcium carbonate. The preliminary results imply that boron isotopic compositions in soils can be a potential geochemical proxy to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes in loess–paleosol sequences.
High permittivity antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)/polyimide (PI) composite films consisting of narrow size distribution ATO fillers prepared by inverse microemulsion method and PI host are synthesized by in situ polymerization. The microstructure and thermal stability of composite films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analyses, respectively. Dielectric properties of composite films with different concentrations of ATO particles of variable size are investigated in the frequency range of 102 to 2.5 × 106 Hz. The hydrophilic surface of ATO is not helpful of tight connection between the filler and host. The addition of ATO contributes slight increase of the thermal stability. However, the permittivity of composite films can be remarkably increased due to Maxwell–Wagner–Sillars polarization as well as a large number of tiny capacitors formed by ATO particles with narrow distribution and small size. The dielectric constant behavior of composite films fits well to the usual percolation theory.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impacts of n-3 PUFA and lymph drainage (D) on intestinal ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of forty-eight Sprague–Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n 16): normal diet (N), enteral nutrition (EN) and EN plus n-3 PUFA. Each group was further divided into lymph drainage (I/R+D) and non-drainage (I/R) sub-groups (n 8). After 5 d with different nutrition regimens, the rats were subjected to 60 min ischaemia by clamping the superior mesenteric artery, followed by 120 min reperfusion. At the same time, the rats in the I/R+D sub-groups were treated with intestinal lymph drainage for 180 min. Organs were harvested and we detected the cytokine, endotoxin, and expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA and its endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). We found that the serum levels of HMGB1, inflammatory cytokine and endotoxin in the three I/R+D sub-groups were significantly lower than those in the N (I/R) and EN (I/R) sub-groups (P < 0·05). The activation of NF-κB and the expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 mRNA significantly increased in the jejunum, ileum, liver and lung after intestinal I/R injury, but notably lower in the I/R+D groups than those in I/R (P < 0·05). The injury degree and HMGB1 expression were decreased in the n-3 PUFA group than in the N and EN groups. We preliminarily concluded that nutrition with n-3 PUFA and/or intestinal lymph drainage may reduce HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokine in serum and lymph and inhibit the expression and signal transmission of TLR4 mRNA, thereby alleviating intestinal I/R injury in rats.
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital for retinal health. However, they are susceptible to injury with ageing and exposure to excessive light, including UV (100–380 nm) and visible (380–760 nm) radiation. To evaluate the protective effect of blueberry anthocyanins on RPE cells, in vitro cell models of replicative senescent and light-induced damage were established in the present study. After purification and fractionation, blueberry anthocyanin extracts (BAE) were yielded with total anthocyanin contents of 31·0 (sd 0·5) % and were used in this study. Replicative senescence of RPE cells was induced by repeatedly passaging cells from the fourth passage to the tenth. From the fifth passage, cultured RPE cells began to enter a replicative senescence, exhibiting reduced cell proliferation along with an increase in the number of β-galactosidase-positive cells. RPE cells maintained high cell viability (P < 0·01) and a low (P < 0·01) percentage of β-galactosidase-positive cells when treated with 0·1 μg/ml BAE. In contrast, after exposure to 2500 (sd 500) lx light (420–800 nm) for 12 h, RPE cells in the positive control (light exposure, no BAE treatment) exhibited premature senescence, low (P < 0·01) cell viability and increased (P < 0·01) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release compared with negative control cells, which were not subjected to light irradiation and BAE exposure. Correspondingly, BAE is beneficial to RPE cells by protecting these cells against light-induced damage through the suppression of ageing and apoptosis as well as the down-regulation of the over-expressed VEGF to normal level. These results demonstrate that BAE is efficacious against senescence and light-induced damage of RPE cells.
Nanometer-sized intermetallic Mg-Ni and Mg-Cu compound powders were prepared by a physical vapor deposition method (arc discharge) and characterized by means of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Based on an empirical specific heat equation, the effective heat of formation and its temperature dependence were calculated to explain phase formation in nanoscale powders of the binary Mg-Ni and Mg-Cu systems. It is shown that theoretic calculations are in good agreement with the experimental observations.
This chapter concerns contemporary Chinese business leaders' management philosophies and the sources of these philosophies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty-five successful business leaders from enterprises in China. Content-analyzing the interviews, we identified seven management philosophies held by these business leaders: sincerity is essential; pursuit of excellence; social responsibility; harmony is precious; the Golden Mean (acting in the middle way); specialization; and scientific management. We found that both Chinese cultural traditions and Western management theories influence Chinese business leaders' management philosophies and practices. While the Western management theories have great impact on their task-related operations, Chinese culture has a significant influence on their people management practices. These findings suggest that modern business administration education should balance Western theories and Chinese philosophies and integrate the wisdoms from the two streams.
The term “management philosophy” has appeared frequently in Chinese popular mass media and Chinese business leaders' speeches. In a database named Chinainfobank, we searched for articles containing “guan li zhe xue [management philosophy]” in newspapers in China. We found 44 articles published in the period 1990–1999, 198 in 2000–2002, and 165 in 2003–2005. Then we searched for “guan
li li nian [management ideas]” in the same database and found a huge number of articles: 164 published in 1990–1999, 2595 in 2000–2002, and 4904 in 2003–2005.
This trial was aimed at investigating the effect of different doses of progesterone (P4) and types of vaginal bolts on new follicular wave induction, oestrus synchronization and superovulation in Holstein heifers. Results showed that the interval after prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) application and oestrus occurrence between the sponge blot (SP) group (48.3 h) and the progestin release device (PRD) group (39 h) was significantly different (P<0.05). The average number of embryos obtained in the SP group (13.2) was significantly higher than that (8.7) in the PRD group (P<0.05). The same trend was observed for the number of usable embryos (5.7 and 3.3 for SP and PRD groups, respectively). The injection of 50 and 100 mg of P4 efficiently induced a new follicular wave, whereas no significant difference (P>0.05) was recorded on oestrus synchronization and superovulation between the two groups.
The defects associated with the implantation and diffusion of boron in silicon carbide have been studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and photoluminescence (PL) imaging and spectroscopy. An n-type epitaxial SiC (1000) substrate was implanted with 2×1014 atoms/cm2 B and annealed to 1700°C. PL data was acquired before and after annealing, and following removal of various thicknesses of the sample by mechanical polishing. Thermal annealing generated a B diffusion profile measured by SIMS to extend to about 3 microns depth. After removing the diffused B layer, a PL spectral feature at 415nm disappeared, which is consistent with its previous identification as arising from donor-acceptor pairs (DAP). The D1 spectral features survived polishing, supporting previous suggestions that these features are intrinsic defects due to the di-interstitial (Ic-Ic or Isi-Isi) or di-vacancy (Vc-Vc or Vsi-Vsi) defects.
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