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No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
In this work, four N-TiO2/bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite photocatalysts with different composite ratios were prepared using a hydrothermal method. The phase, surface structure, specific surface area, and light response were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrum analysis, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and aperture analysis, and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectrum analysis. The results indicated that the N-TiO2/BiOI/RGO (NTGB) composite prepared with a mass ratio of 1:1:2 is a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants by using sunlight, with a specific surface area of 139.56 (m2/g), bandgap of 1.24 eV, and strong absorption with a smaller visible region. It has the best photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation in the degradation of methylene blue (MB): the degradation rate of MB in the presence of light for 60 min reached 99.22%, and its photocatalytic performance was significantly higher than that of TiO2, N-TiO2, BiOI, N-TiO2/BiOI, BiOI/RGO, NTGB1, NTGB2, and NTGB4.
Cinnamomum chago is a woody species of the family Lauraceae endemic to Yunnan province, China, previously known from only one location, and categorized as a Plant Species with Extremely Small Population. We surveyed to determine the distribution and population size of C. chago, characterize its habitat, identify any threats, assess its conservation status, and provide guidelines for its management and conservation. During 2014–2017 we found only 64 mature C. chago, in five locations. These small, fragmented populations occur along Lancang River in Dali Prefecture at altitudes of 2,200–2,400 m. The species' extent of occurrence is c. 923 km2, with an area of occupancy of c. 60 km2. The habitat of the species has been degraded by expansion of pastoral activities and deforestation. We recommend categorization of C. chago as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, prevention of the collection of seeds and wood of the species, protection and monitoring, and ex situ propagation for future reintroductions.
The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a thirteen-item FFQ regarding identification of dietary conditions in a rural population in China.
A reproducibility study repeated the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately 4 weeks later (FFQ2). A validity study evaluated the mean of three consecutive 24 h diet recalls as the reference measure.
Residents of a rural area in Henan Province, which is located in the central region of China.
A total of 295 individuals participated in the reproducibility study. In addition, 123 people agreed to participate in the validity study. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two FFQ ranged from 0·06 (vegetables) to 0·58 (eggs). Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two methods of collection ranged from 0·01 for cereal to 0·49 for staple foods. The mean of the intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQ (FFQ1 v. FFQ2) was 0·19. Bland–Altman analysis indicated good agreement for most food groups across the range of intake for the two studies.
The study demonstrated that our FFQ design could be used as a representative tool to conduct a dietary evaluation of a rural population.
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can increase the level of inflammation and induce rumenitis in dairy cows. Berberine (BBR) is the major active component of Rhizoma Coptidis, which is a type of Chinese anti-inflammatory drug for gastrointestinal diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of BBR on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rumen epithelial cells (REC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. REC were cultured and stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of BBR. The results showed that cell viability was not affected by BBR. Moreover, BBR markedly decreased the concentrations and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in the LPS-treated REC in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, Western blotting analysis showed that BBR significantly suppressed the protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein (MyD88) and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-treated REC. Furthermore, the results of immunocytofluorescence showed that BBR significantly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 induced by LPS treatment. In conclusion, the protective effects of BBR on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in REC may be due to its ability to suppress the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. These findings suggest that BBR can be used as an anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammation induced by SARA.
We estimate the wind speeds with a Bayesian inference and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) tool for the high resolution X-ray spectra of Vela X-1, to understand the effect of satellite lines on spectral analysis. After modelling continua and He-like triplets of the spectra with a parameterized two-component power-law model and a mullti-Gaussian model, respectively, we estimate the contamination from satellite lines, and improve the self-consistency of wind speeds derived from the He-like triplet lines of different elements. Moreover, our fitting shows that the column density of scatter component varies from phase to phase.
Hepatitis B constitutes a severe public health challenge in China. The Community-based Collaborative Innovation hepatitis B (CCI-HBV) project is a national epidemiological study of hepatitis B and has been conducting a comprehensive intervention in southern Zhejiang since 2009.
The comprehensive intervention in CCI-HBV areas includes the dynamic hepatitis B screening in local residents, the normalised treatment for hepatitis B infections and the upcoming full-aged hepatitis B vaccination. After two rounds of screening (each round taking for 4 years), the initial epidemiological baseline of hepatitis B in Qinggang was obtained, a coastal community in east China. By combining key data and system dynamics modelling, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted.
There were 1041 HBsAg positive cases out of 12 228 people in Round 1 indicating HBV prevalence of 8.5%. Of the 13 146 people tested in Round 2, 1171 people were HBsAg positive, with a prevalence of 8.9%. By comparing the two rounds of screening, the HBV incidence rate of 0.192 per 100 person-years was observed. By consulting electronic medical records, the HBV onset rate of 0.533 per 100 person-years was obtained. We generated a simulated model to replicate the real-world situation for the next two decades. To evaluate the effect of interventions on regional HBV prevalence, three comparative experiments were conducted.
In this study, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted and compared with HBV prevalence under different interventions. Owing to the existing challenges in research methodology, this study combined HBV field research and simulation to provide a system dynamics model with close-to-real key data to improve prediction accuracy. The simulation also provided a prompt guidance for the field implementation.
Dairy cows with fatty liver or ketosis display decreased insulin sensitivity and defects in the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a well-known tumor suppressor and also a negative regulator of insulin signaling and peripheral insulin sensitivity. We investigated the hypothesis that PTEN may affect the insulin pathway-mediated hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in dairy cows. Adenovirus vectors that over-express and silence PTEN were constructed, and then transfected into hepatocytes isolated from calves to investigate the effect of PTEN on PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PTEN silencing increased the phosphorylation of AKT and the expression of PI3K but decreased the phosphorylation of IRS1, which increased the phosphorylation levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Increased GSK-3β phosphorylation further up-regulated expression of the key enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6-Pase) involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, the expression of SREBP-1c target gene fatty acid synthase (FAS) also increased significantly. We further showed that PTEN over-expression could reverse the above results. PTEN negatively regulates the enzymes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid synthesis, which suggests that PTEN may be a therapeutic target for ketosis and fatty liver in dairy cows.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
Data on dietary patterns in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a middle-aged Chinese population are sparse. The present study was performed to determine the major dietary patterns among a population aged 45–59 years and to evaluate their associations with MetS risk in China.
Cross-sectional examination of the association between dietary patterns and MetS. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess dietary intake using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. OR and 95 % CI for MetS were calculated across quartiles of dietary pattern scores using multivariate logistic regression analysis models.
City of Linyi, Shandong Province, China.
Adults (n 1918) aged 45–59 years.
Three major dietary patterns were identified: traditional Chinese, animal food and high-energy. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals in the highest quartile of the traditional Chinese pattern had a reduced risk of MetS relative to the lowest quartile (OR=0·72, 95 % CI 0·596, 0·952; P<0·05). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, individuals in the highest quartile of the animal food pattern had a greater risk of MetS (OR=1·28; 95 % CI 1·103, 1·697; P<0·05). No significant association was observed between the high-energy pattern and risk of MetS.
These findings indicate that the traditional Chinese pattern was associated with a reduced risk, while the animal food pattern was associated with increased risk of MetS. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
We present a parameter estimate for continua, and He-like triplets of the high resolution X-ray spectra with a Bayesian inference and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) tool. The method is applied for Vela X-1 with three different orbital phases (
, which are adopted from the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). A parameterized two-component power-law model [Sako et al., Astrophys. J. 525, 921 (1999)] and a multi-Gaussian model are applied to model these continua and He-like triplets, respectively. A uniform distribution over each parameter is used as the prior belief. Posterior probability distribution functions of parameters and the covariances among them are explored by using the MCMC method. The main advantages are (i) all model-based parameters are set to be free instead of artificially fixing some of the parameters during the data-model fitting; (ii) the contributions from satellite lines are considered; (iii) backgrounds are treated as a correction to the observation errors; and (iv) the confidence interval of each parameter is given. The fitted results show that the column density of scatter component (
) varies from phase to phase, which imply a non-spherical structure of the stellar wind in Vela X-1. Moreover, the wind velocities derived from main lines of each set of He-like triplets show better self-consistency than those in previous publications, which could provide a reliable approach for the diagnostics of photoionized plasma in astrophysical objects and the laboratory.
Promoting life satisfaction in later life has long been both a policy and practice challenge. This study examined the association between older adults' self-image and life satisfaction, and that between their intergenerational relationships and life satisfaction. Given that sources of wellbeing for older men and women may vary due to socially constructed realities in early life, gender differences were also investigated in the correlates of life satisfaction. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 with a sample of 1,099 older adults aged 60 years and over from four cities in China. Findings of this study showed that older adults’ self-image and intergenerational relationships were significantly associated with their life satisfaction after controlling for certain socio-demographic characteristics, and health and self-care ability. The correlates of life satisfaction were shown to differ between older men and women. Programmes and Services should be developed for older adults to explore and identify positive aspects of themselves, to improve their relationships with their adult children, and to foster a more positive image of ageing in wider society. In addition, service providers should take gender differences in correlates of life satisfaction into account in service and intervention programme development.
Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T. spiralis larvae, and was inserted after CMV promoter to construct a DNA vaccine [pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp]. Ts-NBLsp expression was demonstrated by immunofluorescence. Sera samples were obtained from vaccinated mice, and they showed strong anti-Ts-NBLsp-specific IgG response. Mice immunized with the pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp DNA vaccine showed a 77·93% reduction in muscle larvae (ML) following challenge with T. spiralis ML. Our results demonstrate that the vaccination with pcDNA3·1(+)-Ts-NBLsp plasmid promoted the balance of type 1 and 2 immune responses and produced a significant protection against T. spiralis infection in mice.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
The strain hardening effect and dynamic recovery behavior of a Ni-based superalloy are studied by isothermal compressive tests. A new unified dislocation-density based constitutive model is developed to characterize the strain hardening effect and dynamic recovery behavior of the studied superalloy. In the developed constitutive model, some material parameters (yield stress, strain hardening coefficient, and dynamic recovery coefficient) are assumed as functions of initial grain size, deformation temperature, and strain rate. An iterative algorithm is designed to predict the high-temperature deformation behaviors under time-variant hot working conditions. The hot deformation parameters and material parameters can be updated in each strain increment. Comparisons between the experimental and calculated flow stresses indicate that the developed constitutive model can accurately describe the high-temperature deformation behavior of the studied superalloy. Furthermore, the developed constitutive model is also successfully used for analyzing time-variant hot working processes.
We derive zphot for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) H-HDF-N field with the EAzY code, based on PSF-matched broad-band (U band to IRAC 4.5 μm) photometry. Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We find σNMAD = 0.029 for non-X-ray sources. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through SED fitting. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms CDF-N main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources, we improve their zphot quality (σNMAD = 0.035) by adding three additional AGN templates. We make our photometry and zphot catalog publicly available.
Plate-shaped Gd2O3 nanoclusters (GNCs) with well-controlled loading were fabricated by using amphiphilic poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) grafted with PEG as nanogel. The hydrodynamic size of the obtained GNCs was well controlled to <260 nm under appropriate emulsion process conditions and they showed excellent long-term dispersibility in phosphate buffer saline. MRI measurements clearly indicated the substantial improvement in T1 effect of the nanoclusters as compared with the individual Gd2O3 nanoplates. The obtained GNCs possessed a high r1 value of 7.948 s−1mM−1 [Gd], which is 2.23 times higher than that of the commercial product Gd-DOTA, and low r2/r1 of 1.04. In vitro test of the obtained GNCs was demonstrated in NIH/3T3 cell lines, and clear T1-weighted images were obtained. Thus, the PMAO-g-PEG assisted GNCs were potentially useful for T1-weighted MRI contrast agents.
By using a two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model, the indentation hardness has been studied with different combinations of material properties at different indentation depths. As the forward problem, the testing hardness is not only a function of material properties (E, σy, and n), indenter geometry (half apex angle, indenter shape), and friction, but also relating to the indentation depth. Based on the previous research on size effect, a model of correlation between several indentation experiment parameters (hardness H, maximum load Pm, and loading curvature C) and material properties has been derived. From simulation results, a better fitting result is obtained by the established model. Furthermore, the characteristic length h∗ in Nix/Gao model has been rewritten and discussed with material properties accordingly.
Image fusion is an imaging technique to visualize information from multiple imaging sources in one single image, which is widely used in remote sensing, medical imaging etc. In this work, we study two variational approaches to image fusion which are closely related to the standard TV-L2 and TV-L1 image approximation methods. We investigate their convex optimization formulations, under the perspective of primal and dual, and propose their associated new image decomposition models. In addition, we consider the TV-L1 based image fusion approach and study the specified problem of fusing two discrete-constrained images and where and are the sets of linearly-ordered discrete values. We prove that the TV-L1 based image fusion actually gives rise to the exact convex relaxation to the corresponding nonconvex image fusion constrained by the discrete-valued set This extends the results for the global optimization of the discrete-constrained TV-L1 image approximation [8, 36] to the case of image fusion. As a big numerical advantage of the two proposed dual models, we show both of them directly lead to new fast and reliable algorithms, based on modern convex optimization techniques. Experiments with medical images, remote sensing images and multi-focus images visibly show the qualitative differences between the two studied variational models of image fusion. We also apply the new variational approaches to fusing 3D medical images.