To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
Inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in the development and progression of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary inflammatory index (DII), a measurement of inflammatory potential in diets, was suggested to be associated with MetS. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the associations of DII with MetS and its components based on available observational studies.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
A comprehensive literature search of studies that assessed the associations between DII and MetS was conducted in PubMed, Medline and Embase, using a combination of search terms relating to DII and MetS.
Eighteen articles were eligible, of which fourteen were cross-sectional and four were cohort in design.
Results from the random effects meta-analysis showed significantly positive associations of higher DII (top v. bottom quartiles) with MetS (OR: 1·23 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·37)), abdominal obesity (OR: 1·15 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·29)), high blood pressure (OR: 1·17 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·29)), hyperglycaemia (OR: 1·18 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·33)) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (OR: 1·17 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·28)). The effects of summary OR became stronger when analyses were restricted to cohorts, studies that adjudged for covariates (including BMI, physical activity and total energy intake).
Higher DII, representing pro-inflammatory diet, is associated with higher odds of MetS and its components, except for low HDL-cholesterol. The findings prompt dietary interventions for preventing MetS from the aspect of inflammation.
In this study, we analysed the prevalence of diabetes in Inner Mongolia and explored the relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes using the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-16 (DBI-16). This study was a surveillance survey of Chronic Disease and Nutrition Monitoring among Chinese Adults in Inner Mongolia in 2015. Dietary data were collected using the 24-h dietary recall and weighing method over three consecutive days. Dietary quality was evaluated via the DBI-16. A generalised linear model was used to examine the associations between the DBI-16 and dietary patterns. The relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes was analysed using logistic regression. In Inner Mongolia, the diabetes prevalence was 8·5 % and the estimated standardised prevalence was 6·0 %. Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘meat/dairy products’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’. Generalised linear models showed that the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced (βLBS = –1·993, βHBS = –0·206, βDQD = –2·199; all P < 0·05) and was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR 0·565; 95 % CI 0·338, 0·945; P < 0·05) after adjusting for potential confounders. The other three dietary patterns (i.e. ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’) exhibited relatively unbalanced dietary quality and were unassociated with diabetes risk. Diabetes prevalence in Inner Mongolia was moderate. The dietary quality of the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced and was correlated with a decreased risk of diabetes prevalence, suggesting that dietary quality may help decrease diabetes prevalence and provide a suggestion for local dietary guidelines.
Some studies have suggested that the Toll-like receptor 9 polymorphism (TLR9 rs352140) is closely related to the risk of bacterial meningitis (BM), but this is subject to controversy. This study set out to estimate whether the TLR9 rs352140 polymorphism confers an increased risk of BM. Relevant literature databases were searched including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) up to August 2020. Seven case-control studies from four publications were enrolled in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to estimate associations between BM risk and the target polymorphism. Significant associations identified were allele contrast (A vs. G: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59–0.75, P = 0.000), homozygote comparison (AA vs. AG/GG: OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.49–0.78, P = 0.000), heterozygote comparison (A vs. G: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61–0.91, P = 0.005), recessive genetic model (AA vs. AG/GG: OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65–0.93, P = 0.006) and dominant genetic model (AA vs. AG/GG: OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.85, P = 0.000). The findings indicate that, in contrast to some studies, the TLR9 rs352140 polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk for BM.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
Protein content (PC) and oil content (OC) are important breeding traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for PC and OC is important for molecular breeding in soybean; however, the negative correlation between PC and OC influences the accuracy of QTL mapping. In the current study, a four-way recombinant inbred lines (FW-RILs) population comprising 160 lines derived from the cross (Kenfeng14 × Kenfeng15) × (Heinong48 × Kenfeng19) was planted in eight different environments and PC and OC measured. Conditional and unconditional QTL analyses were carried out by interval mapping (IM) and inclusive complete IM based on linkage maps of 275 simple sequences repeat markers in a FW-RILs population. This analysis revealed 59 unconditional QTLs and 52 conditional QTLs among the FW-RILs. An analysis of additive effects indicated that the effects of 13 protein QTLs were not related to OC, whereas OC affected the expression of 13 and eight QTLs either partially or completely, respectively. Eight QTLs affecting OC were not influenced by PC, whereas six and 26 QTLs were partially and fully affected by PC, respectively. Among the QTLs detected in the current study, two protein QTLs and five oil QTLs had not been previously reported. These findings will facilitate marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding of soybean.
Low-dimensional superconductors have been at the forefront of physics research due to their rich physical properties such as high-temperature (Tc) superconductivity. In this article, we review the field of emergent high-Tc superconductivity at interfaces of heterostructures, focusing on the experimental advances and its physical mechanism. Charge transfer between constituent materials leads to two-dimensional carrier confinement that facilitates occurrence of superconductivity at the interface. We discuss the similarities between bulk high-Tc superconductors and interface systems, as well as implications from a survey of interface superconductors. We expect that the hybrid heterostructures and the ability to manipulate them on an atomic scale could be an enormously fertile ground to explore superconductivity with higher critical temperature Tc.
The study investigated novel wear and corrosion resistance of stainless steel and 316 stainless steel samples which were successfully prepared by laser melting deposition. Phase composition, microstructure, microhardness, wear resistance, and electrochemical corrosion resistance were studied. The experimental results showed that novel stainless steel was mainly composed of α-Fe and a few carbide phase (Cr, Fe)7C3. The microhardness of novel stainless steel was about 2.7 times greater than 316 stainless steel. Meanwhile, the specific wear rate of novel stainless steel and 316 stainless steel was 2.63 × 10−5 mm3/N m and 1.63 × 10−4 mm3/N m, respectively. The wear volume of 316 stainless steel was 6.19 times greater than novel stainless steel. The corrosion current and the corrosion potential of novel stainless steel and 316 stainless steel were 1.02 × 10−7 A/cm2 and 1.5 × 10−7 A/cm2, and −138.8 mV, −135.9 mV, respectively, in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Therefore, both microhardness and wear resistance of novel stainless steel were greatly improved, with high corrosion resistance.
Es ist weithin bekannt, dass Bertolt Brecht sich ab 1926 mit dem Marxismus beschäftigte. Von da an beeinflussten die Werke von Karl Marx und Vladimir Lenin sein Denken tiefgreifend und führten zu entscheidenden Konsequenzen in seinem künstlerischen Schaffen. Durch das Studium des Marxismus veränderte sich Brechts Auffassung der Wirklichkeit sowie seine gesamte Weltanschauung. Nach seiner Meinung sollte man richtig denken: “Er [Brecht] dachte in anderen Köpfen, und auch in seinem Kopf dachten andere.” In diesem Sinne haben Marx und Lenin sowie chinesische Philosophen “in Brechts Kopf gedacht” und Gedanken angeregt. Viele Brecht- Forscher sind sich darüber einig, dass die Beschäftigung Brechts mit China in engem Zusammenhang mit dem Kontext des Marxismus steht und seine Aufnahme der philosophischen Ideen Chinas als Ergänzung zur abstrakten marxistischen Gesellschaftsanalyse betrachtet werden kann.
Den chinesischen Adaptionen und Transformationen des Marxismus schenkte Brecht besondere Aufmerksamkeit. Bereits in den 1920er Jahren weckte die chinesische Revolution Brechts politisches Interesse an China, als die KPD Ernst Thälmanns große Kampagne “Hände weg von China!” zur Unterstützung der chinesischen Revolution vorbereitete. Angeregt von Sergei Tretjakows Stück Brülle, China! arbeitete Brecht Anfang der 1930er Jahre gemeinsam mit Hanns Eisler an dem Lehrstück Die Maßnahme, das sich auf die Vorgänge der revolutionären Phase des Bürgerkriegs in China bezieht. Gerhart Eisler, der Bruder Hanns Eislers, arbeitete von 1929 bis 1931 als Beauftragter der Kommunistischen Internationale in China. Wahrscheinlich machte er Brecht und seinen Bruder mit der Geschichte der chinesischen Revolutionsbewegungen bekannt, für die sich Brecht von nun an lebhaft interessierte. Nach Hanns Eislers Erinnerungen geht Brechts Auseinandersetzung mit Me Ti (Mozi) ebenfalls auf die Jahre 1929–30 zurück. Die chinesische Philosophie hat Brecht “als Denkanregung” gerade in diesem Zeitraum beeinflusst.
Von nun an schenkte Brecht den chinesischen Revolutionsbewegungen unter Mao Tse-tung besondere Aufmerksamkeit und verfolgte ihre Entwicklung mit großem Interesse. Der Sieg der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (KPCh) 1949 begeisterte ihn besonders und gab ihm Hoffnung. 1949 schrieb Brecht das Gedicht “Die andere Seite,” das zunächst die Titel “Aus allem etwas machen” und auch “Der Steckbrief” trug, welche aber später für die Veröffentlichung in Hundert Gedichte (1951) geändert wurden. Inhaltlich geht es um eine legendäre Geschichte über Mao Tse-tung, die sich 1934 in China ereignete.
Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24 236 adults (mean (standard deviation) age: 40·7 (sd 11·9) years; 11 394 men (47·0 %)). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated FFQ. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19·0 %. Compared with those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted OR of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0·95 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·05) for those consuming 2–3 times/week and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week (Pfor trend = 0·01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex and BMI. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance oestrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, a dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58·8 (sd 7·4) years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered FFQ. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: ‘healthy’, ‘sweets’ and ‘traditional Tianjin’ from eighty-eight food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The association between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The multivariable-adjusted OR of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: healthy, 1·00, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·28), 0·62 (95 % CI 0·37, 1·04) and 0·57 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·97); sweets, 1·00, 0·75 (95 % CI 0·42, 1·3), 1·08 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·81) and 1·66 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·71); and traditional Tianjin, 1·00, 1·02 (95 % CI 0·58, 1·79), 0·96 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·71) and 2·53 (95 % CI 1·58, 4·16), respectively. The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and traditional Tianjin dietary patterns was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
Dalian, China, is a city free of rabies in recent 20 years, but the annual cost for rabies vaccination still brings an economic burden on society and individuals. We did a retrospective descriptive analysis to analyse the reason for this and try to find some ways to resolve it. A total of 10 028 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) cases were recorded from January 2016 to December 2017. According to the exposure grades, 32 cases were grade I; 7712 cases were grade II; 2284 cases were grade III. All the patients in the cases were injured by pet dogs without abnormal clinical signs, and 80% of them were home pet dogs. Fifty-two per cent of the pet dogs were vaccinated. All the dogs survived during the PEP vaccination period. The data showed that a considerable proportion of people who did not have exposure risk for rabies had received vaccination. The underlying reasons included social, medical and personal factors. So here we proposed to replace the current ‘five-course’ intramuscular injection with intradermal injection method in the cities free of rabies in China, this can not only achieve effective vaccination but also save resources and eliminate the fear of rabies from victims. Meanwhile we should strengthen communication on rabies knowledge and make a routine evaluation of rabies surveillance system to improve understanding of the risk for rabies from biting animals.
Hepatitis B constitutes a severe public health challenge in China. The Community-based Collaborative Innovation hepatitis B (CCI-HBV) project is a national epidemiological study of hepatitis B and has been conducting a comprehensive intervention in southern Zhejiang since 2009.
The comprehensive intervention in CCI-HBV areas includes the dynamic hepatitis B screening in local residents, the normalised treatment for hepatitis B infections and the upcoming full-aged hepatitis B vaccination. After two rounds of screening (each round taking for 4 years), the initial epidemiological baseline of hepatitis B in Qinggang was obtained, a coastal community in east China. By combining key data and system dynamics modelling, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted.
There were 1041 HBsAg positive cases out of 12 228 people in Round 1 indicating HBV prevalence of 8.5%. Of the 13 146 people tested in Round 2, 1171 people were HBsAg positive, with a prevalence of 8.9%. By comparing the two rounds of screening, the HBV incidence rate of 0.192 per 100 person-years was observed. By consulting electronic medical records, the HBV onset rate of 0.533 per 100 person-years was obtained. We generated a simulated model to replicate the real-world situation for the next two decades. To evaluate the effect of interventions on regional HBV prevalence, three comparative experiments were conducted.
In this study, the regional hepatitis B epidemic in 20 years was predicted and compared with HBV prevalence under different interventions. Owing to the existing challenges in research methodology, this study combined HBV field research and simulation to provide a system dynamics model with close-to-real key data to improve prediction accuracy. The simulation also provided a prompt guidance for the field implementation.
High-entropy ceramic (HEC) films refer to the carbide, boride, oxide, or nitride films of the high-entropy alloy, which have potential applications under high temperatures. In this study, we fabricated the HEC NbTiAlSiZrNx films using magnetron sputtering under various deposition atmospheres. The phase structure evolution and the mechanical properties of three HEC films under high temperatures were investigated. The HEC films demonstrated good thermal stability as well as high hardness. After annealing for 24 h at 700 °C, the films remained in an amorphous phase without obvious crystallization, and the hardness of the films declined. Nanocrystallizations occurred in films deposited at a nitrogen flow rate of 4 sccm and 8 sccm after annealing for 30 min at 900 °C and exhibited an face-centered cubic structure. HEC NbTiAlSiZrNx films have potential applications as protective coatings under high temperatures.
This study aimed to improve the performance of an intermediate covering of soils in landfill sites by using agents such as calcined lime, sawdust and polyacrylamide (PAM). Compressive strength, permeability and water-holding capacity of modified soils were measured, and the effects of regulating pH and pollutant removal in leachate were also investigated in a leaching experiment. The results indicate that three modifying agents could improve the compressive strength of an intermediate soil cover. The permeability of lime-treated soil increased as the amount of lime increased, while that of sawdust- and PAM-modified soil declined. Results from a leaching experiment show that lime- and sawdust-modified soils could improve leachate quality. The pH value of leachate from 5% lime-modified soils was 7.78, which is suitable for the metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in leachate permeating lime- and sawdust-modified intermediate cover was improved so that the pollution load of leachate was reduced. The water-holding capacities for 20% sawdust and 0.5% PAM-modified soils were 65.19% and 43.52%, respectively, which helps to maintain the optimum water content of landfill. The water-holding capacity of PAM-modified samples declined in alkaline soil. It is concluded that the combination of 5% sawdust, 5% lime and 90% soil would be optimal for an intermediate covering layer.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
A miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider based on composite right/left-handed transmission line is presented. The composite right/left-handed transmission line and conventional microstrip transmission line are utilized to realize the 0° phase shift transmission line, which is used to replace the 180° transmission line of the conventional Bagley Polygon power divider. As a result, miniaturization is realized, without deteriorating the isolation between the output ports. The design equations are presented. This power divider shows advantages compared with other miniaturized ones. For verification, a miniaturized Bagley Polygon power divider is designed and fabricated. The 58.2% length reduction of the counterpart is realized. The measurement and simulation results show good agreement.