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This article challenges the widespread view that existing WTO rules are insufficient for dealing with State capitalism in China, which has been further emboldened by the latest rounds of State-owned enterprise (‘SOE’) reforms. Through a careful review of WTO agreements and jurisprudence, it is argued that new rules are not necessarily needed because the unique challenges created by China's State capitalism can be appropriately addressed by the WTO's existing rules on subsidies coupled with the China-specific obligations. A more realistic approach would be to encourage China to undertake market-oriented reforms through WTO litigation based on existing rules rather than trying to negotiate new rules.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Several observational studies have investigated the association of insomnia with psychiatric disorders. Such studies yielded mixed results, and whether these associations are causal remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to identify the causal relationships between insomnia and five major psychiatric disorders.
The analysis was implemented with six genome-wide association studies; one for insomnia and five for psychiatric disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). A heterogeneity in dependent instrument (HEIDI) approach was used to remove the pleiotropic instruments, Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger regression was adopted to test the validity of the screened instruments, and bidirectional generalized summary data-based MR was performed to estimate the causal relationships between insomnia and these major psychiatric disorders.
We observed significant causal effects of insomnia on the risk of autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder, with odds ratios of 1.739 (95% confidence interval: 1.217–2.486, p = 0.002) and 1.786 (95% confidence interval: 1.396–2.285, p = 4.02 × 10−6), respectively. There was no convincing evidence of reverse causality for insomnia with these two disorders (p = 0.945 and 0.546, respectively). When insomnia was considered as either the exposure or outcome variable, causal estimates for the remaining three psychiatric disorders were not significant.
Our results suggest a causal role of insomnia in autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. Future disease models should include insomnia as a factor for these two disorders to develop effective interventions. More detailed mechanism studies may also be inspired by this causal inference.
Paediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in China. Data on epidemiology of paediatric MPP from China are little known. This study retrospectively collected data from June 2006 to June 2016 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University of North China and aims to explore the epidemiological features of paediatric MPP and severe MPP (SMPP) in North China during the past 10 years. A total of 27 498 paediatric patients with pneumonia were enrolled. Among them, 37.5% of paediatric patients had MPP. In this area, an epidemic took place every 2–3 years at the peak, and the positive rate of MPP increased during these peak years over time. The peak age of MPP was between the ages of 6 and 10 years, accounting for 75.2%, significantly more compared with other age groups (χ2 = 1384.1, P < 0.0001). The epidemics peaked in September, October and November (χ2 = 904.9, P < 0.0001). Additionally, 13.0% of MPP paediatric patients were SMPP, but over time, the rate of SMPP increased, reaching 42.6% in 2016. The mean age of paediatric patients with SMPP (6.7 ± 3.0 years old) was younger than that of patients with non-SMPP (7.4 ± 3.2 years old) (t = 3.60, P = 0.0001). The prevalence of MPP and SMPP is common in China, especially in children from 6 to 10 years old. Paediatric patients with SMPP tend to be younger than those with non-SMPP. MPP outbreaks occur every 2–3 years in North China. September, October and November are the peak months, unlike in South China. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric MPP can contribute to timely treatment and diagnosis, and may improve the prognosis of children with SMPP.
A compact circularly polarized (CP) rectenna with low profile and high efficiency based on the artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is proposed in this paper. The receiving CP antenna is a coplanar stripline fed dual rhombic loop with an AMC reflector. The proposed AMC reflector not only improves the antenna gain to 9.8 dBi but also decreases the profile to 0.1 λ0. The AMC reflector also makes the antenna have a harmonic suppression function so the low pass filter between the rectifying circuit and the antenna could be omitted and the rectenna has a compact structure. According to the measured results, the rectenna has the highest conversion efficiency of 76% on the load of 240 Ω with the received power of 117.5 mW. When the linearly polarized transmitting antenna is rotated, the conversion efficiency of the CP rectenna maintains a constant high conversion efficiency of 74%. The compact structure and CP operation of the rectenna made it a good candidate of the wireless battery for some electronic devices and far-distance microwave power transmission.
Prolonged conditions of chronic stress have the potential to cause mental health difficulties and disrupt developmental processes for children and adolescents. Natural disasters disproportionately affect low-resource areas, yet little is known about the interaction between trauma exposure, chronic stressors, and mental health.
To determine the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety among adolescents affected by earthquakes in China and Nepal, and examine the specific roles of trauma exposure and chronic stressors across the three mental health outcomes.
A school-based, cross-sectional study of 4,215 adolescents (53% female, ages 15-19 years) was conducted in disaster-affected areas of southern China and Nepal. Participants completed a series of translated and culturally adapted standardized assessments. Mixed effects logistic regression analyses were conducted for each mental health outcome.
The overall rate of PTSD was 22.7% and was higher among Nepalese participants (China: 19.4% vs. Nepal: 26.8%, p<0.001), but did not differ between genders (China: p=0.087 and Nepal: p=0.758). In both countries, the level of trauma exposure was a significant risk factor for PTSD, depression, and anxiety (China: OR’s 1.09-1.18 and Nepal: OR’s 1.08-1.13). Chronic stressors significantly improved the model and further contributed to mental health outcomes (China: OR’s 1.23-1.26 and Nepal: OR’s 1.10-1.23). Multilevel risk and protective factors across all mental health outcomes will be presented.
While there are limited opportunities to protect adolescents from disaster exposure, there is significant potential to address the effects of ongoing economic insecurity, domestic violence, and school cessation that are likely to worsen mental health outcomes. Programs that identify chronic stressors for adolescents in disaster-affected settings, and work to address poverty and violence, will have cascading effects for mental health, development, and security.
More than half of the world’s youth live in the Asia Pacific region, yet efforts to reduce disaster risk for adolescents are hindered by an absence of age-specific data on protection, health, and engagement.
China and Nepal have faced a recent escalation in the number of climatic and geological hazards affecting urban and rural communities. We aimed to examine disaster-related threats experienced by adolescents and their caregivers in China and Nepal, determine the scope for adolescent participation, and elicit recommendations for improving disaster risk reduction.
Sixty-nine adolescents (51% female, ages 13-19) and 72 adults (47% female, ages 22-66) participated in key informant interviews and focus group discussions in disaster-affected areas of southern China and Nepal. Using inductive content analysis, several themes were identified as key to adolescents’ needs.
Security and protection emerged as a central issue, interlinked with preparedness, timely and equitable disaster response, psychosocial support, and adolescent participation. The mental health risks emerging from trauma exposure were substantial. Adolescents made extensive contributions to disaster response including involvement in rescue efforts and delivering first aid, rebuilding homes and caring for family members. Participants forwarded a number of recommendations, including investing in psychological support, skills training, and stronger systems of protection for those at risk of family separation, trafficking, or removal from school.
The findings informed a multilevel, interconnected model for disaster risk reduction tailored to adolescents’ needs. Supporting adolescents’ recovery and long-term resilience after humanitarian crises will require coordinated efforts in preparedness, security, and mental health care.
Nanoscale magnetization modulation by electric field enables the construction of low-power spintronic devices for information storage applications and, etc. Electric field-induced ion migration can introduce desired changes in the material's stoichiometry, defect profile, and lattice structure, which in turn provides a versatile and convenient means to modify the materials’ chemical-physical properties at the nanoscale and in situ. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the recent study on nanoscale magnetization modulation driven by electric field-induced migration of ionic species either within the switching material or from external sources. The formation of magnetic conductive filaments that exhibit magnetoresistance behaviors in resistive switching memory via foreign metal ion migration and redox activities is also discussed. Combining the magnetoresistance and quantized conductance switching of the magnetic nanopoint contact structure may provide a future high-performance device for non-von Neumann computing architectures.
Radiocarbon (14C) in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was measured for water samples collected from six deep stations in the Kuroshio Extension (KE) region in the northwestern North Pacific in April–May 2015. Vertical profiles of Δ14C-DIC indicate that bomb-produced 14C was present from the surface to ~1500 m water depth. Large variations in Δ14C-DIC values (300‰) were observed at 500 m water depth among the stations and the differences were likely controlled by transport and mixing dynamics of different water masses in the region. The major Pacific western boundary currents, such as Kuroshio and Oyashio and regional mesoscale eddies, could play important roles affecting the observed Δ14C-DIC variability. The depth profiles of both Δ14C-DIC and DIC concentrations can be predicted by the solution mixing model and can be used as conservative tracers of water mass movement and water parcel homogenization in the ocean.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Using the data from APOGEE, WISE, and GLIMPSE, we explored the variation of the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) interstellar extinction laws of the Milky Way. We derived the IR extinction laws towards a number of different sightlines, including 24 bins along Galactic latitude (b) and 592 plates observed by APOGEE. Our results indicate that E(J-H)/E(J-K) show only subtle variation along b, Galactic longitude (l), or the depth of E(J-K). This suggests that the NIR extinction law can be considered as universal. Similarly, E(K-W1, W2, W3, [3.6], [4.5], [5.8], [8.0])/E(J-K) also show only small variation along b, l, or the extinction depth. The MIR extinction curve is flat, indicating that the MIR extinction law is likely universal.
The temporal dynamics of ciliate community structure in a southern Chinese shrimp aquaculture facility were investigated during the period June–September 2012. A total of 53 species belonging to 37 genera and 17 orders were recorded based on analyses of eight samples. Ciliate abundance peaked between 16 August and 14 September 2012, while the maximum number of species occurred on 26 June 2012. Clear temporal patterns were observed in the ciliate community structure. The patterns of succession of the 10 most abundant species were consistent with the results of a Canonical Analysis of Principal coordinates (CAP) analysis. Correlation analyses showed that these patterns of succession were related to temporal changes in environmental variables. In summary, the results demonstrate that the ciliate community responds predictably to environmental variations and recovers from shrimp cultivation.
With increasing output of petroleum coke, the value-added exploitation of petroleum coke has become a tough problem. Preparing porous carbons is a traditional way to the value-added exploitation of petroleum coke. Here, we used a facile and efficient hard-templating strategy to synthesize mesoporous carbon with high surface area from petroleum coke. N2 adsorption analyses show that the BET specific area and pore volume of the carbons can reach up to 864 m2/g and 1.37 cm3/g, respectively. To utilize the abundant mesopores of the carbons, anthraquinone-modified mesoporous carbon was tested as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the specific capacitance reached up to 366 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g, indicating a promising prospect of using this carbon in electrochemical energy-storage field. More importantly, the strategy used in this work can be easily modified to prepare other nano-carbon materials from petroleum coke.
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the common cause of cognitive decline in the old population. MRI can be used to clarify its mechanisms. However, the surrogate markers of MRI for early cognitive impairment in SVD remain uncertain to date. We investigated the cognitive impacts of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and brain volumetric measurements in a cohort of post-stroke non-dementia SVD patients.
Fifty five non-dementia SVD patients were consecutively recruited and categorized into two groups as no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 23) or vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) (n = 32). Detailed neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI were completed.
The two groups differed significantly on Z scores of all cognitive domains (all p < 0.01) except for the language. There were more patients with hypertension (p = 0.038) or depression (p = 0.019) in the VaMCI than those in the NCI group. Multiple regression analysis of cognition showed periventricular mean diffusivity (MD) (β = −0.457, p < 0.01) and deep CMBs numbers (β = −0.352, p < 0.01) as the predictors of attention/executive function, which explained 45.2% of the total variance. Periventricular MD was the independent predictor for either memory (β = −0.314, p < 0.05) or visuo-spatial function (β = −0.375, p < 0.01); however, only small proportion of variance could be accounted for (9.8% and 12.4%, respectively). Language was not found to be correlated with any of the MRI parameters. No correlation was found between brain atrophic indices and any of the cognitive measures.
Arteriosclerotic CMBs and periventricular white matter disintegrity seem to be independent MRI surrogated markers in the early stage of cognitive impairment in SVD.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
A diode-pumped alkali vapor laser (DPAL) is one of the most promising candidates of the next-generation high-powered laser source. As the saturated number density of alkali vapor is highly dependent on the temperature inside a vapor cell, the temperature distribution in the cross-section of a cell will greatly affect the homogeneity of a laser medium and the output characteristics of a DPAL. In this paper, we developed an algorithm based on the regime concluding quasi-Hilbert transform to evaluate the phase aberration of a wavefront when the probe beam passes through the vapor cell placed in one arm of a Mach–Zehnder interference setup. According to the theoretical algorithm, we deduced the temperature distribution of a cesium vapor cell for different heating conditions. The study is thought to be useful for development of a high-powered laser.
A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) provides the significant promise for high-powered performances. In this paper, a mathematical model is introduced for examination of the kinetic processes of a diode-pumped cesium vapor hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HC-PCF) laser, in which the cesium vapor is filled in the center hole of a photonic-bandgap fiber instead of a glass cell. The influence of deleterious processes including energy pooling, photo-ionization, and Penning ionization on the physical features of a fiber DPAL is studied in this report. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the deleterious processes cannot be ignored in a high-powered fiber-DPAL system.
In order to better understand the chemical conditions and evolutionary properties of massive star-forming regions, and to explore the physical and chemical behavior of simple hydrocarbon molecules, we have used telescopes such as CSO, JCMT, CARMA and SMA, to map the multi-transitions of C2H and HC3N. The column densities and abundances are compared with chemical models to gain some diagnostic of the environment of the regions.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHCY; total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration >15 μmol/l) and its major determinants in healthy Chinese northerners. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. The study sample included 2645 participants (1042 men and 1603 women) aged >20 years. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were assessed via questionnaire interviews and physical examination. Plasma levels of homocysteine and folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism were determined according to standard methods. The prevalence of HHCY was 67·7 % (81·4 % in men and 58·8 % in women). The geometric mean of tHcy concentration was 19·1 μmol/l. The OR of HHCY were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·57) for women v. men; 1·95 (95 % CI 1·41, 2·70), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·88) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89) for participants with smoking and alcohol drinking cessation and improved physical activity levels, respectively; 0·25 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38), 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and 0·56 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·88) for participants with an education level of elementary school, secondary school and university v. illiterate, respectively; 1·41 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·75) and 3·05 (95 % CI 2·35, 3·97) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism, respectively. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of HHCY is considerably high in Chinese northerners, especially in TT subjects, suggesting that implementation of tHcy-lowering strategies, such as lifestyle changes, is necessary.
Numerical and theoretical investigations are carried out for the stability of the dust acoustic waves (DAWs) under the transverse perturbation in a two-ion temperature magnetized and collisionless dusty plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, modified ZK equation, and Extended ZK (EZK) equation of the DAWs are given by using the reductive perturbation technique. The cut-off frequency is obtained by applying higher-order transverse perturbations to the soliton solution of the EZK equation. The propagation velocity of solitary waves, the real cut-off frequency, as well as the growth rate of the higher-order perturbation to the solitary wave are obtained.