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The sedimentologic fingerprinting in detrital deposit is vital to reconstruct sedimentary environments and discriminate sources. In this study, grain size and microtextural characteristics of quartz from the late Pleistocene hard clay in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) were analyzed by using a laser particle size analyzer and a scanning electron microscope. Subaqueous quartz from the Yangtze River and Yellow River sediments and eolian quartz from the Chinese Loess Plateau loess were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to obtain the microtextural characteristics. Quartz grains of the hard clay were characterized by poor sorting, fine skew, bimodal grain-size distributions, and numerous eolian microtextures. The comparison of the quartz grain characteristics of the hard clay with these in eolian loess indicated that the hard clay belonged to an eolian deposition. Moreover, the fine quartz grains of the hard clay were dominated by eolian microtextural characteristics, representing long-distance transportation. The coarse quartz grains of the hard clay exhibited more subaqueous microtextural characteristics, which indicated that the coarse fraction of the hard clay was derived from the proximal source regions in the YRD. The determination of buried eolian deposition with multiple sources in the YRD implies a southward westerly jet stream, strengthened eolian dust transportation, and extensive aridification in the YRD due to the increased Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2.
Anxiety disorder in adolescents is a common mental disorder seen in the clinics. It can impair the psychosocial wellbeing of adolescents, influence their academic achievement and increase the family burden. Now cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) may be the best provided psychotherapy for the treatment of it with a comparable effect with pharmacological treatment. And evidence based medicine had recommended the combining usage of the two treatments.
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of manual-guided cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for adolescents with anxiety disorder.
With the help of foreign manual and consideration of characteristics of Chinese anxiety disorder adolescents, a treatment manual for the treatment of adolescent anxiety disorder in China is established.Clinical control test is formed to test the effect of manual. A cases analyze of the adolescent patients who received the CBT treatment.
A multimodular and several stage treatment manual for the treatment of Chinese anxious adolescents is established with objectives as oriented.63.7% of the adolescent anxiety disorder patients who received the CBT treatment is recovered. Analyze of patients who receive CBT result three models of requirements.
The treatment manual in this research is fitted with the characteristics of the adolescent anxiety disorder in China, and it is proved useful in the clinical work.In the CBT treatment of adolescent anxiety disorder, the patients can be classified to three requirement models which should be treated with different focus.
The majority of neuroimaging studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Our previous study found that PTSD is associated with selective volume loss of the CA3/dentate gyrus subfields However, the causality of smaller hippocampal volumes and PTSD cannot be determined in these studies because of the cross-sectional nature of them. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to determine if PTSD caused hippocampal subfields volume loss following traffic accidents. Volumes of hippocampal subfields in thirty seven traffic accident survivors were measured using 3T MRI in one week after accident, and twenty five of them completed one year follow-up MRI scan. Fourteen participants met the PTSD diagnosis in one year follow-up while other eleven did not met PTSD diagnosis criteria. PTSD was significantly associated with volumes reduction of CA3/dentate gyrus subfield (β=0.244 p=0.017) while other subfields were spared. It also shown volume loses of Entorhinal Cortex (ERC) of both side in one year follow-up for the whole sample (mean volume reduction: right 19.25mm3, left 22.04 mm3). But no association has been found between PTSD and ERC volume alteration. The findings indicate for the first time in humans that selective volume loss of the CA3/dentate gyrus subfields is the results but not the risk factor of PTSD. It also suggested that ERC may also be a stress sensitive region.
Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive as well as mood disturbances.
To evaluate cognitive function and white matter structure, resting-state brain function in first-episode, treatmentnaive patients with MDD.
To explore brain structure and function mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 Han Chinese MDD patients aged 18–45 year and 46 controls were assessed by a series of validated test procedures.Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.White matter abnormalities evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and resting-state brain function was evaluated using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis.
Cognitive impairment in patients with MDD was demonstrated by reduced accuracy in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WSCT) and to a lesser extent the Continuous Performance test (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT). White matter abnormalities found in the left cerebellum, and resting-state abnormalities present in the left inferior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate nucleus and left hippocampal gyrus were associated with impaired performance in the WSCT and CPT tests. We also showed that poor WSCT performance was associated with increased interconnectivity between the left ventral anterior cingulate nucleus and the medial frontal lobe areas.
The present study indicates cognitive disturbances in patients with MDD are associated with white matter and resting-state changes and altered interconnections in specific brain areas.
In this study, we aimed to identify protein molecules in the hypothalamus in the female rats injected exogenous androgen before sexual differentiation.
Neonatal female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group and control female group. Four neonatal male SD rats were control male group. All animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of testosterone propionate as experimental group or aseptic oil as control. The rats were sacrificed 90 days after the injection and the brains were collected. 2-DE were performed in order to establish profiles of proteome from rat hypothalamus and followed by MALDITOF- TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in rat hypothalamus from experimental group as compared to normal control group.
11 differential spots were cut off from the Silver stained gel, and 9 of the spots were identified, which were Dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K(hnRNP K), Profilin2, Triosephosphate isomerase 1(Tpi 1), Carbonic anhydrase II(CA II), Annexin A3, Protein disulfide isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3), Creatine kinase-B and Secernin 1.
The results of the present study indicate that the development of sexual differentiation may be associated with the alteration in the expression of a large number of cytosolic proteins in the hypothalamus.
Disaster literacy, which is a concept involved in moral quality, knowledge, and ability, impacts the disaster response. This study aimed to evaluate disaster education needs and to determine the affecting factors of disaster literacy among college students.
A cross-sectional study was conducted through questionnaires. A total of 7200 college students from 10 colleges and universities in 5 provinces and cities in China were investigated.
Disaster education needs were urgently. For the participants, 79.43% stated that their families were not prepared for disaster prevention items, 96.36% suggested a campus emergency rescue team, and 88.64% obtained disaster knowledge through TV or Internet, and only 12.89% had offered relevant courses in their disciplines. The total scores of college students’ disaster literacy were 87.85 ± 19.86, which was at a low level. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age, major, grade, place of residence, parental education, mother’s occupation, disaster experience, disaster training experience, and family disaster preparedness significantly affected college students’ disaster literacy, especially grade, family disaster preparedness, and place of residence.
College students’ disaster literacy education is urgently needed. Families, communities, colleges and the government should attach importance to disaster literacy education for college students.
The X chromosome is known to play an important role in many sex-specific diseases. However, only a few single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the X chromosome have been found to be associated with diseases. Compared to the autosomes, conducting association tests on the X chromosome is more intractable due to the difference in the number of X chromosomes between females and males. On the other hand, X-chromosome inactivation takes place in female mammals, which is a phenomenon in which the expression of one copy of two X chromosomes in females is silenced in order to achieve the same gene expression level as that in males. In addition, imprinting effects may be related to certain diseases. Currently, there are some existing approaches taking X-chromosome inactivation into account when testing for associations on the X chromosome. However, none of them allows for imprinting effects. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a robust test, ZXCII, which accounts for both X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting effects without requiring specifying the genetic models in advance. Simulation studies are conducted in order to investigate the validity and performance of ZXCII under various scenarios of different parameter values. The simulation results show that ZXCII controls the type I error rate well when there is no association. Furthermore, with regards to power, ZXCII is robust in all of the situations considered and generally outperforms most of the existing methods in the presence of imprinting effects, especially under complete imprinting effects.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post hoc analysis of the Uric acid (UA) Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 1685 participants were included in the present study. The main outcome was new-onset hyperuricaemia defined as a UA concentration ≥417 μmol/l in men or ≥357 μmol/l in women. The secondary outcome was a change in UA concentration defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. During a median follow-up duration of 4·3 years, new-onset hyperuricaemia occurred in 290 (17·2 %) participants. There was a significantly inverse relation of plasma Mg with the risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (per sd increment; OR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·99) and change in UA levels (per sd increment; β −3·96 μmol/l; 95 % CI −7·14, −0·79). Consistently, when plasma Mg was analysed as tertiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia (OR 0·67; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·95) and less increase in UA levels (β −8·35 μmol/l; 95 % CI −16·12, −0·58) were found among participants in tertile 3 (≥885·5 μmol/l) compared with those in tertile 1 (<818·9 μmol/l). Similar trends were found in males and females. Higher plasma Mg levels were associated with a decreased risk of new-onset hyperuricaemia in hypertensive adults.
We present the experimental optimization of electrons in the several hundred keV energy range originated from laser-irradiated wire targets. Accelerated by a femtosecond laser pulse, an electron pulse emitted from the wire target was collimated immediately along the wire to a filter unit for the manipulation of energy and spatial distributions. It is shown in simulation that with a pair of magnets as the filter unit, the optimized electrons could serve as a compact and tunable electron source. The proposed system was demonstrated in a proof-of-principle experiment where we attained 1 fC bunch charge with transverse coherence length approaching 1 nm based on a 0.2 TW laser platform. This indicates the scheme as a promising candidate for single-shot electron diffraction.
The addition of clay minerals in drilling fluids modifies the dispersion's viscosity. In this article, scientific advances related to the use of clays and clay minerals (bentonite, palygorskite, sepiolite and mixtures of clay minerals) in drilling fluids are summarized and discussed based on their specific structure, rheological properties, applications, prevailing challenges and future directions. The rheological properties of drilling fluids are affected by the temperature, type of electrolytes, pH and concentration of clay minerals. Bentonites are smectite-rich clays often used in drilling fluids, and their composition varies from deposit to deposit. Such variations significantly affect the behaviour of bentonite-based drilling fluids. Palygorskite is suitable for use in oil-based drilling fluids, but the gelation and gel structures of palygorskite-added drilling fluids have not received much attention. Sepiolite is often used in water-based drilling fluids as a rheological additive. Dispersions containing mixtures of clays including bentonite, kaolin, palygorskite and sepiolite are used in drilling fluids requiring specific features such as high-density drilling fluids or those used in impermeable slurry walls. In these cases, the surface chemistry–microstructure–property relationships of mixed-clay dispersions need to be understood fully. The prevailing challenges and future directions in drilling fluids research include safety, ‘green’ processes and high-temperature and high-pressure-resistant clay minerals.
Xiangming Chen, Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut.,
Na Fu, University of Texas at Austin,
Sam Zhou, Trinity College with a degree in mathematics in May 2019.,
Gavin Xu, Trinity College, Connecticut.
The association between capital and labour varies spatially and shifts temporally. Post-1980 China represents arguably the most striking and largest-scale reconfiguration of international capital and domestic labour. China not only has become the largest recipient in the developing world of foreign direct investment (FDI), most of which has flowed into manufacturing, but has also experienced the largest domestic movement of rural labourers, over 500 million, into city-based factories in history. As this massive combination of capital and labour transformed China into a global economic superpower with abundant foreign reserves and surplus capital, it has turned China into a major new source of capital outflow, mostly into the Global South. Conventional capital mobility is driven primarily by private multinational corporations towards both safe and profitable markets in the Global North and emerging economies with lower production costs and greater market potentials. But China has introduced a new mode of outward capital mobility directed by a strong party-state that also acts as a global capitalist-state. China challenges the prevailing market-capitalist principle and patterns of global capital and labour mobility by unleashing a large wave of capital flow from China to the Global South and thus triggering potentially new but uncertain labour movements within and across national boundaries.
With its powerful role in reshaping a new era of global capital and labour mobility, China offers a timely case for exploring and understanding the spatial reconfiguration of capital–labour relations across a much more expansive swath of the Global South compared to the previous dominance of capital investment from the Global North. By pushing heavy investment into the Global South through such government channels as state development banks and state-owned companies, China presents new questions concerning how a powerful state deals with its weakening domestic economy by sending and steering capital flows to neighbouring national and subnational recipients with weak governance capacities.
This chapter has three purposes. First, we focus on China's heavy capital investment in the Global South, primarily in the least developed part of South East Asia, to understand the formation and consequences of a new zone of cross-border infrastructure-driven regional development. Second, we conduct a two-fold analysis of how Chinese investment in South East Asia differs between a powerful state channel and a more flexible conduit and how this simultaneous but bifurcated capital mobility leads to varied labour movement.
This study aimed to examine the efficacy of combining paroxetine and mirtazapine v. switching to mirtazapine, for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have had an insufficient response to SSRI monotherapy (paroxetine) after the first 2 weeks of treatment.
This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-arm study recruited participants from five hospitals in China. Eligible participants were aged 18–60 years with MDD of at least moderate severity. Participants received paroxetine during a 2-week open-label phase and patients who had not achieved early improvement were randomized to paroxetine, mirtazapine or paroxetine combined with mirtazapine for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was improvement on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression 17-item (HAMD-17) scores 6 weeks after randomization.
A total of 204 patients who showed early non-response to paroxetine monotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either mirtazapine and placebo (n = 68), paroxetine and placebo (n = 68) or mirtazapine and paroxetine (n = 68), with 164 patients completing the outcome assessment. At week 8, the least squares (LS) mean change of HAMD-17 scores did not significantly differ among the three groups, (12.98 points) in the mirtazapine group, (12.50 points) in the paroxetine group and (13.27 points) in the mirtazapine plus paroxetine combination group. Participants in the paroxetine monotherapy group were least likely to experience adverse effects.
After 8 weeks follow-up, paroxetine monotherapy, mirtazapine monotherapy and paroxetine/mirtazapine combination therapy were equally effective in non-improvers at 2 weeks. The results of this trial do not support a recommendation to routinely offer additional treatment or a switch in treatment strategies for MDD patients who do not show early improvement after 2 weeks of antidepressant treatment.
In order to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for allometries of body compositions and metabolic traits in chicken, we phenotypically characterize the allometric growths of multiple body components and metabolic traits relative to BWs using joint allometric scaling models and then establish random regression models (RRMs) to fit genetic effects of markers and minor polygenes derived from the pedigree on the allometric scalings. Prior to statistically inferring the QTLs for the allometric scalings by solving the RRMs, the LASSO technique is adopted to rapidly shrink most of marker genetic effects to zero. Computer simulation analysis confirms the reliability and adaptability of the so-called LASSO-RRM mapping method. In the F2 population constructed by multiple families, we formulate two joint allometric scaling models of body compositions and metabolic traits, in which six of nine body compositions are tested as significant, while six of eight metabolic traits are as significant. For body compositions, a total of 14 QTLs, of which 9 dominant, were detected to be associated with the allometric scalings of drumstick, fat, heart, shank, liver and spleen to BWs; while for metabolic traits, a total of 19 QTLs also including 9 dominant be responsible for the allometries of T4, IGFI, IGFII, GLC, INS, IGR to BWs. The detectable QTLs or highly linked markers can be used to regulate relative growths of the body components and metabolic traits to BWs in marker-assisted breeding of chickens.
Chlamydia spp. are a group of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a number of diseases in animals and humans. Avian chlamydiosis (AC), caused by Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) as well as new emerging C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. ibidis, have been described in nearly 500 avian species worldwidely. The Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) is a world endangered avian species with limited population and vulnerable for various infections. To get a better understanding of the prevalence of Chlamydia spp. in the endangered Crested Ibis, faecal samples were collected and analysed. The results confirmed that 20.20% (20/99) of the faecal samples were positive for Chlamydiaceae and were identified as C. ibidis with co-existence of C. psittaci in one of the 20 positive samples. In addition, ompA sequence of C. psittaci obtained in this study was classified into the provisional genotype Matt116, while that of C. ibidis showed high genetic diversity, sharing only 77% identity with C. ibidis reference strain 10-1398/6. We report for the first time the presence of C. ibidis and C. psittaci in the Crested Ibis, which may indicate a potential threat to the endangered birds and should be aware of the future protection practice.
The development of laminar thermals and the formation of buoyant vortex rings in thermals are studied by performing direct numerical simulations. The formation number of buoyant vortex rings in thermals is also analysed. We find that the development of thermals can be classified into three modes: the starting vortex ring dominated mode; the mode with the occurrence of a secondary vortex ring with breakup; and the mode with the occurrence of a secondary vortex ring without breakup. For the latter two modes, owing to the stretching of the thermal cap, the fluid at the leading edge rolls up, and a secondary vortex ring occurs, grows and replaces the starting vortex ring. The boundary of non-occurrence and occurrence of the secondary vortex ring is determined in a space of Richardson number (Ri) and injection duration (
). The final mode occurs only in a small region. For
, the secondary vortex ring does not occur even for very long injection duration. The effective Rayleigh number (
) is proposed to accommodate the cases
larger than the critical value (approximates to 1. 95 × 105) for the occurrence of the secondary vortex ring. The formation number of buoyant vortex rings in thermals is beyond the universal formation number of 4 for non-buoyant vortex rings, and increases with the increase of the Richardson number and the injection duration. The switching between the thermal modes by changing the Richardson number and the injection duration has no significant effect on the value of the formation number.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant-related signalling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. A total of 1200 fish (14·19 (se 0·13) g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9·5, 11·5, 13·5, 15·4, 17·4 and 19·3 g/kg diets) for 56 d. Results showed (P < 0·05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percentage weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio; (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen, myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG and Mrf4) and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating the protein kinase B/target of rapamycin signalling pathway and (4) decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, increased catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit. These results suggest that Thr has a potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth-related gene, antioxidative capacity and protein synthesis-related signalling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of specific growth rate, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14·19–25·77 g) was estimated to be 13·77 g/kg of the diet (33·40 g/kg of dietary protein).
This study seeks to identify healthcare utilization patterns following symptomatic respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and the variables that may influence these patterns.
RTIs are responsible for the bulk of the primary healthcare burden worldwide. Yet, the use of health services for RTIs displays great discrepancies between populations. This research examines the influence of social demographics, economic factors, and accessibility on healthcare utilization following RTIs.
Structured interviews were administered by trained physicians at the households of informants selected by cluster randomization. Descriptive and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess healthcare utilization and associated independent variables.
A total of 60 678 informants completed the interviews. Of the 2.9% informants exhibiting upper RTIs, 69.5–73.9% sought clinical care. Healthcare utilization rates for common cold, influenza, nine acute upper RTIs, and overall RTIs demonstrate statistically significant associations with the variables of age, type of residence, employment, medical insurance, annual food expenditure, distance to medical facilities, and others. The odds ratios for healthcare utilization rates varied substantially, ranging from 0.026 to 9.364. More than 69% of informants with RTIs sought clinical interventions. These findings signify a marked issue with the large amount of healthcare for self-limited RTIs.
Mechanical fracture of electrodes will occur during lithiation caused by large volume changes, which leads to the capacity loss of the lithium-ion battery. Herein, we present a new analytical model to investigate the effect of creep deformation on stress relaxation and fracture of the lithiated tin (Sn) electrode under the galvanostatic and potentiostatic operation. Interestingly, it is found that the presence of creep can improve fracture resistance and toughness of the Sn electrode. In addition, the surface effect has the capacity to weaken the creep deformation effectively. And the different size of the Sn electrode shows different effects for creep deformation. This conclusion explains the difference in charging conditions, and the mechanism of stress change inside the electrode is also different. Deeply, the base on our model, the stress strength factor, and critical size of the electrode have been evaluated under galvanostatic and potentiostatic operation with creep deformation effects. Finally, the safety area during lithiation is established to determine the critical size of the Sn electrode. And the presence of creep deformation may significantly increase critical dimensions of the electrode. These results will provide a valuable basis to design the durable electrodes.
To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.