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Recently, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have attracted intensive research interest as the next-generation supercapacitor electrodes due to their unique two-dimensional (2D) hydrotalcite-like structure. However, the inevitable agglomeration significantly decreases the accessible surface areas and blocks the pseudocapacitive sites, thus severely hinders their electrochemical applications. Herein, we develop a facile one-step growth approach to fabricate porous agglomerate of NiCo-LDH nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoflakes. By adjusting feeding molar ratios, the obtained NiCo-LDH/rGO electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 879.5 C/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g and still remains 485 C/g at 20 A/g. Furthermore, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has demonstrated a superior energy density of 48.7 W h/kg at a power density of 401 W/kg. After 2000 cycles, the assembled ASC exhibits an improved capacity retention of 81% within a potential window of 1.6 V at 2 A/g.
A tunable ultrafast intensity-rotating optical field is generated by overlapping a pair of 20 Hz, 800 nm chirped pulses with a Michelson interferometer (MI). Its rotating rate can be up to 10 trillion radians per second (
), which can be flexibly tuned with a mirror in the MI. Besides, its fold rotational symmetry structure is also changeable by controlling the difference from the topological charges of the pulse pair. Experimentally, we have successfully developed a two-petal lattice with a tunable rotating speed from
, which is confirmed by our single-shot ultrafast frame imager based on noncollinear optical-parametric amplification with its highest frame rate of 15 trillion frames per second (Tfps). This work is carried out at a low repetition rate. Therefore, it can be applied at relativistic, even ultrarelativistic, intensities, which usually operate in low repetition rate ultrashort and ultraintense laser systems. We believe that it may have application in laser-plasma-based accelerators, strong terahertz radiations and celestial phenomena.
This study aimed to improve the performance of an intermediate covering of soils in landfill sites by using agents such as calcined lime, sawdust and polyacrylamide (PAM). Compressive strength, permeability and water-holding capacity of modified soils were measured, and the effects of regulating pH and pollutant removal in leachate were also investigated in a leaching experiment. The results indicate that three modifying agents could improve the compressive strength of an intermediate soil cover. The permeability of lime-treated soil increased as the amount of lime increased, while that of sawdust- and PAM-modified soil declined. Results from a leaching experiment show that lime- and sawdust-modified soils could improve leachate quality. The pH value of leachate from 5% lime-modified soils was 7.78, which is suitable for the metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and volatile fatty acids in leachate permeating lime- and sawdust-modified intermediate cover was improved so that the pollution load of leachate was reduced. The water-holding capacities for 20% sawdust and 0.5% PAM-modified soils were 65.19% and 43.52%, respectively, which helps to maintain the optimum water content of landfill. The water-holding capacity of PAM-modified samples declined in alkaline soil. It is concluded that the combination of 5% sawdust, 5% lime and 90% soil would be optimal for an intermediate covering layer.
This paper presents a complete two-step phase-shifting (TSPS) spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) to improve the reconstruction of ultrafast optical fields. Here, complete TSPS acts as a balanced detection that can not only remove the effect of the dc term of the interferogram, but also reduce measurement noises, and thereby improve the capability of SPIDER to measure the pulses with narrow spectra or complex spectral structures. Some prisms are chosen to replace some environment-sensitive optical components, especially reflective optics to improve operating stability and improve signal-to-noise ratio further. Our experiments show that the available shear can be decreased to 1.5% of the spectral width, which is only about
compared with traditional SPIDER.
Familial monozygotic (MZ) twinning reports are rare around the world, and we report a four-generation pedigree with seven recorded pairs of female MZ twins. Whole-genome sequencing of seven family members was performed to explore the featured genetic factors in MZ twins. For variations specific to MZ twins, five novel variants were observed in the X chromosome. These candidates were used to explain the seemingly X-linked dominant inheritance pattern, and only one variant was exonic, located at the 5′UTR region of ZCCHC12 (chrX: 117958597, G > A). Besides, consistent mitochondrial DNA composition in the maternal linage precluded roles of mitochondria for this trait. In this pedigree, autosomes also contain diverse variations specific to MZ twins. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of genes carrying novel SNVs in the epithelial adherens junction-signaling pathway (p = .011), contributed by FGFR1, TUBB6, and MYH7B. Meanwhile, TBC1D22A, TRIOBP, and TUBB6, also carrying similar SNVs, were involved in the GTPase family-mediated signal pathway. Furthermore, gene-set enrichment analysis for 533 genes covered by copy number variations specific to MZ twins illustrated that the tight junction-signaling pathway was significantly enriched (p < .001). Therefore, the novel changes in the X chromosome and the provided candidate variants across autosomes may be responsible for MZ twinning, giving clues to increase our understanding about the underlying mechanism.
The structural integrity of nuclear fission and fusion power plant components is the focus of this research. The state of the art is using micro scale specimens milled with a focussed ion beam (FIB). Because of their very low volume such specimens can be lab tested, even when irradiated to low or medium level of activity. This offers a possibility of testing multiple specimens to investigate stochastic effects, e.g. effects of irradiation on the shift of the ductile to brittle transition. However, FIB milled specimens suffer from Ga contamination, to the degree that the validity of fracture data obtained on such specimens is questionable. We propose to use nano-additive manufacturing as an alternative to FIB for making micro scale fracture specimens. A combination of two-photon polymerization and electrodeposition and sputtering was used to manufacture micro-scale Brazilian disk fracture specimens (CBD), which are free from Ga and thus better suited for the study of irradiation effects on structural integrity. In this study Ni CBD specimens were made with 30 µm diameter and up to 13 µm thickness. The slot width varied between 1 µm to 2.9 µm width the corresponding slot length of between 7.5 µm and 8 µm. Consecutive FIB characterization shows that the specimens have polycrystalline microstructure with sub-µm grains. The work is ongoing making W CBD specimens and on reducing the slot width and using chemical vapor deposition fabrication.
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the main energy resource for porcine preimplantation embryonic development. PLIN3 has been implicated in LD formation and regulation. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the dynamic pattern of PLIN3 in pig oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) during in vitro maturation (IVM), and to determine the relationship between PLIN3 and LD content. IVM with cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO), cumulus-denuded oocytes (DO) and the CCs denuded from the corresponding oocytes (DCC) was performed in porcine follicular fluid (PFF) or PFF-free optimized medium. DO and the DCC were cultured together under the same conditions as described above, while the DO was named DTO and the DCC was named DTCC in this group. Firstly, our results revealed LDs distributed widely in oocytes and CC, while the PLIN3 protein coated these LDs and spread out ubiquitously in the cytoplasm. Secondly, not only the mRNA level but also at protein level of PLIN3 in immature naked oocytes (IO) was higher than that in matured CEO, DO and DTO. Although PLIN3 was expressed at lower levels in CC from immature oocytes (ICC), the protein level of PLIN3 was comparably higher in the ECC and DCC groups. The triglyceride (TG) content in CEO and DO was significantly less abundant compared with that in IO. Therefore, our results indicated that co-culturing of oocytes and CC might affect PLIN3 expression levels in CC but not in oocytes. Lipid accumulation in pig oocytes during maturation might be affected by PLIN3 cross-talk between oocytes and CC.
Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, a phenoxy herbicide of the aryloxy–phenoxy–propionic acid group, had a strong control effect when applied POST to weedy rice in this study, with the effective concentrations of 294 μM and 218 μM of herbicide causing 50% inhibition (IC50) in plant height and fresh weight values, respectively. However, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl caused phytotoxicity in cultivated rice. Isoxadifen-ethyl, a widely used herbicide safener in rice, can decrease the phytotoxicity caused by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Owing to the extremely similar morphological features and physiological properties of weedy and cultivated rice, it is not practical to spray isoxadifen-ethyl directly on cultivated rice plants to safen them. Applying the safener directly to cultivated rice seeds may be a practical alternative method. To improve the biological activity of isoxadifen-ethyl seed treatments, novel compounds were designed by splicing other groups, including amines, amino acids, and 2- methoxy-5-nitrophenol sodium salt, to the parental structure of isoxadifen-ethyl. Through hydrolysis, acyl chlorination, acyl amination, and esterification, a series of isoxadifen-ethyl derivatives were synthesized and their structures were determined by mass spectrometry and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The biological activities of five of the isoxadifen-ethyl derivatives, which possessed recovery effects similar to isoxadifen-ethyl, were able to relieve herbicide phytotoxicity. In pot experiments, isoxadifen-ethyl showed almost no activity as a seed treatment, while three derivative compounds, when used independently as seed treatments, were able to prevent the damage caused by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. The results will help to develop a new control method for weedy rice, thereby decreasing production costs and increasing farmers’ incomes.
To evaluate the effects of different anthropogenic activities on zooplankton and the pelagic ecosystem, we conducted seasonal cruises in 2010 to assess spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of Xiangshan Bay, a subtropical semi-enclosed bay in China. The evaluation included five different areas: a kelp farm, an oyster farm, a fish farm, the thermal discharge area of a power plant, and an artificial reef, and we aimed to identify whether anthropogenic activities dominated spatial variation in the mesozooplankton communities. The results demonstrated clear spatial heterogeneity among the mesozooplankton communities of the studied areas, dominantly driven by natural hydrographic properties, except in the area near the thermal discharge outlet of the power station. In the outlet area, thermal shock caused by the discharge influenced the mesozooplankton community by decreasing abundance and biomass throughout the four seasons, even causing a shift in the dominant species near the outlet during summer from Acartia pacifica to eurythermal and warm water taxa. Unique features of the mesozooplankton community in the oyster farm may be due to the combined effects of oyster culture and the natural environment in the branch harbour. However, kelp and fish culture, and the construction of an artificial reef did not exert any obvious influence on the mesozooplankton communities up to 2010, probably because of the small scale of the aquaculture and a time lag in the rehabilitation effects of the artificial reef. Thus, our results suggested that the dominant factors influencing spatial variations of mesozooplankton communities in Xiangshan Bay were still the natural hydrographic properties, but the thermal discharge was an anthropogenic activity that changed the pelagic ecosystem, and should be supervised.
The ultimate goal of poultry hatching is to increase the hatching rate and to produce healthy hatched birds. In the incubation process, temperature is the most important factor for the egg hatching rate, the growth performance and offspring phenotype. This not only affects the early development of the offspring, but also has a continued influence on the physical characteristics of the birds, such as final body weight and meat quality. This article reviews the importance of incubation temperature on offspring phenotype, sex differentiation, organism immunity and the development of muscle fibre in poultry.
It is a challenging task for a human operator to manipulate a robot from a remote distance, especially in an unknown environment. Excellent teleoperation provides the human operator with a sense of telepresence, mainly including real-world vision, haptic perception, etc. This paper presents a novel virtual environment building method using the red–green–blue (RGB) colour information, the surface normal feature-based 3D-point-cloud registration method and the weighted sliding-average least-square-method-based real-world dynamic modelling for teleoperation. The experiments prove the method to be an accurate and effective means of teleoperation.
It has been proposed that the feeding habit of cyclopoids is different from that of calanoid copepods in that they feed mainly on microalgae during early development but become carnivorous later. However, a different view also exists, believing that microalgae are the prime food for some cyclopoid copepods. In the present study, microalgae from various taxonomic groups, including a dinoflagellate (Prorocentrum micans), three diatoms (Chaetoceros muelleri, Skeletonema costatum and Nitzschia closterium f. minutissima), and a prymnesiod (Isochrysis galbana), were offered at different concentrations to the cyclopoid copepod, Apocyclops borneoensis, with survival, development and reproduction of the copepod closely monitored. The results showed that A. borneoensis is capable of utilizing any of the microalgae species tested for development and reproduction, but significant differences in survival, development rates of both nauplii and copepodites, and fecundity were detected among species. The results also showed that within a same algal species, food concentration also significantly affected various biological parameters measured. Overall, C. muelleri and I. galbana were the better diets for A. borneoensis and their optimal food concentration ranged from 8.50 to 17.00 µg C ml−1. The optimal food concentration of P. micans was also found to be 8.50–17.00 µg C ml−1, however for the other two algae, S. costatum and N. closterium f. minutissima, it was lower at 1.70–8.50 µg C ml−1. The present study provides novel information on the feeding habit of A. borneoensis and the effects of both quality and quantity of microalgae diets on a range of biological parameters are described.
Objective: To study the relationship of Nε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine level (CML) with microstructure changes of white matter (WM), and cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to discuss the potential mechanism underlying T2DM-associated cognitive impairment. Methods: The study was performed in T2DM patients (n=22) with disease course ≥5 years and age ranging from 65 to 75 years old. A control group consisted of 25 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of several WM regions was analyzed by diffusion tensor imaging scan. Plasma CML levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA). Results: The total Mini-Mental State Examination score in the patient group (25.72±3.13) was significantly lower than the control group (28.16±2.45) (p<0.05). In addition, the total MoCA score in the patient group (22.15±3.56) was significantly lower than the control group 25.63±4.12) (p<0.01). In the patient group, FA values were significantly decreased in the corpus callosum, cingulate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, parietal WM, hippocampus, and temporal lobes relative to corresponding regions of healthy controls (p<0.05). Plasma CML level was negatively correlated with average FA values in the global brain (r=−0.58, p<0.01) and MoCA scores (r=−0.47, p<0.05). Conclusions: In T2DM, WM microstructure changes occur in older patients, and elevations in CML may play a role in the development of cognitive impairment.
Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2–4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (Ptrend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (Ptrend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (Pinteraction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.
To examine the association of 24 h urinary Na excretion and Na:K with obesity in Chinese adults.
Population-based cross-sectional study using a four-stage stratified sampling strategy.
Shandong Province, China.
Chinese adults (n 1906) aged 18–69 years who provided complete 24 h urine samples.
Odds of obesity increased significantly across increasing quartiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·54, 1·69 and 2·52, respectively, for overweight; 1·00, 1·20, 1·50, and 2·03, respectively, for obesity; 1·00, 1·44, 1·85 and 2·53, respectively, for abdominal obesity (assessed by waist circumference); and 1·00, 1·28, 1·44 and 1·75, respectively, for abdominal obesity (assessed by waist-to-height ratio); P for linear trend <0·001 for all). In addition, odds of abdominal obesity, but not odds of overweight and obesity, increased significantly with successive Na:K quartiles. Additionally, for each increment in urinary Na excretion of 100 mmol, odds of overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity (by waist circumference) and abdominal obesity (by waist-to-height ratio) increased significantly by 46 %, 39 %, 55 % and 33 %, respectively. Similarly, with a 1 sd increase in Na:K, odds of abdominal obesity (by waist circumference) and abdominal obesity (by waist-to-height ratio) increased significantly by 12 % and 15 %, respectively.
These findings suggest that 24 h urinary Na excretion and Na:K might be important risk factors for obesity in Chinese adults.
In the near future, the inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine is expected to become available on the market in China. Since EV71 is a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), the vaccine is expected to significantly reduce the number of cases, as well as the detrimental economic effect of the disease. However, for a national vaccination strategy to be developed, policy-makers need more information on the socioeconomic burden of EV71 HFMD infection. Based on the 2011 population data, we estimated the clinical and economic effect of EV71 HFMD infection in children aged 0–9 years in Shanghai, China. The annual cost related to HFMD is >US$7.66 million for a population of 1·42 million children aged 0–9 years with an average cost of US$208.2/case. The extrapolated cost for EV71 HFMD infection was US$3.53 million, comprising 46·1% of the overall cost associated with HFMD. Around 97% of all of the HFMD-related expenses were paid for by the families creating a considerable economic burden. Our findings could provide the necessary recommendations on the most effective national EV71 vaccine implementation, as well as a baseline data for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine in China.