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Mineral–organic matter (OM) associations play an important role in determining the long-term retention of OM in soils. However, the retention mechanisms of OM in cation–mineral–OM systems remain unclear. Taking into account the dominance of montmorillonite (Mnt) in the soil of the temperate zone, we investigated the stability of humic substances (HSs) in the Fe(III)–Mnt–HS system using thermal analysis. The HS degradation started at ~387°C in the Fe(III)–Mnt–HS system, which was higher than that of the Fe(III)–HS system (290°C). The formed ferrihydrite (Fhy) mainly contributed to the enhanced labile OM retention through adsorption and/or co-precipitation, whereas Mnt inhibited the initial formation and subsequent transformation of Fhy, thus improving the stability of OM. These results suggest that the HS stability in Fe(III)–clay–HS systems depends on the Fe speciation affected by clay minerals, and this finding provides insights into OM–mineral interactions in temperate-zone soils.
It is very challenging for robots to perform grinding and polishing tasks on surfaces with unknown geometry. Most existing methods solve this problem by modeling the relationship between the force sensing information and surface normal vectors by analyzing the forces on special end tools such as spherical tools and cylindrical tools and simplified friction model. In this paper, we propose a normal vectors learning method to simultaneously control end-effector force and direction on unknown surfaces. First, the relation that mapping the force sensing information to the surface normal vectors is learned from the demonstrated data on the known plane using locally weighted regression. Next, the learned relation is used to estimate surface normal vectors on the unknown surface. To improve the force control precision on the unknown geometry surface, the adaptive force control is developed. To improve the direction control precision due to friction, the iterative learning control is developed. The proposed method is verified by comparative simulations and experiments using the Franka robot. Results show that the end-effector can be controlled perpendicular to the surface with a certain force.
The relationship between erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA and breast cancer risk is controversial. We aimed to examine the associations of erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA with odds of breast cancer among Chinese women by using a relatively large sample size. A case–control study was conducted including 853 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer cases and 892 frequency-matched controls (5-year interval). Erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA were measured by GC. Logistic regression and restricted cubic spline were used to quantify the association between erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA and odds of breast cancer. Erythrocyte membrane α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and total n-3 PUFA were inversely and non-linearly associated with odds of breast cancer. The OR values (95 % CI), comparing the highest with the lowest quartile (Q), were 0·57 (0·43, 0·76), 0·43 (0·32, 0·58) and 0·36 (0·27, 0·49) for ALA, DPA and total n-3 PUFA, respectively. Erythrocyte membrane EPA and DHA were linearly and inversely associated with odds of breast cancer ((EPA: ORQ4 v. Q1 (95 % CI) = 0·59 (0·45, 0·79); DHA: ORQ4 v. Q1 (95 % CI) = 0·50 (0·37, 0·67)). The inverse associations were observed between ALA and odds of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and between DHA and oestrogen receptor+ breast cancer. This study showed that erythrocyte membrane total and individual n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with odds of breast cancer. Other factors, such as menopause and hormone receptor status, may warrant further investigation when examining the association between n-3 PUFA and odds of breast cancer.
Light has a substantial effect on the behaviour and physiology of nocturnal moths. Ectropis grisescens is a major nocturnal tea pest in China, and light traps are commonly used to control geometrid moths because of their positive phototaxis. However, some moths gather around light traps and enter the light adaptation state, which decreases the efficacy of light traps in controlling this pest. We identified opsin genes and the spectral sensitivities of the photoreceptors of E. grisescens moths. We also determined the effects of several monochromatic lights on opsin gene expression and light adaptation. We detected three types of opsin genes and six spectral sensitive peaks (at 370, 390, 480, 530, 550, and 580 nm). We also observed significant changes in the diurnal rhythm of opsin gene expression under different light conditions. When active males were suddenly exposed to different monochromatic lights, they quickly entered the light adaptation state, and the adaptation time was negatively correlated with the light intensity. Males were most sensitive to 390 nm wavelengths, followed by 544 nm, 457 nm, and 593 nm. Red light (627 nm) did not affect the activity of E. grisescens males but had detectable physiological effects.
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing urban–rural differences in depressive symptoms among old people in China and to measure the contribution of relevant influencing factors.
A cross-sectional research. The 2018 data from The Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS).
Twenty-three provinces in China.
From the 8th CLHLS, 11,245 elderly participants were selected who met the requirements of the study.
We established binary logistic regression models to explore the main influencing factors of their depressive symptoms and used Fairlie models to analyze the influencing factors of the differences in depressive symptoms between the urban and rural elderly and their contribution.
The percentage of depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults was 11.72%, and the results showed that rural older adults (12.41%) had higher rates of depressive symptoms than urban (10.13%). The Fairlie decomposition analysis revealed that 73.96% of the difference in depressive symptoms could be explained, which was primarily associated with differences in annual income (31.51%), education level (28.05%), sleep time ( − 25.67%), self-reported health (24.18%), instrumental activities of daily living dysfunction (20.73%), exercise (17.72%), living status ( − 8.31%), age ( − 3.84%), activities of daily living dysfunction ( − 3.29%), and social activity (2.44%).
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in rural than in urban older adults, which was primarily associated with differences in socioeconomic status, personal lifestyle, and health status factors between the urban and rural residents. If these factors were addressed, we could make targeted and precise intervention strategies to improve the mental health of high-risk elderly.
Everyone faces uncertainty on a daily basis. Two kinds of probability expressions, verbal and numerical, have been used to characterize the uncertainty that we face. Because our cognitive concept of living things differs from that of non-living things, and distinguishing cognitive concepts might have linguistic markers, we designed four studies to test whether people use different probability expressions when faced with animate or inanimate uncertainty. We found that verbal probability is the preferred way to express animate uncertainty, whereas numerical probability is the preferred way to express inanimate uncertainty. The “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations were robust enough to persist when tested with forced-choice response patterns regardless of the information (e.g., equally likely outcomes, frequencies, or personal beliefs) used to construct probabilities of events. When the response pattern was changed to free-responses, the associations were evident unless the subjects were asked to write their own probability predictions for vague uncertainty. Given that the world around us consists of both animate (i.e., living) and inanimate (i.e., non-living) things, “verbal-animate” and “numerical-inanimate” associations may play a major role in risk communication and may otherwise be useful for practitioners and consultants.
Depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and decreased quality of life (QOL) are three important domains of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the possible causal relationship between these factors has yet to be elucidated. Moreover, it is not known whether certain symptoms of MDD are more impairing than others. The network approach is a promising solution to these shortfalls.
The baseline data of a multicenter prospective project conducted in 11 governances of China were analyzed. In total, 1385 patients with MDD were included. Depressive symptoms, functioning disability, and QOL were evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). The network was estimated through the graphical Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) technique in combination with the directed acyclic graph.
Three centrality metrics of the graphical LASSO showed that social life dysfunction, QOL, and late insomnia exhibited the highest strength centrality. The network accuracy and stability were estimated to be robust and stable. The Bayesian network indicated that some depressive symptoms were directly associated with QOL, while other depressive symptoms showed an indirect association with QOL mediated by impaired function. Depressed mood was positioned at the highest level in the model and predicted the activation of functional impairment and anxiety.
Functional disability mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and QOL. Family functionality and suicidal symptoms were directly related to QOL. Depressed mood played the predominant role in activating both anxiety symptom and functional impairment.
The three research topics, ship collision risk assessment, ship traffic hotspot detection and prediction, and collision-avoidance based ship path planning, are vital for next-generation vessel traffic management and monitoring systems. The system development is closely related to big data analytics and artificial intelligence for restricted waters. This study, therefore, aims to analyse the state-of-the art of these three topics over the latest decade, identify research gaps, and shed light on future research avenues. To achieve these three objectives, we critically and systematically review related articles that were published during the period between 2011 and 2021. We believe that this comprehensive and critical literature review would have a significant and profound impact on the formal safety assessment and vessel traffic management, and monitoring studies because it is not only an extension but also an essential continuity work of the literature review on maritime waterway risk assessment and prediction, as well as ship path guidance for ship collision risk mitigation in accordance with current automation vessels development and modern intelligent port construction.
Despite increasing knowledge on the neuroimaging patterns of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in non-clinical populations, studies using whole-brain machine learning to identify connectome-based neuromarkers of ED symptomatology are absent. This study examined the association of connectivity within and between large-scale functional networks with specific symptomatic behaviors and cognitions using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).
CPM with ten-fold cross-validation was carried out to probe functional networks that were predictive of ED-associated symptomatology, including body image concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors, within the discovery sample of 660 participants. The predictive ability of the identified networks was validated using an independent sample of 821 participants.
The connectivity predictive of body image concerns was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (frontoparietal and medial frontal), reward sensitivity (subcortical), and visual perception (visual). Crucially, the set of connections in the positive network related to body image concerns identified in one sample was generalized to predict body image concerns in an independent sample, suggesting the replicability of this effect.
These findings point to the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict ED symptomatology in the general population and provide the first evidence that functional interplay among distributed networks predicts body shape/weight concerns.
Among the six sympatric swan and goose species wintering in the Yangtze River floodplain, only Greylag Goose Anser anser and Bean Goose A. fabalis showed increasing population trends in the last 20 years. Until now, almost nothing was known about the Greylag Geese breeding on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, which we now know mostly winter in the Yangtze River floodplain. We applied GPS transmitters to 20 Greylag Geese in the Yangtze River floodplain and eastern Mongolia, providing complete tracks of their movements in summer, winter, spring and autumn (n = 6, 8, 8, 7). We overlaid these locations on GIS layers of habitat type and national-level protected areas, and modelled their habitat selection. Geese summered in Dauria Region, Huihe National Nature Reserve, and Wulagai Wetlands (from where 55% of GPS fixes were located in protected areas), wintered in Poyang Lake, Longgan Lake, and Anqing Lakes (43%), and staged around Bohai Bay, Xila Mulun River, and Wulagai Wetlands (spring, 48%; autumn, 45%). Geese mainly used natural ecosystems in summer (essentially grasslands and wetlands/water bodies), but in the other three seasons, used croplands between 17% (spring) and 46% (winter) of the time, with most of the rest of the time spent on wetlands/water bodies. Geese were frequently associated with wetlands and areas close to lakes/wetlands in all seasons, and cropland during winter and spring/autumn migration. These results suggest Greylag Geese in this biogeographical sub-population have increasingly shifted to feeding in croplands during the non-breeding season and enjoy the benefit of using protected areas throughout the year. We infer that these factors could have potentially contributed to elevated survival and reproductive success (relatively high among sampled flocks in recent years) which could explain the favourable conservation status of this population of Greylag Geese in recent years compared to other sympatric wintering goose and swan species.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
The autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) has a problem with feature loss when recognizing small targets underwater. At present, algorithms usually use multi-scale feature extraction to solve the problem, but this method increases the computational effort of the algorithm. In addition, low underwater light and turbid water result in incomplete information on target features. This paper proposes an enhanced dilated convolution framework (EHDC) for underwater blurred target recognition. Firstly, this paper extracts small target features through hybrid dilated convolution networks, increasing the perceptive field of the algorithm without increasing the computational power of the algorithm. Secondly, the proposed algorithm learns spatial semantic features through an adaptive correlation matrix and compensates for the missing features of the target. Finally, this paper fuses spatial semantic features and visual features for the recognition of small underwater blurred targets. Experiments show that the proposed method improves the recognition accuracy by 1.04% compared to existing methods when recognizing small underwater blurred targets.
Due to the lack of research between the inner layers in the structure of colonic mucous and the metabolism of fatty acid in the constipation model, we aim to determine the changes in the mucous phenotype of the colonic glycocalyx and the microbial community structure following treatment with Rhubarb extract in our research. The constipation and treatment models are generated using adult male C57BL/6N mice. We perform light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to detect a Muc2-rich inner mucus layer attached to mice colon under different conditions. In addition, 16S rDNA sequencing is performed to examine the intestinal flora. According to TEM images, we demonstrate that Rhubarb can promote mucin secretion and find direct evidence of dendritic structure-linked mucus structures with its assembly into a lamellar network in a pore size distribution in the isolated colon section. Moreover, the diversity of intestinal flora has noticeable changes in constipated mice. The present study characterizes a dendritic structure and persistent cross-links have significant changes accompanied by the alteration of intestinal flora in feces in models of constipation and pretreatment with Rhubarb extract.
Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have produced remarkable responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, receivers still have a relatively low response rate. Initial response assessment by conventional imaging and evaluation criteria is often unable to identify whether patients can achieve durable clinical benefit from ICIs. Overall, there are sparse effective biomarkers identified to screen NSCLC patients responding to this therapy. A lot of studies have reported that patients with specific gene mutations may benefit from or resist to immunotherapy. However, the single gene mutation may be not effective enough to predict the benefit from immunotherapy for patients. With the advancement in sequencing technology, further studies indicate that many mutations often co-occur and suggest a drastic transformation of tumour microenvironment phenotype. Moreover, co-mutation events have been reported to synergise to activate or suppress signalling pathways of anti-tumour immune response, which also indicates a potential target for combining intervention. Thus, the different mutation profile (especially co-mutation) of patients may be an important concern for predicting or promoting the efficacy of ICIs. However, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge of this field until now. Therefore, in this study, we reviewed and elaborated the value of cancer mutation profile in predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy and analysed the underlying mechanisms, to provide an alternative way for screening dominant groups, and thereby, optimising individualised therapy for NSCLC patients.
The wheat aphid Sitobion miscanthi (CWA) is an important harmful pest in wheat fields. Insecticide application is the main method to effectively control wheat aphids. However, CWA has developed resistance to some insecticides due to its extensive application, and understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial for the management of CWA. In our study, a new P450 gene, CYP4CJ6, was identified from CWA and showed a positive response to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Transcription of CYP4CJ6 was significantly induced by both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and overexpression of CYP4CJ6 in the imidacloprid-resistant strain was also observed. The sensitivity of CWA to these two insecticides was increased after the knockdown of CYP4CJ6. These results indicated that CYP4CJ6 could be associated with CWA resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Subsequently, the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism was assessed, and miR-316 was confirmed to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of CYP4CJ6. These results are crucial for clarifying the roles of P450 in the resistance of CWA to insecticides.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RFRP-3 synchronized with photoperiods on regulating the seasonal reproduction of striped hamsters. The striped hamsters were raised separately under long-day (LD; 16 h light/8 h dark), medium-day (MD; 12 h light/12 h dark) or short-day (SD; 8 h light/16 h dark) conditions for 8 weeks. RFRP-3 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, testis or ovaries in three groups were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Melatonin (MLT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in serum were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between RFRP-3 and GnRH mRNA and FSH and LH concentrations was also analyzed. MLT negatively regulated the expression of RFRP-3. Significant differences for RFRP-3 mRNA existed in the three groups, which positively correlated with the GnRH and the FSH and LH concentrations. RFRP-3 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly higher than those in ovaries or testis. RFRP-3 levels in the hypothalamus were significantly lower in female than in male under SD conditions, while those in ovaries were significantly higher than those in testes under LD conditions. MLT decreased RFRP neuron activity, and RFRP-3 regulated the reproduction of striped hamsters.
Different from developed countries, there is a paucity of research examining how the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets relate to lipids in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR). A total of 83 081 participants from seven ethnic groups were retrieved from the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study, which was conducted in less-developed Southwest China between May 2018 and September 2019. Multivariable linear regression models were then used to examine the associations of the DASH and alternative Mediterranean diet (AMED) scores, assessed by modified DASH score and AMED, as well as their components with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and TC/HDL-cholesterol. The DASH scores were negatively associated with TC, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest DASH scores, TC decreased 0·0708 (95 % CI −0·0923, −0·0493) mmol/l, HDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0380 (95 % CI −0·0462, −0·0299) mmol/l and TAG decreased 0·0668 (95 % CI −0·0994, −0·0341) mmol/l. The AMED scores were negatively associated with TC, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. Comparing the highest quintiles with the lowest AMED scores, TC decreased 0·0816 (95 % CI −0·1035, −0·0597) mmol/l, LDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0297 (95 % CI −0·0477, −0·0118) mmol/l and HDL-cholesterol decreased 0·0275 (95 % CI −0·0358, −0·0192) mmol/l. Although both the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet were negatively associated with blood lipids, those associations showed different patterns in LEMR, particularly for TAG and HDL-cholesterol.
Masturbation is a common sexual practice in men, and saliva is often used as a lubricant during masturbation by men who have sex with men. However, the role of saliva use during masturbation in the transmission of chlamydia is still unclear. We developed population-level, susceptible-infected-susceptible compartmental models to explore the role of saliva use during masturbation on the transmission of chlamydia at multiple anatomical sites. In this study, we simulated both solo masturbation and mutual masturbation. Our baseline model did not include masturbation but included transmission routes (anal sex, oral-penile sex, rimming, kissing and sequential sexual practices) we have previously validated (model 1). We added masturbation to model 1 to develop the second model (model 2). We calibrated the model to five clinical datasets separately to assess the effects of masturbation on the prevalence of site-specific infection. The inclusion of masturbation (model 2) significantly worsened the ability of the models to replicate the prevalence of C. trachomatis. Using model 2 and the five data sets, we estimated that saliva use during masturbation was responsible for between 3.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–6.8] and 6.2% (95% CI 3.8–10.5) of incident chlamydia cases at all sites. Our models suggest that saliva use during masturbation is unlikely to play a major role in chlamydia transmission between men, and even if it does have a role, about one in seven cases of urethral chlamydia might arise from masturbation.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.