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Paediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in China. Data on epidemiology of paediatric MPP from China are little known. This study retrospectively collected data from June 2006 to June 2016 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University of North China and aims to explore the epidemiological features of paediatric MPP and severe MPP (SMPP) in North China during the past 10 years. A total of 27 498 paediatric patients with pneumonia were enrolled. Among them, 37.5% of paediatric patients had MPP. In this area, an epidemic took place every 2–3 years at the peak, and the positive rate of MPP increased during these peak years over time. The peak age of MPP was between the ages of 6 and 10 years, accounting for 75.2%, significantly more compared with other age groups (χ2 = 1384.1, P < 0.0001). The epidemics peaked in September, October and November (χ2 = 904.9, P < 0.0001). Additionally, 13.0% of MPP paediatric patients were SMPP, but over time, the rate of SMPP increased, reaching 42.6% in 2016. The mean age of paediatric patients with SMPP (6.7 ± 3.0 years old) was younger than that of patients with non-SMPP (7.4 ± 3.2 years old) (t = 3.60, P = 0.0001). The prevalence of MPP and SMPP is common in China, especially in children from 6 to 10 years old. Paediatric patients with SMPP tend to be younger than those with non-SMPP. MPP outbreaks occur every 2–3 years in North China. September, October and November are the peak months, unlike in South China. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric MPP can contribute to timely treatment and diagnosis, and may improve the prognosis of children with SMPP.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
Given the global water challenges, solar-driven steam generation has become a renewed topic recently as an energy-efficient way for clean water production. Here, a hybrid plasmonic structure consisting of a top layer of TiN nanoparticles (NPs) and a bottom layer of mesoporous anodized alumina membrane (AAM) was rationally designed and fabricated. The top TiN NPs with broadband light absorption acted as a plasmonic heating layer, which converted the absorbed light to heat efficiently for interfacial water heating. The AAM acted as the mechanical support layer, guaranteeing the heat isolation and continuous water replenishment. With optimized thickness of the TiN top layer, a solar steam generation efficiency of 87.7% was achieved in this study. This efficiency is comparable or even higher than prior studies. The current work proves the capability of the TiN NPs as an alternative photothermal material.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified for CHDs, yet a large part of the genetic risk factors remain unexplained. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are thought to be completely genetically identical; however, discordant phenotypes have been found in MZ twins. Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between MZ twins. We aimed to test whether copy number variants (CNVs) and/or genetic mutation differences play a role in the etiology of CHDs by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays and whole exome sequencing of twin pairs discordant for CHDs. Our goal was to identify mutations present only in the affected twins, which could identify novel candidates for CHD susceptibility loci. We present a comprehensive analysis for the CNVs and genetic mutation results of the selected individuals but detected no consistent differences within the twin pairs. Our study confirms that chromosomal structure or genetic mutation differences do not seem to play a role in the MZ twins discordant for CHD.
As a continuation of developing multiscale method for the transport phenomena, a unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for multi-scale and multi-component plasma simulation is constructed. The current scheme is a direct modeling method, where the time evolution solutions from the Vlasov-BGK equations of electron and ion and the Maxwell equations are used to construct a scale-dependent plasma simulation model. The modeling scale used in the UGKS is the mesh size scale, which can be comparable to or much larger than the local mean free path. As a result, with the variation of modeling scales in space and time through the so-called cell's Knudsen number and normalized Larmor radius, the discretized governing equations can recover a wide range of plasma evolution from the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale to different-type of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the hydrodynamic scale. The UGKS provides a general evolution model, which goes to the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale and many types of MHD equations in the hydrodynamic scale, such as the two fluids model, the Hall, the resistive, and the ideal MHD equations. All current existing governing equations become the subsets of the UGKS, and the UGKS bridges these distinguishable governing equations seamlessly. The construction of UGKS is based on the implementation of physical conservation laws and the un-splitting treatment of particle collision, acceleration, and transport in the construction of a scale-dependent numerical flux across a cell interface. At the same time, the discretized plasma evolution equations are coupled with the Maxwell equations for electro-magnetic fields, which also cover a scale-dependent transition between the Ampére's law and the Ohm's law for the calculation of electric field. The time step of UGKS is not limited by the relaxation time, the cyclotron period, and the speed of light in the ideal-MHD regime. Our scheme is able to give a physically accurate solution for plasma simulation with a wide range of Knudsen number and normalized Larmor radius. It can be used to study the phenomena from the Vlasov limit to the scale of plasma skin depth for the capturing of two-fluid effect, and the phenomena in the plasma transition regime with a modest Knudsen number and Larmor radius. The UGKS is validated by numerical test cases, such as the Landau damping and two stream instability in the kinetic regime, and the Brio-Wu shock tube problem, and the Orszag-Tang MHD turbulence problem in the hydrodynamic regime. The scheme is also used to study the geospace environment modeling (GEM), such as the challenging magnetic reconnection problem in the transition regime. At the same time, the magnetic reconnection mechanism of the Sweet-Parker model and the Hall effect model can be connected smoothly through the variation of Larmor radius in the UGKS simulations. Overall, the UGKS is a physically reliable multi-scale plasma simulation method, and it provides a powerful and unified approach for the study of plasma physics.
There have been great efforts on the development of higher-order numerical schemes for compressible Euler equations in recent decades. The traditional test cases proposed thirty years ago mostly target on the strong shock interactions, which may not be adequate enough for evaluating the performance of current higher-order schemes. In order to set up a higher standard for the development of new algorithms, in this paper we present a few benchmark cases with severe and complicated wave structures and interactions, which can be used to clearly distinguish different kinds of higher-order schemes. All tests are selected so that the numerical settings are very simple and any higher order scheme can be straightforwardly applied to these cases. The examples include highly oscillatory solutions and the large density ratio problem in one dimensional case. In two dimensions, the cases include hurricane-like solutions; interactions of planar contact discontinuities with asymptotic large Mach number (the composite of entropy wave and vortex sheets); interaction of planar rarefaction waves with transition from continuous flows to the presence of shocks; and other types of interactions of two-dimensional planar waves. To get good performance on all these cases may push algorithm developer to seek for new methodology in the design of higher-order schemes, and improve the robustness and accuracy of higher-order schemes to a new level of standard. In order to give reference solutions, the fourth-order gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) will be used to all these benchmark cases, even though the GKS solutions may not be very accurate in some cases. The main purpose of this paper is to recommend other CFD researchers to try these cases as well, and promote further development of higher-order schemes.
This paper is about the construction of a unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) for a coupled system of radiative transport and material heat conduction with different diffusive limits. Different from the previous approach, instead of including absorption/emission only, the current method takes both scattering and absorption/emission mechanism into account in the radiative transport process. As a result, two asymptotic limiting solutions will appear in the diffusive regime. In the strong absorption/emission case, an equilibrium diffusion limit is obtained, where the system is mainly driven by a nonlinear diffusion equation for the equilibrium radiation and material temperature. However, in the strong scattering case, a non-equilibrium limit can be obtained, where coupled nonlinear diffusion system with different radiation and material temperature is obtained. In addition to including the scattering term in the transport equation, an implicit UGKS (IUGKS) will be developed in this paper as well. In the IUGKS, the numerical flux for the radiation intensity is constructed implicitly. Therefore, the conventional CFL constraint for the time step is released. With the use of a large time step for the radiative transport, it becomes possible to couple the IUGKS with the gas dynamic equations to develop an efficient numerical method for radiative hydrodynamics. The IUGKS is a valid method for all radiative transfer regimes. A few numerical examples will be presented to validate the current implicit method for both optical thin to optical thick cases.
With the use of temporal derivative of flux function, a two-stage temporal discretization has been recently proposed in the design of fourth-order schemes based on the generalized Riemann problem (GRP)  and gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) . In this paper, the fourth-order gas-kinetic scheme will be extended to solve the compressible multicomponent flow equations, where the two-stage temporal discretization and fifth-order WENO reconstruction will be used in the construction of the scheme. Based on the simplified two-species BGK model , the coupled Euler equations for individual species will be solved. Each component has its individual gas distribution function and the equilibrium states for each component are coupled by the physical requirements of total momentum and energy conservation in particle collisions. The second-order flux function is used to achieve the fourth-order temporal accuracy, and the robustness is as good as the second-order schemes. At the same time, the source terms, such as the gravitational force and the chemical reaction, will be explicitly included in the two-stage temporal discretization through their temporal derivatives. Many numerical tests from the shock-bubble interaction to ZND detonative waves are presented to validate the current approach.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
The apparent gas permeability of a porous medium is an important parameter in the prediction of unconventional gas production, which was first investigated systematically by Klinkenberg in 1941 and found to increase with the reciprocal mean gas pressure (or equivalently, the Knudsen number). Although the underlying rarefaction effects are well known, the reason that the correction factor in Klinkenberg’s famous equation decreases when the Knudsen number increases has not been fully understood. Most of the studies idealize the porous medium as a bundle of straight cylindrical tubes; however, according to the gas kinetic theory, this only results in an increase of the correction factor with the Knudsen number, which clearly contradicts Klinkenberg’s experimental observations. Here, by solving the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook equation in simplified (but not simple) porous media, we identify, for the first time, two key factors that can explain Klinkenberg’s experimental results: the tortuous flow path and the non-unitary tangential momentum accommodation coefficient for the gas–surface interaction. Moreover, we find that Klinkenberg’s results can only be observed when the ratio between the apparent and intrinsic permeabilities is
; at large ratios (or Knudsen numbers) the correction factor increases with the Knudsen number. Our numerical results could also serve as benchmarking cases to assess the accuracy of macroscopic models and/or numerical schemes for the modelling/simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries over a wide range of gas rarefaction. Specifically, we point out that the Navier–Stokes equations with the first-order velocity-slip boundary condition are often misused to predict the apparent gas permeability of the porous medium; that is, any nonlinear dependence of the apparent gas permeability with the Knudsen number, predicted from the Navier–Stokes equations, is not reliable. Worse still, for some types of gas–surface interactions, even the ‘filtered’ linear dependence of the apparent gas permeability with the Knudsen number is of no practical use since, compared to the numerical solution of the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook equation, it is only accurate when the ratio between the apparent and intrinsic permeabilities is
Evaluating quality traits is important to the selection of elite lines in Brassica napus L. In this study, the quality traits of 488 global collections of B. napus L were evaluated for two consecutive years under central Chinese growing conditions, and a series of phenotypic data was obtained. The measured total glucosinolate content (GLC) and erucic acid content (ERU) values for 95.5% of the accessions were consistent with the original values, and large variations in quality traits were found among these accessions, thus enabling selection for these characters. In general, Chinese accessions tended to have a higher oil content (OC) than foreign accessions, while compared with winter and spring accessions, semi-winter accessions tended to have the highest OC. The mean GLC and ERU of Chinese rapeseed accessions showed gradual downward trends over time, and the genotypic variation in ERU accounted for 98.44% of the total variation, which was the highest among all 10 of the quality traits. Additionally, the heritability for ERU was largest among all 10 of the quality traits. Significant correlations were observed between different traits; OC had significantly (P < 0.01) negative correlation coefficients with oleic acid content, whereas OC had significantly (P < 0.01) positive correlation coefficients with ERU. Principal component analysis revealed that there was no clear boundary among materials of different geographic origins and different ecotypes according to the first two principal coordinates, respectively. This information about variations in quality traits revealed in this study could identify parents for improved rapeseed breeding.
Little is known about the status of the snow leopard Panthera uncia in Qomolangma National Nature Reserve, located on the northern aspect of Mount Everest in Tibet. To address this, during May–September 2014 we conducted line transects, camera trapping, household interviews, and socioeconomic statistics analysis. We surveyed 14 transects and located 287 putative snow leopard signs, with a mean density of 1.9 sign sites km–1, 3.8 signs km–1, and 1.4 scrapes km–1. We set 41 camera traps and recorded a minimum of seven individual snow leopards. Our results were comparable to snow leopard abundance estimates for neighbouring protected areas in Nepal. Semi-structured interviews with 46 (59%) households found that local people were generally supportive of snow leopard conservation, for a variety of economic, legislative, and religious reasons. The socio-economic situation in the Reserve underwent dramatic changes between 2000 and 2014. The human population increased by 28.9%, the livestock population decreased by 9.9%, the number of tourists in 2014 was 6.8 times greater than in 2005, and the local gross domestic product underwent an annual increase of 15%. We discuss the current threats to snow leopards, and recommend that more rigorous, comprehensive, and interdisciplinary research be undertaken to provide an evidential basis for the formulation of effective conservation policies and programmes.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of providing supplementary Cr-enriched Bacillus subtilis (CEBS) to mice with regard to their growth performance, caecal microbiology, tissue Cr concentration, insulin receptor (IR) expression and plasma biochemical profile. A total of ninety-six Kunming strain mice were allocated to four different groups: control, CEBS, inorganic Cr and B. subtilis. After 15 d of treatment, mice that received CEBS or normal B. subtilis had higher body weights than control mice, and after 30 d mice given either CEBS or B. subtilis had greater body weights than control mice or those given inorganic Cr. The concentration of Cr in tissues (heart, liver, spleen, kidney and skeletal muscle) increased after CEBS supplementation. B. subtilis and CEBS supplementation caused a significant increase in the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in the caecum, whereas the numbers of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus decreased significantly compared with the control. The levels of IR RNA and protein in skeletal muscles increased significantly. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, TAG and LDL-cholesterol levels declined significantly in the CEBS group compared with the control group, whereas plasma insulin and HDL-cholesterol levels increased significantly. In conclusion, CEBS supplementation enhanced the regulation of body growth, increased tissue organic Cr concentrations, altered caecal microbiota and enhanced IR expression to produce significant changes in plasma biochemistry.
This paper first presents a method of motion planning and implementation for the self-recovery of an overturned six-legged robot. Previous studies aimed at the static and dynamic stabilization of robots for preventing them from overturning. However, no one can guarantee that an overturn accident will not occur during various applications of robots. Therefore, the problems involving overturning should be considered and solved during robot design and control. The design inspirations of multi-legged robots come from nature, especially insects and mammals. In addition, the self-recovery approach of an insect could also be imitated by robots. In this paper, such a self-recovery mechanism is reported. The inertial forces of the dangling legs are used to bias some legs to touch the ground, and the ground reaction forces exerted on the feet of landing legs are achieved to support and push the body to enable recovery without additional help. By employing the mechanism, a self-recovery approach named SSR (Sidewise-Self-Recovery) is presented and applied to multi-legged robots. Experiments of NOROS are performed to validate the effectiveness of the self-recovery motions. The results show that the SSR is a suitable method for multi-legged robots and that the hemisphere shell of robots can help them to perform self-recovery.
In this paper, a compact third-order gas-kinetic scheme is proposed for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The main reason for the feasibility to develop such a high-order scheme with compact stencil, which involves only neighboring cells, is due to the use of a high-order gas evolution model. Besides the evaluation of the time-dependent flux function across a cell interface, the high-order gas evolution model also provides an accurate time-dependent solution of the flow variables at a cell interface. Therefore, the current scheme not only updates the cell averaged conservative flow variables inside each control volume, but also tracks the flow variables at the cell interface at the next time level. As a result, with both cell averaged and cell interface values, the high-order reconstruction in the current scheme can be done compactly. Different from using a weak formulation for high-order accuracy in the Discontinuous Galerkin method, the current scheme is based on the strong solution, where the flow evolution starting from a piecewise discontinuous high-order initial data is precisely followed. The cell interface time-dependent flow variables can be used for the initial data reconstruction at the beginning of next time step. Even with compact stencil, the current scheme has third-order accuracy in the smooth flow regions, and has favorable shock capturing property in the discontinuous regions. It can be faithfully used from the incompressible limit to the hypersonic flow computations, and many test cases are used to validate the current scheme. In comparison with many other high-order schemes, the current method avoids the use of Gaussian points for the flux evaluation along the cell interface and the multi-stage Runge-Kutta time stepping technique. Due to its multidimensional property of including both derivatives of flow variables in the normal and tangential directions of a cell interface, the viscous flow solution, especially those with vortex structure, can be accurately captured. With the same stencil of a second order scheme, numerical tests demonstrate that the current scheme is as robust as well-developed second-order shock capturing schemes, but provides more accurate numerical solutions than the second order counterparts.
The Ellipsoidal Statistical model (ES-model) and the Shakhov model (Smodel) were constructed to correct the Prandtl number of the original BGK model through the modification of stress and heat flux. With the introduction of a new parameter to combine the ES-model and S-model, a generalized kinetic model can be developed. This new model can give the correct Navier-Stokes equations in the continuum flow regime. Through the adjustment of the new parameter, it provides abundant dynamic effect beyond the ES-model and S-model. Changing the free parameter, the physical performance of the new model has been tested numerically. The unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is employed for the study of the new model. In transition flow regime, many physical problems, i.e., the shock structure and micro-flows, have been studied using the generalized model. With a careful choice of the free parameter, good results can be achieved for most test cases. Due to the property of the Boltzmann collision integral, the new parameter in the generalized kinetic model cannot be fully determined. It depends on the specific problem. Generally speaking, the Smodel predicts more accurate numerical solutions in most test cases presented in this paper than the ES-model, while ES-model performs better in the cases where the flow is mostly driven by temperature gradient, such as a channel flow with large boundary temperature variation at high Knudsen number.
The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) methods (both LBGK and MRT) and the discrete unified gas-kinetic scheme (DUGKS) are both derived from the Boltzmann equation, but with different consideration in their algorithm construction. With the same numerical discretization in the particle velocity space, the distinctive modeling of these methods in the update of gas distribution function may introduce differences in the computational results. In order to quantitatively evaluate the performance of these methods in terms of accuracy, stability, and efficiency, in this paper we test LBGK, MRT, and DUGKS in two-dimensional cavity flow and the flow over a square cylinder, respectively. The results for both cases are validated against benchmark solutions. The numerical comparison shows that, with sufficient mesh resolution, the LBE and DUGKS methods yield qualitatively similar results in both test cases. With identical mesh resolutions in both physical and particle velocity space, the LBE methods are more efficient than the DUGKS due to the additional particle collision modeling in DUGKS. But, the DUGKS is more robust and accurate than the LBE methods in most test conditions. Particularly, for the unsteady flow over a square cylinder at Reynolds number 300, with the same mesh resolution it is surprisingly observed that the DUGKS can capture the physical multi-frequency vortex shedding phenomena while the LBGK and MRT fail to get that. Furthermore, the DUGKS is a finite volume method and its computational efficiency can be much improved when a non-uniform mesh in the physical space is adopted. The comparison in this paper clearly demonstrates the progressive improvement of the lattice Boltzmann methods from LBGK, to MRT, up to the current DUGKS, along with the inclusion of more reliable physical process in their algorithm development. Besides presenting the Navier-Stokes solution, the DUGKS can capture the rarefied flow phenomena as well with the increasing of Knudsen number.
This paper focuses on the performance analysis of ionosphere monitoring using the measurements from a BeiDou Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) network. Combined pseudo-range and carrier phase observations are used to estimate total electron content (TEC) and the hardware delay deviation is also computed. Using the observations from five BeiDou CORS in China, the TEC monitoring results were obtained from each station and compared with GPS monitoring results and also those from the Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) model. Numerical computation shows that the BeiDou system has the ability to precisely detect the TEC diurnal variation trend on each station. The Residual Mean Square (RMS) difference between the BeiDou and the GIM model at a higher latitude station is about four TEC Units (TECU), while the RMS difference between the GPS and the GIM is about three TECU; at a lower latitude station this difference increases to six TECU for BeiDou and four TECU for the Global Positioning System (GPS); at the lowest latitude station in this study, the differences for both systems are about six TECU.