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To examine the associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and serum liver enzymes in a representative sample of US adults.
The cross-sectional study sample consisted of 24 229 adults with data on serum 25(OH)D levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transaminase (GGT) concentrations, in addition to data on other potential confounders. Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression were applied to assess the associations between serum 25(OH)D levels and ALT, AST, ALP and GGT concentrations.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006.
The cross-sectional study sample consisted of 24 229 adults.
We found a significant association between low serum 25(OH)D levels (<30 nmol/l) and ALP levels in all participants (OR 2·67; 95 % CI 1·98, 3·59; P < 0·001), a confirmed healthy population (OR 3·02; 95 % CI 2·25, 4·07; P < 0·001) and individuals with viral hepatitis (OR 2·87; 95 % CI 1·52, 5·44; P = 0·006) compared with those who had normal 25(OH)D levels (>50 nmol/l). Moreover, in both the logistic regression and linear regression, the associations between 25(OH)D levels and ALP levels were stronger in the subgroups with obesity. No association was present between ALT, AST or GGT levels and serum 25(OH)D levels in this population.
The results of the present study provide epidemiological evidence that vitamin D deficiency is associated with liver ALP levels in humans. This finding suggests a potential adverse effect of low 25(OH)D levels on human liver function. However, the underlying mechanisms still need further investigation.
During pulsar navigation, the high-frequency noise carried by the pulsar profile signal reduces the accuracy of the pulse TOA (Time of Arrival) estimation. At present, the main method to remove signal noise by using wavelet transform is to redesign the function of the threshold and level of wavelet transform. However, the signal-to-noise ratio and other indicators of the filtered signal need to be further optimised, so a more appropriate wavelet basis needs to be designed. This paper proposes a wavelet basis design method based on frequency domain analysis to improve the denoising effect of pulsar signals. This method first analyses the pulsar contour signal in the frequency domain and then designs a Crab pulsar wavelet basis (CPn, where n represents the wavelet basis length) based on its frequency domain characteristics. In order to improve the real-time performance of the algorithm, a wavelet lifting scheme is implemented. Through simulation, this method analyses the pulsar contour signal data at home and abroad. Results show the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by 4 dB, the mean square error is reduced by 61% and the peak error is reduced by 45%. Therefore, this method has better filtering effect.
Metal-halide perovskites, in particular their nanocrystal forms, have emerged as a new generation of light-emitting materials with exceptional optical properties, including narrow emissions covering the whole visible region with high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of up to near-unity. Remarkable progress has been achieved over the last few years in the areas of materials development and device integration. A variety of synthetic approaches have been established to precisely control the compositions and microstructures of metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with tunable bandgaps and emission colors. The use of metal-halide perovskite NCs as active materials for optoelectronic devices has been extensively explored. Here, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in the development and application of metal-halide perovskite NCs. From color tuning via ion exchange and manipulation of quantum size effects, to stability enhancement via surface passivation, new chemistry for materials development is discussed. In addition, processes in optoelectronic devices based on metal-halide perovskite NCs, in particular, light-emitting diodes and radiation detectors, will be introduced. Opportunities for future research in metal-halide perovskite NCs are provided as well.
Heterogeneous magnesium matrix nanocomposites (Hetero-Mg-NCs) exhibited excellent strength–toughness synergy, but their damage behavior and toughness mechanism lacked of investigation. Here, atomic force microscopy was first employed to characterize the microstructure evolution and damage behavior of the Hetero-Mg-NCs after indentation. The heterogeneous structure comprised of pure Mg areas (soft phase) and Mg nanocomposite areas (hard phase) was revealed by the electrostatic force microscopy. Furthermore, the surface morphology and cracks of the deformed area were investigated with high resolution. The results indicated the soft phase undertook most of the deformation and played an important role in capturing and blunting the crack.
Outbreaks of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis have been reported in schools in recent decades in China. For early warning and response to infectious disease outbreaks, the Shanghai Infectious Diseases Bud Event Surveillance System (IDBESS) was established in 2016. Bud event is a term used for the early sign of a potential infectious disease outbreak in public settings when the first few cases appear. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis bud events from June 2016 to December 2017 and to understand factors influencing the severity of events. Data were extracted from the IDBESS, supplemented by field investigations and school absence surveillance. In total, 189 bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis were reported in schools and kindergartens, affecting 3827 individuals and 52.38% happened in primary schools. The attack rate of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis was 3.82% on average in students in the affected schools. In each event, case numbers varied between 5 and 148, with a median of 16. The duration of bud events lasted for 2 days on average. School absence happened in 47.93% (1797/3749) of affected students and the average duration of absence was 3.07 days. It was found that a longer delay before reporting was associated with a longer-lasting duration of bud event (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.07). In conclusion, ascribed to the sensitive threshold for alerting and the timely field investigation, the surveillance of bud events of Norovirus-associated gastroenteritis is effective in the control of Norovirus infection among preschool children and students in Shanghai.
Physicians' attitudes and adoption behavior toward the delivery of prenatal tests take vital significance for its influence on their professional practice and patient acceptance. This study aimed to identify how physicians have perceived the diffusion of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in China.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2016 to October 2016 in Shanghai, and Fujian and Sichuan Provinces in China. Physicians working on prenatal screening completed a self-report questionnaire. Following Roger's diffusion of innovation model, multivariable logistic regressions were performed separately for the following key elements of the theory which influence diffusion: physician-perceived attributes of NIPT, communication channels, the nature of the social system, the extent of change agent (who introduces innovations into a society), promotion efforts, and physicians' benefits from adopting NIPT.
Most specialists had a positive attitude (53.2 percent) toward NIPT, whereas 58.9 percent of physicians had already adopted NIPT in their clinical practice. Physician adoption of NIPT was positively associated with the strength of HTA evidence (p = .03), perceived communication frequency with colleagues (p = .04), adoption by other physicians (p = .07), hospital competition (p = .06), hospital teaching status (p = .02), perceived for-profit genetic testing company's promotion (p < .001), and perceived clinical practice skill improvement (p = .02). However, the adoption behavior toward NIPT may be negatively associated with physician-perceived ethical concerns of NIPT (p = .06).
Obstetricians and gynecologists’ positive perceptions facilitate the adoption of NIPT. Combined with cost-effectiveness analysis of prenatal screening methods, health policy makers can promote the adoption of appropriate, cost-effective prenatal screening in pregnant women.
Plant cyclophilin (CYP) is related to chloroplast photoprotection, redox and other growth and developmental regulatory processes and responds to stress and improves tolerance to saline–alkali stress. Besides, it exerts peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity to participate in protein synthesis and folding. In this study, Northern blot was used to analyse the CsCYP1A gene (a CYP gene isolated from a Chlorella species) (accession number: KY207381) of tolerant Chlorella vulgaris in soda saline–alkali soil. The result showed that the expression of the CsCYP1A gene was induced by NaHCO3, NaCl and sorbitol. Additionally, Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to infect the callus of rice (Oryza sativa var. Longjing11) for genetic transformation. Molecular detection confirmed that transgenic seedlings overexpressing CsCYP1A were obtained by hygromycin selection. Treatment with NaCl and NaHCO3 at the five-leaf stage was performed in the seedlings, and the results showed that there were significant differences between the CsCYP1A overexpressed rice lines and non-transgenic (NT) Longjing11 in terms of plant height, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content and ascorbate peroxidase activity. The CsCYP1A overexpression rice lines had higher tolerance to NaCl and NaHCO3 than NT. The current findings indicate that CsCYP1A can enhance the tolerance of rice to saline–alkali stress possibly through its involvement in reactive oxygen scavenging pathways.
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently the most common ectoparasite affecting egg-laying hens. Since continuous culture of D. gallinae on birds is a biologically and economically costly endeavour, storage techniques for mites are urgently needed. Effects of temperature on adult and nymph survival were first studied to optimize storage conditions. Then, fecundity of D. gallinae was studied after mites were stored at optimal storage conditions. Results showed the survival rates of protonymphs (42.11%), deutonymphs (8.19%) and females (19.78%) at 5°C after 84 days were higher than those at 0, 25 and 30°C. Thereafter the fecundity and the capability of re-establishing colonies of D. gallinae were evaluated after they were stored for 40 and 80 days at 5°C. After storage, the mean number of eggs showed no statistical difference between treated (5°C for 40 or 80 days) and control groups (25°C for 7 days), while the hatching rates of eggs were in all cases above 97%. The dynamic changes of mite populations and egg numbers showed similar trends to the control group after the stored adult or nymph mites were fed on chicks. Dermanyssus gallinae can be successfully stored at 5°C for 80 days with no interference with the fecundity of mites, and the stored mites could re-establish colonies successfully. Adults and nymphs were two main stages with capability for low temperature storage. These results suggest that low temperature storage is a viable option for colony maintenance of D. gallinae under laboratory conditions.
Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
We compared the electrical conductivity from two different aggregates of whey protein concentrates (WPC) film: conventional amorphous aggregation at natural pH (pH 6.5) and amyloid fibrils at a low pH (pH 2.0) far away from the isoelectric point. The two types of film fabricated by these solutions with different aggregate structures showed large variations in electrical conductivity and other properties. The WPC fibril film (pH 2.0) exhibited higher electrical conductivity than that of the conventional WPC film (pH 6.5), improved mechanical properties and oil resistance, due to varying morphology, higher surface hydrophobicity and more (absolute value) surface charge of film-forming solutions. The evidence from this study suggests that fibrilized WPC with high-ordered and β-sheets-rich structures fabricated high electrical conductivity film, which broadens the potential application of fibrils as functional bio-nanomaterials.
The effect of holly polyphenols (HP) on intestinal inflammation and microbiota composition was evaluated in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury. A total of twenty-four piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design including diet type and LPS challenge. After 16 d of feeding with a basal diet supplemented with or without 250 mg/kg HP, pigs were challenged with LPS (100 μg/kg body weight) or an equal volume of saline for 4 h, followed by analysis of disaccharidase activities, gene expression levels of several representative tight junction proteins and inflammatory mediators, the SCFA concentrations and microbiota composition in intestinal contents as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. Our results indicated that HP enhanced intestinal disaccharidase activities and reduced plasma proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-challenged piglets. Moreover, HP up-regulated mRNA expression of intestinal tight junction proteins such as claudin-1 and occludin. In addition, bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HP altered hindgut microbiota composition by enriching Prevotella and enhancing SCFA production following LPS challenge. These results collectively suggest that HP is capable of alleviating LPS-triggered intestinal injury by improving intestinal disaccharidase activities, barrier function and SCFA production, while reducing intestinal inflammation.
Schizophrenia is a common major mental disorder and prenatal nutritional deficiency may increase its risk. We aimed to investigate long-term impact of prenatal exposure to malnutrition on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood using the Chinese famine of 1959–1961 as a natural experiment.
We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in 31 provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387,093 individuals born from 1956 to 1965. Schizophrenia was ascertained by psychiatrists based on the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Famine severity was defined as cohort size shrinkage index. The famine effect on adult schizophrenia was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts.
Compared with the reference cohort of 1965, famine cohorts (1959–1962) had significantly higher odds (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.00; P = 0.014) of schizophrenia in the rural population. After adjusting for multiple covariates, this association remained significant (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.98; P = 0.018). We did not observe statistically significant differences in odds of schizophrenia among famine cohorts compared with the reference cohort in the urban population.
Prenatal malnutrition exposure has a detrimental impact on risk of schizophrenia in adulthood in the rural population. Further studies were needed to investigate corresponding mechanisms on this topic.
To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
Crystal structure and electronic structure of YMnO3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy related techniques. According to the density of states (DOS), the individual interband transitions to energy loss peaks in the low energy loss spectrum were assigned. The hybridization of O 2p with Mn 3d and Y 4d analyzed by the partial DOS was critical to the ferroelectric nature of YMnO3. From the simulation of the energy loss near-edge structure, the fine structure of O K-edge was in good agreement with the experimental spectrum. The valence state of Mn (+3) in YMnO3 was determined by a comparison between experiment and calculations.
Paediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia in China. Data on epidemiology of paediatric MPP from China are little known. This study retrospectively collected data from June 2006 to June 2016 in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University of North China and aims to explore the epidemiological features of paediatric MPP and severe MPP (SMPP) in North China during the past 10 years. A total of 27 498 paediatric patients with pneumonia were enrolled. Among them, 37.5% of paediatric patients had MPP. In this area, an epidemic took place every 2–3 years at the peak, and the positive rate of MPP increased during these peak years over time. The peak age of MPP was between the ages of 6 and 10 years, accounting for 75.2%, significantly more compared with other age groups (χ2 = 1384.1, P < 0.0001). The epidemics peaked in September, October and November (χ2 = 904.9, P < 0.0001). Additionally, 13.0% of MPP paediatric patients were SMPP, but over time, the rate of SMPP increased, reaching 42.6% in 2016. The mean age of paediatric patients with SMPP (6.7 ± 3.0 years old) was younger than that of patients with non-SMPP (7.4 ± 3.2 years old) (t = 3.60, P = 0.0001). The prevalence of MPP and SMPP is common in China, especially in children from 6 to 10 years old. Paediatric patients with SMPP tend to be younger than those with non-SMPP. MPP outbreaks occur every 2–3 years in North China. September, October and November are the peak months, unlike in South China. Understanding the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric MPP can contribute to timely treatment and diagnosis, and may improve the prognosis of children with SMPP.
Heteroatom-doped carbon plays a vital role in the field of energy storage and conversion, and the synthesis of them has intimate relation with doping pathways. In this work, a facile two-step doping pathway, i.e., hydrothermal method followed by thermal annealing process, was employed to prepare annealed three-dimensional N,S-codoped graphene framework (3D A-NSG). The morphology, structure, composition, and related electrochemical performance were all studied. The results showed that A-NSG possessed typical 3D thin nanosheets, much increased specific surface area and structural defects, strengthened conductivity, and optimized N and S configurations (especially for dominated pyridinic N as well as graphitic N and –C–S–C–). As a result, A-NSG presented much better capacitance and oxygen reduction reaction performance than the counterparts. Apparently, our work offers a good guidance on the synthesis of advanced heteroatom-doped carbon materials by adjusting the doping strategy.