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The aim of this study is to characterize the injury profiles and outcomes of victims of a tornado in Jiangsu Province, China.
This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 144 patients treated at a teaching hospital due to a tornado. Each patient’s demographic data, diagnosis, injury types, causes of injury, infection status, and outcomes were all reviewed.
Of the 144 patients, 64 (44.4%) were male, and 80 (55.6%) were female. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 months to 94 years; 91 (63.19%) were admitted within the first 12 h after the disaster. The most frequently injured sites were the body surfaces (24.48%), followed by the limbs and pelvis (21.79%) and chest (20.3%). Soft-tissue injuries and fractures were the most frequent injuries. Traumatic brain injuries were the main causes of death. Tornado-related injuries were primarily caused by flying/falling bricks, wood, and glass. Twenty-three (15.9%) patients suffered from infections, which consisted mainly of skin/soft tissue infections and pneumonia.
Destructive tornadoes often cause heavy casualties with little warning. Medical aid agencies must be prepared to accommodate the massive numbers of injured patients after a catastrophe. Proper triage and prompt treatment of injured victims may decrease mortality. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;xx:xxx-xxx).
With the advancement of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the amount of available sequencing data is growing at a pace that has now begun to greatly challenge the data processing and storage capacities of modern computer systems. Removing redundancy from such data by clustering could be crucial for reducing memory, disk space and running time consumption. In addition, it also has good performance on reducing dataset noise in some analysis applications. In this study, we propose a high-performance short sequence classification algorithm (HSC) for next generation sequencing (NGS) data based on efficient hash function and text similarity. First, HSC converts all reads into k-mers, then it forms a unique k-mer set by merging the duplicated and reverse complementary elements. Second, all unique k-mers are stored in a hash table, where the k-mer string is stored in the key field, and the ID of the reads containing the k-mer are stored in the value field. Third, each hash unit is transformed into a short text consisting of reads. Fourth, texts that satisfy the similarity threshold are combined into a long text, the merge operation is executed iteratively until there is no text that satisfies the merge condition. Finally, the long text is transformed into a cluster consisting of reads. We tested HSC using five real datasets. The experimental results showed that HSC cluster 100 million short reads within 2 hours, and it has excellent performance in reducing memory consumption. Compared to existing methods, HSC is much faster than other tools, it can easily handle tens of millions of sequences. In addition, when HSC is used as a preprocessing tool to produce assembly data, the memory and time consumption of the assembler is greatly reduced. It can help the assembler to achieve better assemblies in terms of N50, NA50 and genome fraction.
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet. Weight gain and specific growth rate were unaffected. Dietary PC increased PC content in the liver and decreased crude fat content in the liver, viscera and body. SFA and MUFA increased and PUFA decreased in muscle with increasing dietary PC. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 and secreted phospholipase A2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the brain and heart in PC-supplemented fish. PC reduced fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in the liver and visceral tissue but increased expression in muscle. Hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase expression increased in the liver with increasing dietary PC. Growth hormone mRNA expression was reduced in the brain and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in liver reduced with PC above 6·5 g/kg. Our results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with PC improves feed efficiency and reduces liver fat in adult Nile tilapia, without increasing weight gain, representing a novel dietary approach to reduce feed requirements and improve the health of Nile tilapia.
An effective multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of three major pathogens, Nosema bombycis Nägeli (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae: genus Alphabaculovirus) (NPV), and Bombyx mori densovirus (Parvoviridae: genus Iteravirus) (DNV), in silkworms (Bombyx mori (Linnaeus); Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was developed in this study. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR tests and basic local alignment search tool searches revealed that the primers and probes used in this study had high specificities for their target species. The ability of each primer/probe set to detect pure pathogen DNA was determined using a plasmid dilution panel, in which under optimal conditions the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed high efficiency in the detection of three mixed target plasmids with a detection limit of 8.5×103 copies for N. bombycis and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) and 8.5×104 copies for Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV). When the ability to detect these three pathogens was examined in artificially inoculated silkworms, our method presented a number of advantages over traditional microscopy, including specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capabilities. Under the optimal volume ratio for the three primer/probe sets (3:2:2=N. bombycis:BmNPV:BmDNV), the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed early detection of BmNPV and BmDNV by day 1 post inoculation using DNA templates of the three pathogens in various combinations from individually infected silkworms; the early detection of N. bombycis was possible by day 3 post inoculation using the DNA isolated from the midgut of N. bombycis-infected silkworms.
The objective of the studies presented in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the MAP4K4 gene with different milk traits in dairy cows. Based on previous QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 11, the MAP4K4 gene was selected as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on somatic cell count and milk traits in ChineseHolstein cows. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage of each cow were collected using 305 d lactation records. Association between MAP4K4 genotype and different traits and Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was performed using General Linear Regression Model of R. Two SNPs at exon 18 (c.2061T > G and c.2196T > C) with genotype TT in both SNPs were found significantly higher for somatic SCS. We found the significant effect of exon 18 (c.2061T > G) on protein percentage, milk yield and SCS. We identified SNPs at different location of MAP4K4 gene of the cattle and several of them were significantly associated with the somatic cell score and other different milk traits. Thus, MAP4K4 gene could be a useful candidate gene for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers.
The TiO2 hollow spheres (TiO2HS) were successfully prepared by a hydrothermal method and added to Vulcan XC-72 carbon black as the support materials for Pd nanoparticles. A facile approach to promote ethylene glycol (EG) electrooxidation in alkaline medium was carried out by the PdBi/TiO2HS-C catalyst. The results show that Pd and Bi nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of carbon-doped TiO2 hollow spheres, the appropriate amount of Bi modification into Pd/TiO2HS-C catalyst can enhance remarkably the electrocatalytic activity for EG oxidation, in which the PdBi/TiO2HS-C (Pd:Bi = 1:0.1) catalyst exhibits excellent stability. The high electrochemical performance is attributed to the unique structure and high surface area of the TiO2HS, metal nanoparticles uniform distribution, the electronic effect between Pd and Bi as well as the bifunctional effect between metal nanoparticles and the support TiO2HS-C. The results obtained are significant for the development of new Pd-based TiO2HS-C electrocatalysts for alcohol fuel cells.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), usually referring to the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy, contains a dozen of massive (~105M⊙) molecular clouds. Are these clouds going to actively form stars like Sgr B2? How are they affected by the extreme physical conditions in the CMZ, such as strong turbulence? Here we present a first step towards answering these questions. Using high-sensitivity, high angular resolution radio and (sub)millimeter observations, we studied deeply embedded star formation in six massive clouds in the CMZ, including the 20 and 50 km s−1 clouds, Sgr B1 off (as known as dust ridge clouds e/f), Sgr C, Sgr D, and G0.253 – 0.016. The VLA water maser observations suggest a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates, many of which are new detections. The SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations reveal peaks in dust emission associated with the masers, suggesting the existence of dense cores. While our findings confirm that clouds such as G0.253 – 0.016 lack internal compact substructures and are quiescent in terms of star formation, two clouds (the 20 km s−1 cloud and Sgr C) stand out with clusters of water masers with associated dense cores which may suggest a population of deeply embedded protostars at early evolutionary phases. Follow-up observations with VLA and ALMA are necessary to confirm their protostellar nature.
The present study was performed to identify the genotype of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy family and investigate the clinicopathogenic characteristics and prognostic features of relevant genetic abnormalities. Target sequence capture sequencing was performed to screen for pathogenic alleles in a 32-year-old female patient (proband). Sanger sequencing was carried out to verify the results. Sanger sequencing was also performed on other family members to identify allele carriers. A survival analysis was carried out using published literature and our findings. We found that the proband and her son harboured a Gly716Arg sequence variant of the β-myosin heavy chain. Neither the proband’s father nor the mother were carriers of this sequence variant; thus, the mutation was classified as “de novo”. Further survival analysis revealed that female patients appear to have a longer life expectancy compared with males. Our study may provide an effective approach for the genetic diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al sheets subjected to accumulative roll bonding (ARB) and subsequent cryorolling was studied. Cryorolling can suppress the dynamic softening of UFG Al sheets subjected to ARB at room temperature. After the third ARB pass, the grains are slightly refined as the number of ARB passes increases. However, the grains are significantly refined further during cryorolling. The grain size of 460 nm achieved after the third ARB pass is reduced to 290 nm after two cryorolling passes with total reduction ratio 80%. Sheets subjected to ARB + cryorolling show improved mechanical properties compared to only ARB-processed sheets due to a change in the fraction of high-angle boundaries and elongated grains. The deformation mechanism for ultrafine grains at room temperature is determined by grain boundary sliding or dislocation-based recovery, while it is governed by dislocation glide at cryogenic temperature.
Layered materials are an actively pursued area of research for realizing highly scaled technologies involving both traditional device structures as well as new physics. Lately, non-equilibrium growth of 2D materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is gathering traction in the scientific community and here we aim to highlight one of its strengths, growth of abrupt heterostructures, and superlattices (SLs). In this work we present several of the firsts: first growth of MoTe2 by MBE, MoSe2 on Bi2Se3 SLs, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) SLs, and lateral junction between a quintuple atomic layer of Bi2Te3 and a triple atomic layer of MoTe2. Reflected high electron energy diffraction oscillations presented during the growth of TMD SLs strengthen our claim that ultrathin heterostructures with monolayer layer control is within reach.
Renibacterium sp. QD1, a bacteria strain capable of hydrolysing chitosan, was isolated from the homogenate of small crabs. An extracellular chitosanase, Csn-A, was purified from the QD1 fermentation broth. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, with a yield of eight-fold, 67% recovery and a specific activity of 1575 U/mg proteins. The molecular weight of Csn-A was estimated to be 26.1 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Unlike other chitosanases, the purified Csn-A displayed maximal activity at a pH range of 5.3–6.5, and it was stable in a broad pH range of 5.0–10.0. The optimum temperature for chitosanlytic activity was 55°C. The enzyme activity was strongly stimulated by Mn2+ but inhibited by Fe3+, Cu2+, Al3+, Zn2+ and SDS. TLC analysis demonstrated that Csn-A hydrolysed N-deacetylated polymeric glucosamines into chito-biose and -triose in an endo-type manner. The amino acid seuquence of Csn-A showed close identity with an uncharacterized chitosanase of strain ATCC33209.
Recently we conducted a mini-survey towards a sample of six massive clouds with surface density >1024 cm−2 in the central molecular zone (CMZ) of the Milky Way, with the SMA at 280 GHz in the compact array and at 230 GHz in the compact/subcompact arrays. The data reveal compact dust continuum peaks, some of which are also associated with organic molecular lines and thermal SiO emission. The subcompact array data helps recover more structures, e.g. the regularly spaced, well-aligned continuum fragments in the 20 km s−1 cloud. Shock tracers such as SiO are found in all the clouds. Our observations suggest potential protostellar origin for some of the dust continuum peaks in these regions.
In this work, we review current trends in China to investigate beam plasma interaction phenomena. Recent progresses in China on low energy heavy ions and plasma interaction, ion beam-plasma interactions under the influences of magnetic fields, high energy heavy ion radiography through marginal range method, energy deposition of highly charged ions on surfaces and Raman spectroscopy of surfaces after irradiation of highly charged ions are presented.
Nature and mechanism of interfacial reactions between boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and aluminum matrix at high temperature (650 °C) are studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). This study analyzes the feasibility of the use of BNNTs as reinforcement in aluminum matrix composites for structural application, for which interface plays a critical role. Thermodynamic comparison of aluminum (Al)-BNNT with analogous Al-carbon nanotube (Al-CNT) system reveals lesser amount of reaction in the former. Experimental observation also reveals thin (∼7 nm) reaction-product formation at Al-BNNT interface even after 120 min of exposure at 650 °C. The spatial distribution of the reaction-product species at the interface is governed by the competitive diffusion of N, Al, and B. Morphology of the reaction products are influenced by their orientation relationship with BNNT walls. A theoretical prediction on Al-BNNT interface in macroscale composite suggests the formation of strong bond between the matrix and reinforcement phase.
Many of portable devices such as smart phones, portable multimedia players (PMP), and digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras are capable of capturing high-resolution images (e.g. 10 mega-pixel in DSLR) or even video. The limited battery power supply in the portable devices often prevents these systems to use high-power large liquid crystal display (LCD). Instead, the portable devices often have a LCD screen with small physical size (e.g. 3 cm × 2 cm for Smartphone or DSLR) and with much lower pixel resolution (e.g. 0.15 mega-pixel for 480 × 320 display) than actual image/video resolution. Thus, the high-resolution image and video are down-sampled before being displayed. Unfortunately, the anti-aliasing filter often leads to rather severe blurring. Although the blurring may be minor when the viewing distance is large, it can be rather disturbing in portable applications due to the short viewing distance. To cope with the blurring problem, one possible solution is to use an LCD screen with higher resolution. But such hardware solution tends to be expensive and often not welcomed by the consumer electronic companies. Another possible solution is to continue to use the low-resolution LCD screen, but use some software technique to enhance the apparent image/video resolution. In this paper, we discuss a novel way to improve the apparent resolution of down-sampled image/video using a technique called subpixel rendering, which controls subpixel that is smaller than a pixel in a high-precision manner.
To improve the thermoelectric properties of LaCeFe3CoSb12 skutterudite materials, the LaCeFe3CoSb12 nanopowders of disordered structure were fabricated through a laser melting and quenching process and then were hot pressed into bulk pellets with the coexistence of ordered and disordered structures by mixing the disordered powders with the raw LaCeFe3CoSb12 crystalline materials. The results suggest that the introduced disordered structure can increase Seebeck coefficient from 57 to 179 μV/K while reduce thermal conductivity from 3.1 to 1.5 W/(m·K), although electrical conductivity can be decreased from 98,000 to 43,000 S/m, and consequently, figure of merit can be enhanced from 0.11 to 0.90 at 773 K. Therefore, fabricating a material with the coexistence of disordered and ordered structures can be considered as an effective way to obtain a high figure of merit, and this strategy can be also applied to other thermoelectric alloys.
A new surface cleaning method for Si MBE is described in which the Si surface is exposed to Ge beams while the substrate is kept at certain temperature. It has been proved that the thin passivation layer of SiO2 on the Si substrate will react with Ge at a relatively low temperature (620°C), and the products are volatile. The residual Ge on Si substrate can be reduced to less than 0.1 monolayer (ML). Ge beam treatment turns out to be an effective low temperature technique for preparing Si substrate, especially for the heteroepitaxial growth of GexSi1-x/Si.
In various device fabrication processes, such as in metal gate and low resistance word line fabrication, one needs to be able to oxidize Si without oxidizing metals present. We developed such a process using a combination of H2 and O2 in the H2 rich regime. The process developed is safe and is production worthy with excellent uniformity.
When carrying out the selective oxidation using H2/O2, a high Si oxidation rate is preferred which requires a high oxygen concentration. At the same time, the increase in metal sheet resistance, if any, must be small. We found that with an oxygen concentration as high as 20%, the increase in W sheet resistance is small. We present data on the oxidation rate of Si under different conditions as well as the selectivity of the process with respect to W and WN.