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Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
The lichen family Ophioparmaceae contains three genera: Boreoplaca, Hypocenomyce and Ophioparma. The genus Hypocenomyce is reported here for the first time for China, being represented by the species Hypocenomyce scalaris which is distributed in south-western China. For the genus Ophioparma, one new species is described in this paper, namely Ophioparma pruinosa Li S. Wang & Y. Y. Zhang sp. nov., which is characterized by a pruinose thallus and the presence of usnic acid. Ophioparma araucariae is also reported as new for the Chinese lichen biota. Previous reports of O. lapponica in China are recognized as misidentifications of O. ventosa. Descriptions, keys and phylograms are provided for these species.
In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
On April 25, 2015, a massive 8.1-magnitude earthquake struck Nepal at 2:11 pm (Beijing time). The 68-member-strong China International Search & Rescue Team (CISAR) left for Nepal at 6 am, April 26, to help with relief work. The CISAR was the first foreign team to rescue a survivor who was trapped beneath the rubble in the Gongabu area after the earthquake. On May 8, the team fulfilled the search-and-rescue mission and returned to Beijing. During the 2 weeks of rescue work, the team treated more than 3700 victims and cleared approximately 430 buildings. In this rescue mission, 10 experienced medical officers (including nine doctors and a nurse) from the General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force (PAP) comprised the medical team of CISAR. In this report, we focus on the medical rescues by CISAR and discuss the characteristics of the medical rescue in Nepal. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:536–538)
The morphology, chemistry and phylogenetic relationships of Chinese populations
of Bulbothrix are described. Nine species, including two new
species B. mammillaria Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp.
nov. and B. lacinia Y. Y. Zhang & Li S. Wang sp.
nov., and two newly recorded for the flora, B. scortella and
B. meizospora, are reported. Bulbothrix
mammillaria can be recognized by the sparse cilia that are reduced to a
bulbate structure and the broad lobes (3–11 mm). Bulbothrix
lacinia differs from other species of the genus by dark brown,
spherical to short-cylindrical isidia and common lacinulae on the upper surface.
Phylogenetic relationships of currently known ITS sequences from
Bulbothrix were inferred to assess the affinities of the
new species. A key to all known species from China is presented.
A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is carried out to study the wakefield and stopping power for a hydrogen ion beam pulse with low drift velocity propagation in hydrogen plasmas. The plasma is assumed to be collisionless, uniform, non-magnetized, and in a steady state. Both the pulse ions and plasma particles are treated by the PIC method. The effects of the beam density on the wakefield and stopping power are then obtained and discussed. It is found that as the beam densities increase, the oscillation wakefield induced by the beam become stronger. Besides, the first oscillation wakefield behind the bunch is particularly stronger than others. Moreover, it is found that the stationary stopping power increases linearly with the increase of the beam density in the linear/semilinear region.
Worldwide, the number of individuals with dementia is growing in an epidemic manner, with an estimated 35.6 million people affected in 2010 (Prince et al., 2013). With the population aging in Asia, dementia care will become a major public health challenge in this region in the coming decades. Over half of the patients with dementia in the world will live in Asia by 2030. In China alone, a recent review of dementia studies showed that there were 9.2 million dementia patients in 2010 (Chan et al., 2013). These figures are staggering. In many Asian countries, dementia is regarded as a shameful illness, and the local terms for dementia are derogatory. Dementia carries a stigma that may lead to patients’ reluctance in seeking treatment and delay in diagnosis. In addition, local names for dementia frequently conjure up pictures of severe stage of dementia, and may lead to therapeutic nihilism, discouraging mental health professionals from working with elderly patients with dementia. As Asia faces the challenges of a rapidly aging population and provisions of care for growing number of dementia patients, change in local names for dementia has become an issue of attention.
A support vector machine (SVM) method is applied to select K giant stars directly from the spectral features of LAMOST spectra. The performance of the algorithm is assessed using the MILES library. It shows that the completeness of the K giant stars is 87% with only about 6% dwarf contamination. This allows us to select 18,013 K giant stars at |b|>20° and 38,108 at |b|<20° from LAMOST pilot survey data.
Energetic electron beam generation from a thin foil target by the ponderomotive force of an ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that laser pulses with intensity of 1022–1023 Wcm−2 generate about 1–10 GeV electron beams, in agreement with the prediction of one-dimensional theory. When the laser intensity is at 1024–1025 Wcm−2, the beam energy obtained from PIC simulations is lower than the values predicted by the theory. The radiation damping effect is considered, which is found to become important for the laser intensity higher than 1025 Wcm−2. The effect of laser focus positions is also discussed.
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcriptional factor activated during cerebral ischemia, which regulates a great number of downstream genes, including those associated with cell death. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that post-ischemic HIF-1α up-regulation might promote autophagy activation; thereby, HIF-1α inhibitor 2ME2 might prevent neurons from ischemic injury through inhibiting autophagy.
Global ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion model (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 250-280g). 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, 5mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to down-regulate HIF-1α expression. Post-ischemic beclin-1 and LC3 protein expression was determined at different time points through Western blot assay. Neuronal injury was determined by cresyl violet staining and TUNEL staining in coronal histological sections.
The expression of beclin-1 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I increased significantly at 12 and 24 h after ischemia. 2ME2 could remarkably inhibit the up-regulation of beclin-1 and the increase of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio during reperfusion. Moreover, 2ME2 and 3-MA exhibited powerful protective effects against ischemic/reperfusion induced neuronal injury.
This study confirmed that autophagy participated in post-ischemic neuronal injury. 2ME2, a HIF-1α inhibitor, might significantly decrease autophagy activation after cerebral ischemia and relieve post-ischemic neuronal injury. Our findings demonstrate that autophagy could be a potential target for neuronal protection after cerebral ischemia.
The Y-doped (Hf0.6Zr0.4)1-xYxNiSn (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.1, and 0.2) half-Heusler alloys have been prepared by levitation melting and spark plasma sintering. The effect of Y doping on thermoelectric properties of the alloys was investigated in the temperature range of 300–900 K. Y-doped samples had the lower electrical conductivity compared with the parent compound without Y doping. The thermal conductivity had weak dependence on Y doping content. The absolute values of Seebeck coefficient decreased significantly when x < 0.04. The sign of Seebeck coefficient turned from negative to positive at room temperature for x = 0.04 and 0.1, which means that the hole carriers became dominant in these alloys. However, the alloys changed to n-type conduction again at high temperatures. The maximum figure of merit value of about 0.45 was obtained at 780 K for the undoped sample.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Baicalein is a flavonoid originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of albendazole and baicalein for treating eosinophilic meningitis in BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy included the survival time, body weight, neurological function, leucocyte and eosinophil counts, eotaxin concentration, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, larval recovery and histopathological examination. The results showed that the combination of albendazole and baicalein was more effective than either drug administered singly. Combination therapy increased the survival time, decreased body weight loss, neurological dysfunction, leucocyte response, eotaxin concentration and MMP-9 activity. Our results suggest that the combination of albendazole and baicalein may exhibit synergistic beneficial effects in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis induced by A. cantonensis.
CdS nanocrystals embedded in sodium borosilicate glass were synthesized through sol-gel process. The CdS nanocrystals were usually 10 to 20 nm in size. The microstructure of CdS nanocrystals was determined to be of the hexagonal phase. The morphology and microstructure of the glass were examined using diverse techniques including scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersion x-ray spectra (EDAX), and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). The linear optical absorption spectrum of the glass showed a blue shift as a result of quantum-size effect. Furthermore, the third-order optical nonlinearities of the glass were studied by Z-scan technique at a wavelength of 770 nm. The results showed that the third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ(3) were determined to be −2.16 × 10−16 m2/W, 6.32 × 10−11 m/W, and 1.20 × 10−10 esu, respectively, which were greater than those reported previously for CdS nanocrystals embedded in different matrices.
Objective: To evaluate the location and the degree of white matter damage in late-life depression using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
Methods: Thirty-one patients with late-life depression and 15 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender and years of education received conventional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and MR-diffusion tensor scanning. The fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter were measured respectively in frontal and temporal regions and the corpus callosum.
Results: FA values were significantly decreased in the frontal (superior and middle frontal gyrus), and temporal (right parahippocampal gyrus) regions of elderly patients with depression compared with healthy controls.
Conclusion: Microstructural changes in the frontal (superior and middle frontal gyrus) and temporal (right parahippocampal gyrus) areas are associated with late-life depression.
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