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The composites were synthesized by the reaction of Bi(NO3)3·5H2O, KI, and MoS2 and were prepared with different molar ratios of Bi/Mo (1:5, 1:2, 1:1, and 4:1) by altering the amount of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate. The phase composition and chemical bonds of the composites were characterized via X-ray diffraction and FT-IR, and the morphologies of the samples were characterized via scanning electron microscopy. With the increase of lanthanum source, the lamellar structure of the sample surface became more and more obvious. The results showed that the phase composition of the composites with different ratios of Bi/Mo was different. When the Bi/Mo reached 4:1, the composite material was Bi2MoO6/BiOI. The heterojunction structure formed between Bi2MoO6 and BiOI effectively promotes the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and improved the photocatalytic activity. Therefore, the effect of the composites on the degradation of RhB was better than pure BiOI under the irradiation of a 350-W xenon lamp.
Energetic electron beam generation from a thin foil target by the ponderomotive force of an ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that laser pulses with intensity of 1022–1023 Wcm−2 generate about 1–10 GeV electron beams, in agreement with the prediction of one-dimensional theory. When the laser intensity is at 1024–1025 Wcm−2, the beam energy obtained from PIC simulations is lower than the values predicted by the theory. The radiation damping effect is considered, which is found to become important for the laser intensity higher than 1025 Wcm−2. The effect of laser focus positions is also discussed.
Micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemical etching were applied to determine the depth of subsurface damage in silicon wafers undergoing different machining processes: cutting, grinding, polishing and lapping. In comparison with the Raman spectrum of perfect single crystal silicon, both the shape and intensity at the shoulder (500 cm−1) and the subpeak (300 cm−1) spectral regions were changed in all the machined wafers. The intensities at shoulder and subpeak gradually decreased and finally resumed to normal, as the depth of the investigated layer increased. According to the chemical etch rate, the depth of the subsurface damage was thus evaluated for the different wafers. TEM observations further confirmed the obtained results.
A variety of rotating micro structures were designed, fabricated and characterized for residual-stress (or strain) measurements in low-stress silicon nitride thin films, deposited by LPCVD on silicon wafers. The sensitivities of the micro structures were calculated by finite element method (FEM) and verified experimentally. The results were further confirmed by utilizing the wafer-curvature method for stress measurements. The size of the structures enables local residual-stress (or strain) measurement. The stress level depends on both the film thickness and the gas ratio and also varies with the location on the wafer.
This study reports in-situ observations of the buckling evolution of microelectromechanical structures during etching of their underneath sacrificial layers. As the etching went on, the buckling pattern evolved from mode I, the sinusoidal half-waves, to mode II, the constrained sinusoidal half-waves, to mode III, the conventional mode, and finally to mode IV, the blister- like local buckling. Closed formulae were derived from theoretical analysis, and the experimental results agreed well with the theoretical ones.
FEM simulation of micro-rotating-structures was performed for local measurement of residual stresses in thin films. A sensitivity factor is introduced, studied and tabulated from the simulation results. The residual stress can be evaluated from the rotating deflection, the lengths of rotating and fixed beams, and the sensitivity factor. The micro-structure technique was applied to measure residual stresses in both silicon nitride and polysilicon thin films, before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), and further confirmed by wafer curvature method. Residual stresses in polysilicon films at different RTA stages were also characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS). The experimental results indicate that micro-rotating-structures indeed have the ability to measure spatially and locally residual stresses in MEMS thin films with appropriate sensitivities.
The residual stress in doped and undoped polysilicon films, before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), is investigated using both wafer-curvature and micro-rotating structures techniques. Microstructure characterization has been conducted as well to understand the mechanism of the stress evolution. The results show that the compressive residual stresses in undoped polysilicon films can be reduced or eliminated within a few seconds RTA. Surface nitridation and grain growth are identified as the mechanisms responsible for the stress evolution.
This study has used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a technique for thin film EL material characterization. It has shown that the Cu dopant concentration in the SrS films directly correlates with the luminescent brightness of the EL devices. A series of SrS:Cu,Y were grown using MBE to study the Y co-doping effects. It has been found that Y peak concentration and areal density in the SrS increased as the Y evaporation cell temperature was increased. The maximum PL intensity was found in the sample grown in the middle of the Y cell temperature range used. The Y co-doping has shown to reduce the thermal quenching effects in SrS EL devices. Therefore, in this series of samples, a good correlation has been found between Y and Cu concentration and the EL device performance characteristics.
This study has used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) as a technique for thin film EL material characterization. It has shown that the Cu dopant concentration in the SrS films directly correlates with the luminescent brightness of the EL devices. A series of SrS:Cu, Y were grown using MBE to study the Y co-doping effects. It has been found that Y peak concentration and areal density in the SrS increased as the Y evaporation cell temperature was increased. The maximum PL intensity was found in the sample grown in the middle of the Y cell temperature range used. The Y co-doping has shown to reduce the thermal quenching effects in SrS EL devices. Therefore, in this series of samples, a good correlation has been found between Y and Cu concentration and the EL device performance characteristics.
Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) silane-based oxides (SiOx) have been widely used in both microelectronics and MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) to form electrical and/or mechanical components. In this paper, a novel nanoindentation-based microbridge testing method is developed to measure both the residual stresses and Young's modulus of PECVD SiOx films. Our theoretical model employed a closed formula of deflection vs. load, considering both substrate deformation and the residual stresses in the thin films. In particular, the non-negligible residual deflection caused by excessive compressive stresses was taken into account. Freestanding microbridges made of PECVD SiOx films were fabricated using bulk micromachining techniques. To simulate the thermal processing in device fabrication, these microbridges were subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) up to 800°C. A microstructure-based mechanism was applied to explain the experimental results of the residual stress changes in PECVD SiOx films after thermal annealing.
This paper presents an approach for decoding the pressure information exerted over a piece of fabric by means of resistive sensing. The proposed sensor includes a distributed resistive grids constructed by two systems of orthogonally contacted electrical conductive yarns, with no external sensing element to be attached on the fabric. Since the conductive yarns serve as the sensing and wiring elements simultaneously, this design simplifies the fabrication process, reduces the cost and makes the production of large area flexible pressure sensor possible. The location of the pressure applied on the fabric can be identified by detecting the position where the change of the resistances occurs between two embroidered yarns. Meanwhile, the magnitude of the pressure can be acquired by measuring the variations of the resistance. In order to eliminate the “crosstalk” effect between adjoining fibers, the yarns were separately wired on the fabric surface.
The heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of rhodamine B in aqueous solution containing pure or zinc (iron)-doped titania films has been studied. N-deethylation of rhodamine B was accelerated by iron(III) and zinc(II) doping as compared with pure titania film. It is shown that improvement of electron transfer from dye molecules to the film may be responsible for the high N-deethylation rate for iron-doped (0.5 mol%) film, while for zinc-doped (20 mol%) film, high surface roughness may be the main reason. In addition, both iron and zinc doping brought a new shallow trap to the intragap meaning that the surface defects had increased after doping; this is a possible reason doped films present relative low photoreactivity to catalyze the direct degradation of dye molecules.
A series of photochromic sol-gel films are prepared through entrapping tungsten heteropolyoxometallates (PW12O403−, SiW12O404−) and molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate (PMo12O403−) into a kind of inorganic–organic matrix cohydrolyzed from tetraethylorthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The films show reversible photochromicity. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films change from colorless to blue. Then, bleaching occurs when the films are in contact with air or O2 in the dark. The Keggin-type polyanions interact with R–NH3+ cations strongly, and thus disperse uniformly in the sol-gel matrix, as proved by Fourier transform infrared spectra and x-ray diffraction. The molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate sol-gel film has higher photochromic efficiency and much slower bleaching than its counterparts of tungsten heteropolyoxometallate. A charge-transfer model which is supported by electron spin resonance and related literature [T. Yamase, Chem. Rev. 98, 307, (1998)] is put forth to explain the above experimental results.
TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared by a photo-assisted sol-gel process in which tetrabutoxide titanate was hydrolyzed in acidic medium under ultraviolet irradiation. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra showed that the as-prepared TiO2 particles without further annealing were well-crystallized anatase. Such TiO2 particles were easily immobilized on dacron cloth and showed very high photocatalytic activity. In contrast, TiO2 particles were ill crystallized and showed lower activity when no light was introduced under otherwise equal conditions.
In the present work we studied the depth of damage layer in machined silicon wafers that was incorporated with chemical etching using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Subsurface damage causes changes in the shape and intensity for the shoulder (450–570 cm−1) of the most intense band (519 cm−1) and the second band (300 cm−1) regions of the Raman spectrum. Etching reduces the thickness of the damage layer and, hence, the intensities at the shoulder and the second band. The intensities at the shoulder and the second band become stable when the damage layer is completely etched out. The shoulder consists of two Gaussian profiles: the major and the minor. The band for the major profile is independent of etching depth, but the band for the minor profile shifts toward the longer wave numbers with increasing etching period until the damage layer is completely etched out. The depth of the damage layer is determined by the profiles of the shoulder and the second band and confirmed by the band shift of the minor profile. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further verified the results with respect to the depth of the damage layer. TEM observation showed that dislocations and stacking faults are responsible for the subsurface damage.
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