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The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in patients with the major depressive disorder (MDD) may involve neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines.
The aim of this study was to examine the serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, sustained attention, and their association in patients with MDD.
Thirty patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Sustained attention was measured using the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) task in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The serum IL-6 levels of all subjects were assessed by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
There were significant differences in the log10RVP total hits, log10RVP total misses, and log10RVP mean latency between patients with MDD and healthy controls (F = 6.04, p = 0.017; F = 19.77, p < 0.0001; F = 14.42, p < 0.0001, respectively). The serum levels of Log10IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in healthy controls (F = 192.27, p < 0.0001). The log10IL-6 levels were also positively correlated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (r = 0.45, p = 0.013). A further stepwise multivariate regression analysis indicated that the log10IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the log10RVP mean latency in patients with MDD (β = 0.31, t = 2.41, p = 0.025).
Our data suggested that increased IL-6 levels were associated with the psychopathology of MDD, and that abnormal IL-6 levels were implicated in the impairment of sustained attention in patients with MDD.
In the past few years, we have performed a 22 GHz H2O maser survey towards hundreds of BGPS sources using the 25-meter Nanshan Radio Telescope (NSRT) of the Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, and detected more than one hundred masers. Our aim is to study star formation activities associated with these sources, as well as search for any correlations that may exist between 22 GHz H2O masers and the evolutionary stage of high-mass star formation regions. The NSRT has been upgraded and have now an effective diameter of 26 meter. Besides, cryogenically cooled dual-beam receiver systems covering seven millimeter-wave observing bands have been installed on the NSRT. For the next step of maser observation, we will continue to do H2O and SiO masers survey of massive dust clumps and monitor some maser sources.
Complex cerebral aneurysms may require indirect treatment with revascularization. This manuscript describes various surgical revascularization techniques together with clinical outcomes.
Thirty-two consecutive patients with complex cerebral aneurysm were managed from November 2005 to October 2008. Techniques used for revascularization were high-flow bypass, low-flow bypass, branch artery reimplantion, and primary reanastomosis. Physiologic and anatomic monitoring technologies, including electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potential monitoring, microvascular doppler ultrasonography, and/or indocyanine green videoangiography were used intraoperatively to assess both brain physiology and vascular anatomy. Patient outcome was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge and at a mean of 12 months post operation (range 6-25 months).
Two cervical carotid aneurysms (6%) were resected followed by primary reanastomosis, 21 aneurysms (66%) were trapped following saphenous vein high-flow bypasses, five (16%) were clipped after superficial temporal or occipital artery low-flow bypasses, and four (12%) middle cerebral branch arteries were reimplanted. Of the 32 patients at discharge, 29 (91%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale of four or five, two (6%) had severe disability, and one (3%) died.
Cerebral revascularization remains an effective and reliable procedure for treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms. Low morbidity and mortality rates reflect the maturity of patient selection and surgical technique in the management of these lesions.
The effects of insect-resistant transgenic cotton on the diversity of arthropod communities in cotton fields in North China were investigated during 2000–2001. The field experiments were conducted in non-insecticide treated plots of transgenic cotton lines (SGK321, a transgenic cotton variety carrying Cry1A+CpTI genes; GK12, a transgenic cotton variety carrying the Cry1Ac gene) and their conventional parent varieties (Shiyuan 321 and Shimian 3, respectively), and in sprayed plots of the parent varieties where pyrethroid insecticides were used regularly against the cotton bollworm. All the arthropods were sucked up using a portable suction device and identified to species wherever possible. They were later sorted into guilds (pests, natural enemies and neutral arthropods) for diversity analysis using the method of Shannon's index. The diversity of arthropod communities in transgenic cotton plots was similar to that in conventional cotton fields without spraying, but Shannon's index for total arthropod community and the neutral arthropod guild in Bt cotton fields were significantly higher than those in sprayed plots in the mid and late growing stages of cotton. It is concluded that planting of Bt cotton could increase the stability of arthropod communities in cotton ecological systems and benefit the management of insect pests in cotton.
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