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We derive and test a new heuristic theory for third-order structure functions that resolves the forcing scale in the scenario of simultaneous spectral energy transfer to both small and large scales, which can occur naturally, for example, in rotating stratified turbulence or magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence. The theory has three parameters – namely the upscale/downscale energy transfer rates and the forcing scale – and it includes the classic inertial-range theories as local limits. When applied to measured data, our global-in-scale theory can deduce the energy transfer rates using the full range of data, therefore it has broader applications compared with the local theories, especially in situations where the data is imperfect. In addition, because of the resolution of forcing scales, the new theory can detect the scales of energy input, which was impossible before. We test our new theory with a two-dimensional simulation of MHD turbulence.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), characterized by deficits in memory and cognition and by behavioral impairment, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that influences more than 47 million people worldwide. Currently, no available drug is able to stop AD progression. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies need to be investigated.
We analyzed the RNA sequencing data (RNA-seq) derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to identify the differentially expressed mRNAs in AD. The AD mouse model Tg2576 was used to verify the effects of IGF-2. The Morris Water Maze was administered to test the role of IGF-2 in memory consolidation. In addition, we quantified cell apoptosis by the TUNEL assay. The levels of amyloid plaques and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in the hippocampus were also determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively.
RNA-seq analysis revealed that IGF-2 was remarkably reduced in AD. The expression of the upstream genes PI3K and AKT and the downstream gene CREB in the PI3K signaling pathway was significantly increased in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice cells treated with IGF-2. The Morris water maze test showed that IGF-2 improved memory consolidation in Tg2576 mice. The activity of caspase-3 was decreased in Tg2576 mice treated with IGF-2. Amyloid plaques in the hippocampus were reduced, and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were decreased. The above effects of IGF-2 on AD were blocked when the PI3K signaling pathway inhibitor wortmannin was added.
IGF-2 attenuates memory decline, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and amyloid plaques in the AD mouse model Tg2576 by activating the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway.
We present an idealized study of rotating stratified wave turbulence in a two-dimensional vertical slice model of the Boussinesq equations, focusing on the peculiar case of equal Coriolis and buoyancy frequencies. In this case the fully nonlinear fluid dynamics can be shown to be isotropic in the vertical plane, which allows the classical methods of isotropic turbulence to be applied. Contrary to ordinary two-dimensional turbulence, here a robust downscale flux of total energy is observed in numerical simulations that span the full parameter regime between Ozmidov and forcing scales. Notably, this robust downscale flux of the total energy does not hold separately for its various kinetic and potential components, which can exhibit both upscale and downscale fluxes, depending on the parameter regime. Using a suitable extension of the classical Kármán–Howarth–Monin equation, exact expressions that link third-order structure functions and the spectral energy flux are derived and tested against numerical results. These expressions make obvious that even though the total energy is robustly transferred downscale, the third-order structure functions are sign indefinite, which illustrates that the sign and the form of measured third-order structure functions are both crucially important in determining the direction of the spectral energy transfer.
Intestinal barrier inflammatory damage is commonly accompanied by hypoxia. The hypothesis that dietary Acanthopanax senticosus polysaccharides (ASPS) might modulate the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signalling pathway and contribute to attenuate intestinal injury was tested in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. Thirty-six weaned pigs were randomly allocated to one of the following three groups: (1) basal diet + saline challenge; (2) basal diet + LPS challenge; (3) basal diet with 800 mg/kg ASPS + LPS challenge. LPS was injected at 15, 18 and 21 d, and intestinal sections were sampled following blood collection at 21 d . The results showed ASPS reversed (P < 0·05) LPS-induced decrease in average daily feed intake and rise (P < 0·05) of diarrhoea incidence and index. Biochemical index reflecting gut barrier damage and function involving ileal pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and enzyme activity (diamine oxidase and lactase), as well as circulatory d-xylose, was normalised (P < 0·05) in LPS-challenged piglets receiving ASPS. ASPS also ameliorated intestinal morphological deterioration of LPS-challenged piglets, proved by elevated ileal villus height (P < 0·05) and improved appearance of epithelial villus and tight junction ultrastructure. Moreover, ASPS prevented LPS-induced amplification of inflammatory mediators, achieved by depressed ileal mRNA abundance of TNF-α, inducible NO synthase and IL-1β concentration. Importantly, ileal protein expressions of HIF-1α, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NFκB p65 were also suppressed with ASPS administration (P < 0·05). Collectively, these results suggest the improvement of mucosal inflammatory damage and diarrhoea in immune stress piglets is possibly associated with a novel finding where HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway down-regulation is involved in NFκB p65-inducible releasing of inflammatory cytokines by dietary ASPS.
Large-scale coherent structures such as jets in Rayleigh–Bénard convection and related systems are receiving increasing attention. This paper studies, both numerically and theoretically, the process of jet formation in two-dimensional salt-finger convection. The approach utilizes an asymptotically derived system of equations referred to as the modified Rayleigh–Bénard convection (MRBC) model, valid in the geophysically and astrophysically relevant limit in which the solute diffuses much more slowly than heat. In these equations, convection is driven by a destabilizing salinity gradient while the effects of the stabilizing temperature gradient manifest themselves as an additional anisotropic dissipation acting on large scales. The MRBC system is specified by two external parameters: the Schmidt number
(ratio of viscosity to solutal diffusivity) and the Rayleigh ratio
(ratio between the Rayleigh numbers of the destabilizing solutal stratification and the stabilizing thermal stratification). Two distinct
regimes are explored for fixed
. In all cases studied the system develops a horizontal jet structure that is maintained self-consistently by turbulent fluctuations, but coarsens over time. For intermediate Rayleigh ratios (e.g.
), the MRBC model captures the relaxation oscillations superposed on the jet structure observed at similar parameter values in direct numerical simulations of the primitive equations. For smaller Rayleigh ratios (e.g.
), a regime for which direct numerical simulation of the primitive equations is difficult because of the presence of fast gravity waves, the MRBC model reveals the existence of statistically steady jets whose properties are studied in detail. Three hierarchical models, the MRBC and further reductions in the form of quasilinear and single-mode approximations, are used to confirm that jets form and are sustained as a result of the interaction between fluctuations (salt fingers) and large-scale horizontally averaged horizontal flows (jets). Even though the small-scale structures exhibited by the three models exhibit clear differences, all three produce the same power-law spectrum of the mean fields at large vertical scales: in all, the spectrum of the mean streamfunction scales as
and the mean salinity field scales as
the vertical wavenumber. A theoretical explanation of these observations based on the dominant balances in the mean and fluctuation equations is provided. As a consequence, the jets have a zigzag profile, a conclusion that is consistent with numerical simulations. Based on numerical observations, a three-component phenomenological model consisting of a linearly growing mode, a linearly damped mode and a mean mode is proposed to explain the observed transition from statistically steady jet structure to jets with superposed oscillations that takes place with increasing Rayleigh ratio.
Several epidemiological studies have investigated that Na or K intakes might be associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, little evidence has evaluated the association between Na:K ratio and the MetS. In this study, we assessed the association between the dietary Na:K ratio and the MetS. The cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 18 years and older in Nanjing, using a multi-stage random sampling method, which resulted in a sample size of 1993 participants. Dietary Na and K intakes were assessed by 3 consecutive days of dietary recollection combined with condiments weighing method. Health-related data were obtained by standardised questionnaires, as well as physical examinations and laboratory assessments. The prevalence rate of the MetS was 36·5 % (728/1993). After adjusting for various lifestyle and dietary factors of the MetS, participants in the highest quartile of dietary Na:K ratio were at a higher risk of developing MetS (OR=1·602; 95 % CI 1·090, 2·353) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Each 1-sd increase in dietary Na:K ratio was associated with a higher risk of prevalent MetS (OR=1·166; 95 % CI: 1·018, 1·336). Among the components of the MetS, dietary Na:K ratio was positively associated with high blood pressure (quartile 3 v. quartile 1: OR=1·656; 95 % CI 1·228, 2·256) and hypertriacylglycerolaemia (quartile 4 v. quartile1: OR=1·305; 95 % CI 1·029, 1·655) in multivariate analysis. These results revealed that higher dietary Na:K ratio significantly increased the risk of the MetS in Chinese adults. Further studies are needed to verify this association.
We derive and investigate exact expressions for third-order structure functions in stationary isotropic two-dimensional turbulence, assuming a statistical balance between random forcing and dissipation both at small and large scales. Our results extend previously derived asymptotic expressions in the enstrophy and energy inertial ranges by providing uniformly valid expressions that apply across the entire non-dissipative range, which, importantly, includes the forcing scales. In the special case of white noise in time forcing this leads to explicit predictions for the third-order structure functions, which are successfully tested against previously published high-resolution numerical simulations. We also consider spectral energy transfer rates and suggest and test a simple robust diagnostic formula that is useful when forcing is applied at more than one scale.
The present research focuses on glacier changes in the southeast of the Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau, where most of the temperate glaciers in China are located. Our results show that the 102 measured glaciers in the region have all retreated between 1915 and 1980, with total area and volume decreases of 47.9 km2 and 6.95 km3, respectively. The extrapolated mass loss of all glaciers in the Gangrigabu mountains amounted to 27 km3, 9.8% of the ice mass in 1915. Between 1980 and 2001, glaciers in the region have also experienced a general retreat; however, up to 40% of the glaciers were advancing. Our analysis demonstrates that precipitation in the studied area has increased substantially since the mid-1980s. This precipitation increase is likely to bring about a positive mass balance for glaciers in the region, so that the retreat of retreating glaciers might slow down or even turn into advance. Considering the sensitivity of the temperate glaciers in the region and the uncertainty in climate projections, more attention must be paid to glacier changes in the southeast Tibetan Plateau region.
Careful mineral and structural analyses have revealed the characteristics of volcanic ash in the nine horizons of an 80.2 m ice core from Collins Ice Cap, King George Island, Antarctica.
Under the assumption of steady state, the Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model was employed to date the core. The volcanic eruptive sequence established for the South Shetland Islands region since AD 1650 shows seven volcanic eruptive cycles during the past 340 years covered by the ice core. It seems that during the period 1875-1925 there was frequent volcanic activity, with perhaps many eruptions at Deception Island. The years 1650-1800 appear to have been a quiet period, followed by a more turbulent century. The past century is basically a tranquil era except for two turbulent epochs at the beginning of the century and in the 1950s-70s.
Many of the volcanic eruptions in the ice-core sequence are found in the previously reported records for this region. The few that are not in the records should be further investigated. The absence of any 1967-70 eruption trace in the core suggests that this period may represent a minimum in volcanic activity.
The Tarim river basin, a river system formed by the convergence of nine tributaries, is the most heavily glacierized watershed in arid northwest China. In the basin, there are 11 665 glaciers with a total area of 19 878 km2 and a volume of 2313 km3. Glaciers in the basin play a significant role in the water resource system. It is estimated that they provide about 133 x 108 m3 of meltwater annually, contributing 39% of the total river runoff. Under the influence of global warming, northwest China has experienced a generally warmer and drier climate since the mid-19th century. However, a so-called ‘warm and wet transition’ has occurred since the late 1980s, evidenced by an increase in both precipitation and stream discharge in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region and neighboring regions. This paper describes how glaciers in the Tarim river basin have responded to such warming and increased precipitation, and the impact of these glacier changes. We analyzed the variations of more than 3000 glaciers since the 1960s using topographical maps, high-resolution satellite images and aerial photographs of the river basin. Our results indicate that glaciers in the basin have been mostly in retreat in the past 40 years, and ice wastage has significantly influenced water resources in the Tarim river basin. Estimation by a degree-day meltwater model shows the positive anomaly in stream runoff of the Tailan river can be partly attributed to the increase in glacier runoff (amounting to one-third of the stream discharge), and a rough estimation using observed average ablation on the termini of 15 glaciers in China verifies that the mass loss calculated by a glacier area-volume relation is reasonable.
Methanesulfonate was investigated as a potential contributor to the sulfur budget, based on analysis of a firn core from Collins Ice Cap, King George Island, Antarctica (62°10′ S, 58°50′ W). The anion was found to be present at a mean concentration of 0.17 μeq L−1, with a maximum of 0.73 μeq L−1. Dating based on the δ18O profile suggests that the principal peaks of methanesulfonate are associated with snow deposited in summer and autumn. A careful examination of MSA, SO42− and nssSO42− profiles indicates that two of the three peaks in the MSA profile may result mainly from migration and relocation of MSA. The mechanism responsible for this might be similar to that for deep cores from other Antarctic glaciers, supporting the migration hypothesis proposed by prior researchers and extending it to near-temperate ice. Due to the post-depositional modification, the main part of the MSA profile of the firn is no longer indicative of the seasonal pattern of MSA in the atmosphere, and the basis for calculation of the MSA/nssSO42− ratio should be changed. The MSA/nssS042 ratio obtained by a new computation is 0.22, 10% higher than that ignoring the effect of MSA migration.
Mountain-generated inertia–gravity waves (IGWs) affect the dynamics of both the atmosphere and the ocean through the mean force they exert as they interact with the flow. A key to this interaction is the presence of critical-level singularities or, when planetary rotation is taken into account, inertial-level singularities, where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local Coriolis frequency. We examine the role of the latter singularities by studying the steady wavepacket generated by a multiscale mountain in a rotating linear shear flow at low Rossby number. Using a combination of Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) and saddle-point approximations, we provide an explicit description of the form of the wavepacket, of the mean forcing it induces and of the mean-flow response. We identify two distinguished regimes of wave propagation: Regime I applies far enough from a dominant inertial level for the standard ray-tracing approximation to be valid; Regime II applies to a thin region where the wavepacket structure is controlled by the inertial-level singularities. The wave–mean-flow interaction is governed by the change in Eliassen–Palm (or pseudomomentum) flux. This change is localised in a thin inertial layer where the wavepacket takes a limiting form of that found in Regime II. We solve a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity equation forced by the divergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux to compute the wave-induced mean flow. Our results, obtained in an inviscid limit, show that the wavepacket reaches a large-but-finite distance downstream of the mountain (specifically, a distance of order
measure the wave and envelope scales of the mountain) and extends horizontally over a similar scale.
Spatial indexing technology is widely used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial databases. As a data retrieval technology, spatial indexing is becoming increasingly important in the big-data age. The purpose of this study is to propose a unified indexing strategy for the mixed data of a future marine GIS. First, data organisation of the system is described. Second, the display condition of each type of data is introduced. These conditions are the basis for the construction of a unified indexing structure. Third, a unified indexing structure for mixed data is presented. The construction process and the search method of the indexing structure are described. Finally, we implement the indexing strategy in our system “Automotive Intelligent Chart Three-dimensional Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems” (AIC 3D ECDIS). Our strategy can provide fast and integrated data retrieval. The spatial indexing strategy we propose breaks through the limitation of data types in our system. It can also be applied in other GIS systems. With the advent of the big-data age, mixed data indexing will become more and more important.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
The King George Island ice cap, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, was studied between 1985 and 1992. At the steady-state equilibrium-line altitude of the ice cap, the mean annual temperature is -3.6°C, the mean summer (December-February) temperature is 0°C and annual precipitation is 800 mm w.e. Precipitation increases rapidly with elevation, and annual accumulation rate at the Main Dome summit reaches 2480 mm a−1. Between 1985 and 1991 the equilibrium-line elevation averaged 140-150 m a.s.l. The ice cap has been in an overall stable state for the past 20 years, going from a weak negative to a small positive mass imbalance as increased precipitation outweighs the effects of rising temperatures. Temperatures at the bottom of the active layer over most of the accumulation area are close to 0°C, with colder temperatures down to -1.9°C in the ablation zone. Soluble impurities in the ice cap are mainly from marine sources, while undissolved mineral material amounts to only 15-54% of the total microparticle content.