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During visual servoing space activities, the attitude of free-floating space robot may be disturbed due to dynamics coupling between the satellite base and the manipulator. And the disturbance may cause communication interruption between space robot and control center on earth. However, it often happens that the redundancy of manipulator is not enough to fully eliminate this disturbance. In this paper, a method named off-line optimizing visual servoing algorithm is innovatively proposed to minimize the base disturbance during the visual servoing process where the degrees-of-freedom of the manipulator is not enough for a zero-reaction control. Based on the characteristic of visual servoing process and the robot system modeling, the optimal control method is applied to achieve the optimization, and a pose planning method is presented to achieve a second-order continuity of quaternion getting rid of the interruption caused by ambiguity. Then simulations are carried out to verify the method, and the results show that the robot is controlled with optimized results during visual servoing process and the joint trajectories are smooth.
A lattice Boltzmann method is utilized for governing equations which control phase separation of binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction in presence of a shear flow in this paper. We first present the morphology modeling of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. We then validate the model by taking the unsheared binary fluids as an example. It is found that the results fit well with the references. The paper shows structures of the sheared system and gives the detailed analysis for the morphology of sheared binary fluids with reversible chemical reaction. The phase separation of the domain structures with different chemical reaction rates is discussed. Through simulations of the sheared binary fluids, two interesting phenomena are observed, which do not exist in a binary mixture without reversible chemical reaction. One is that the same results appear in both low and high viscosity, and the other is that the domain growth exponent with both low and high viscosities presents wave due to the competition of the viscosity and phase separation. In addition, we find that the finite size effects resulting in the growth exponent decreasing appear faster than that of the unsheared blend at a large time when the size of domains is comparable with the lattice size.
To evaluate the effect of antioxidant defence in coelomic fluid of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus in aestivation was studied in the field from July to November 2006 in Qingdao. During the sampling period, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in August and November. Activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione decreased significantly in August and increased significantly in November and activities of Se-glutathione peroxidase increased significantly in August. There were no significant differences in total glutathione peroxidase. In relation to the water temperature in the field, it is known that the oxygen consumption rate dropped and antioxidant defence was enhanced in August. The structure and function of respiratory trees of A. japonicus were completely vivified as normal in November, and it is suggested that antioxidant defence was enhanced because of the sharp change of oxygen consumption. Data indicate that both enzymatic and metabolite antioxidant defences in sea cucumber are adaptable systems that are modulated during pre-aestivating stage and arousing stage.
Field observations in Ohio suggested a possible interaction between soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and glyphosate in Countrymark 316 soybean, a transgenic glyphosate-resistant (R) variety that also expresses SCN resistance derived from ‘PI88788’ soybean. To investigate this possible interaction under controlled conditions, greenhouse experiments were conducted in which Countrymark 316 (R) and Corsoy 79 (S = susceptible to glyphosate and SCN) soybean root and shoot weights were measured in response to three concentrations of race 3 SCN inoculum and five glyphosate doses. Experiments were conducted in which glyphosate was applied 9, 18, or 27 d after inoculation (DAI). Data from SCN treatments in the (S) soybean experiments were regressed on glyphosate dosage and fit to a log-logistic dose–response model. SCN–glyphosate interaction in the (S) soybean variety reduced root dry weight of SCN-inoculated plants 6% compared with noninoculated plants when 1.0 kg/ha glyphosate was applied 18 DAI. The most significant interaction of SCN and glyphosate in the (S) variety occurred when glyphosate was applied 27 DAI; the glyphosate dose required to reduce shoot fresh weight 25% was 0.55 kg/ha in the noninoculated control compared with 0.32 kg/ha in plants inoculated with 1,000 SCN eggs/200 cm3 soil. Glyphosate rates of 0.84 and 1.69 kg/ha reduced root dry weights of Countrymark 316 (R) soybean 10 to 13% at the 18 DAI application timing only. Inoculation with SCN reduced shoot fresh weight of (R) soybean 8 to 29% across all experiments, but there was no interaction of glyphosate and SCN in (R) soybean.
Heteroepitaxial growth of Ge on Si(100) and Si on Ge(100) surfaces with Sb as a surfactant has been investigated by in situ high resolution photoemission and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Our results show that an ordered monolayer of Sb atoms saturate the surface dangling bonds and consequently lower the surface free energy. Deposition of Ge or Si on the Sb/Si(100) or Sb/Ge(100) surfaces either at room temperature, followed by mild annealing or deposition at elevated temperature, result in an epitaxial layer of Ge or Si on the substrate, respectively. We provide clear experimental evidence that the deposited Ge or Si atoms changes position with the surface Sb atoms in this process. Ge or Si atoms occupy the epitaxial sites previously occupied by the Sb atoms. The Sb atoms in turn segregate to the surface and form a new ordered layer. The Bi-assisted growth process is also discussed.
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