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Carotenoids are important bioactive substances in breast milk, the profile of which is seldom studied. This study aimed to explore the profile of carotenoids in breast milk and maternal/cord plasma of healthy mother–neonate pairs in Shanghai, China, and their correlation with dietary intake. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood and breast milk samples from five lactation stages (colostrum, transitional milk and early-, mid- and late-term mature milk) were collected. Carotenoid levels were analysed by HPLC. Carotenoid levels in breast milk changed as lactation progressed (P < 0·001). β-Carotene was the primary carotenoid in colostrum. Lutein accounted for approximately 50 % of total carotenoids in transitional milk, mature milk and cord blood. Positive correlations were observed between five carotenoids in umbilical cord blood and maternal blood (P all < 0·001). β-Carotene levels were also correlated between maternal plasma and three stages of breast milk (r = 0·605, P < 0·001; r = 0·456, P = 0·011, r = 0·446; P = 0·013, respectively). Dietary carotenoid intakes of lactating mothers also differed across lactation stages, although no correlation with breast milk concentrations was found. These findings suggest the importance of exploring the transport mechanism of carotenoids between mothers and infants and help guide the development of formulas for Chinese infants as well as the nutritional diets of lactating mothers.
Diabetes mellitus is prevalent worldwide and affects 1 in 10 adults. Despite the successful development of glucose-lowering drugs, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors recently, the proportion of patients achieving satisfactory glucose control has not risen as expected. The heterogeneity of diabetes determines that a one-size-fits-all strategy is not suitable for people with diabetes. Diabetes is undoubtedly more heterogeneous than the conventional subclassification, such as type 1, type 2, monogenic and gestational diabetes. The recent progress in genetics and epigenetics of diabetes has gradually unveiled the mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of diabetes, and cluster analysis has shown promising results in the substratification of type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 95% of diabetic patients. More recently, the rapid development of sophisticated glucose monitoring and artificial intelligence technologies further enabled comprehensive consideration of the complex individual genetic and clinical information and might ultimately realize a precision diagnosis and treatment in diabetics.
The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has become a major concern in global TB control. This study aimed to investigate the patterns and trend of DR-TB epidemic between different time periods in Chongqing.
A total of 985 and 835 culture positive TB patients with drug susceptibility testing (DST) results admitted to the hospital in 2016 and 2019, respectively, were included. Chi-square testing was used to compare the prevalence and trends of DR-TB in 2016 and 2019.
The proportion of previously treated TB cases with culture positivity was 45.7% in 2019, significantly higher than that in 2016 (39.1%, P = 0.004). The overall rate of drug resistance in 2019 was 43.1%, higher than that in 2016 (40.2%). The rates of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and pre-extensively drug resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) increased significantly from 2016 to 2019 among all TB cases (MDR: 25% vs 33.4%, P < 0.001 and pre-XDR: 7.1% vs 12.8%, P < 0.001, respectively) and previously treated TB cases (MDR: 46.5% vs 56%, P = 0.008 and pre-XDR: 13.2% vs 21.5%, P = 0.003, respectively).
Our findings indicated that the prevalence of DR-TB remains high in Chongqing. The trend of resistance to anti-TB drugs beccame worse between 2016 and 2019. Moreover, acquired MDR may play a major role in MDR-TB epidemic in Chongqing. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and effective treatment of TB patients will be important to reduce the burden of DR-TB in Chongqing.
In this work, we propose a broadband, polarization-insensitive and wide incident angle stable metamaterial absorber (MA) based on the resistive film. The absorber consists of a three-layer structure with each layer of dielectric substrate printed with different shapes of resistive film. The multilayer structure not only extends the absorption bandwidth but also maintains high absorption under large wave incident angles. Numerical simulation shows that the absorptivity of a normal incident wave is above 90% in the frequency range 2.34–18.95 GHz, corresponding to a relative absorption bandwidth of 156%. Moreover, the whole MA structure has a total thickness of 11.3 mm, corresponding to 0.09 λ0 at its lowest absorption frequency. Due to the high symmetry of the structure, the absorber has good polarization insensitivity. In addition, for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidence, the proposed absorber achieves an absorptivity of more than 80% at incident angles of up to 45° and thus has good stability for wide incident angles. The absorption principle of the absorber is analyzed by the surface current and power loss density distribution. Parameter analysis is also performed for bandwidth optimization. Due to its advantages of wideband absorption with high efficiency, the proposed absorber has the potential to be applied to the energy-harvesting and electromagnetic stealth fields.
The current measures of cognitive functioning in adulthood do not indicate a long-term association with prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine. However, whether such association emerges in China is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the potential effect of prenatal exposure to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine on adult cognitive impairment. We obtained data from the Second National Sample Survey on Disability implemented in thirty-one provinces in 2006, and restricted our analysis to 387 093 individuals born in 1956–1965. Cognitive impairment was defined as intelligence quotient (IQ) score under 70 and IQ of adults was evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – China Revision. Famine severity was defined as excess death rate. The famine impact on adult cognitive impairment was estimated by difference-in-difference models, established by examining the variations of famine exposure across birth cohorts. Results show that compared with adults born in 1956–1958, those who were exposed to Chinese famine during gestation (born in 1959–1961) were at greater risk of cognitive impairment in the total sample. Stratified analyses showed that this effect was evident in males and females, but only in rural, not in urban areas. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to famine had an enduring deleterious effect on risk of cognitive impairment in rural adults.
Glacier albedo controls the surface energy budget, the variability of which affects the glacier surface melt rate and, in turn, impacts the mass balance of the glacier. During 2013 and 2014, spatial and temporal variations of albedo were investigated using 18 Landsat images of Urumqi Glacier No. 1. Factors influencing these spatiotemporal profiles were analyzed. An established retrieval process, including geolocation, radiometric calibration, atmospheric, topographic, and anisotropic correction and narrow- to broadband conversion, was applied for the first time to Landsat-8 images. Differences between Landsat image derived albedo values and albedo values measured using a handheld spectroradiometer ranged from −0.024 to 0.049. Spatial and temporal variations of surface albedo were significant, especially in the ablation area. The variability of the values of ice albedo ranged from 0.06 to 0.44 due to topographic effects and light-absorbing impurities. The results suggest that this retrieval method can be used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface albedo from Landsat-8 images on mountain glaciers. Moreover, as constant albedo values for ice and snow cannot be assumed, the distribution of albedo was not completely dependent on altitude under conditions of more intense ablation, and by reason of light-absorbing impurities during the melt season.
Limb remote ischemic conditioning (LRIC) provides a physiologic strategy for harnessing the body’s endogenous protective capabilities against injury induced by ischemia–reperfusion in the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to determine if LRIC played a role in protecting the retina from ischemia–reperfusion injury. A total of 81 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham and ischemia/reperfusion with or without remote LRIC arms. The retinal ischemic model was generated through right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and pterygopalatine artery occlusion for 60 min followed by 1, 3, and 7 days of subsequent reperfusion. LRIC was conducted immediately following MCAO by tightening a tourniquet around the upper thigh and releasing for three cycles. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin in order to quantify the number of cells in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) layer throughout the duration of the study. Cellular expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was detected and examined through immunohistochemistry. Protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was also analyzed by Western blot techniques. Our study demonstrated that the loss of cells in RGC layer was attenuated by LRIC treatment at 3 and 7 days following reperfusion (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry studies depicted a gradual increase (P < 0.05) in GFAP levels from day 1 through day 7 following ischemia and subsequent reperfusion, whereas LRIC reduced GFAP levels at 1, 3, and 7 days postreperfusion. In addition, LRIC increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 at day 1 and 3 following ischemia/reperfusion. This particular study is the first remote conditioning study applicable to retinal ischemia. Our results strongly support the position that LRIC may be used as a noninvasive neuroprotective strategy, which provides retinal protection from ischemia–reperfusion injury through the upregulation of antioxidative stress proteins, such as Nrf2 and HO-1.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) ≥ 10 μmol/l) and its major determinants in rural Chinese hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in Lianyungang of Jiangsu province, China. This analysis included 13 946 hypertensive adults. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was 51·6 % (42·7 % in women and 65·6 % in men). The OR of hyperhomocysteinaemia were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·39, 1·67) and 2·32 (95 % CI 2·07, 2·61) for participants aged 55–65 and 65–75 v. 45–55 years; 1·27 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·37) for participants with a BMI ≥ 25 v. < 25 kg/m2; 1·14 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·23) for participants with v. without antihypertensive treatment; 1·09 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·18) for residents inland v. coastal; 0·89 (95 % CI 0·82, 0·97) and 0·83 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·92) for participants with moderate and high v. low physical activity levels; 1·54 (95 % CI 1·41, 1·68) and 2·47 (95 % CI 2·17, 2·81) for participants with a glomerular filtration rate 60–90 and < 60 v. ≥ 90 ml/min per 1·73 m2; and 1·20 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·35) and 3·81 (95 % CI 3·33, 4·36) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T polymorphism, respectively. Furthermore, higher tHcy concentrations were observed in smokers of both sexes (men: geometric mean 12·1 (interquartile range (IQR) 9·2–14·5) v. 11·9 (IQR 9·3–14·0) μmol/l, P= 0·005; women: geometric mean 10·3 (IQR 8·3–13·0) v. 9·6 (IQR 7·8–11·6) μmol/l, P= 0·010), and only in males with hypertension grade 3 (v. grade 1 or controlled blood pressure) (geometric mean 12·1 (IQR 9·2–14·4) v. 11·7 (IQR 9·2–14·0), P= 0·016) and in male non-drinkers (yes v. no) (geometric mean 12·3 (IQR 9·4–14·8) v. 11·7 (IQR 9·1–13·9), P= 0·014). In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in Chinese hypertensive adults, particularly in the inlanders, who may benefit greatly from tHcy-lowering strategies, such as folic acid supplementation and lifestyle change.
The purpose of this study was to prepare intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) transgenic donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Based on our current understanding of Ipr1, a macrophage special expression vector pSP–EGFP–Ipr1was constructed. Bovine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with pSP-EGFP-Ipr1. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells were selected and transferred into enucleated bovine oocytes. Then, the rates of oocyte cleavage and blastocyst formation of transgenic cells and non-transgenic cells were observed, respectively. The results showed that reconstructed embryos derived from transgenic cells could successfully develop into blastocysts, most of which were GFP-positive. This study may provide cloned embryos for the production of anti-tuberculosis transgenic animals.
The oxidation behavior of three types of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) processed Ti–Si–C–N coatings with silicon content ranging from 4.3 to 11.6 at.% has been investigated at high temperatures. Systematic characterization was conducted to study the evolution of composition, phase constituents, hardness, surface morphologies, microstructures, and grain size during oxidation. A two-stage oxidation process was observed between 700 and 1000 °C for all three coatings. Experimental results indicate that a superhardness of 40 GPa can be maintained up to 700, 800, and 850 °C for 4.3, 7.4, and 11.6 at.% Si coatings, respectively; the dual-phased 7.4 and 11.6 at.% Si coatings show a better oxidation resistance than the single-phased 4.3 at.% Si coating. On the basis of the results, a mechanism is proposed to explain the relationship between the nanostructure and oxidation behavior.
A new type of Ti–Si–C–N coatings deposited on high-speed steel substrate by means of pulsed direct current (dc) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was investigated. The as-deposited coatings were characterized systematically by using energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and microhardness with particular attention paid to the microstructure of the coatings. It has been shown that C content has a profound effect on the microstructure and hardness of coatings. TEM and XRD analyses revealed that these coatings consist of the dominate Ti(C, N) with a silicide (TiSi2, Si3N4, or SiC, depending on the C content in the coatings). The crystallite sizes are in the range of 8–35 nm, which decrease with increasing C content. The Ti–Si–C–N coatings with high C content (25.2–38.6 at.%) possess superhardness (41–48 GPa). This can be attributed to the grain refinement/grain boundary hardening and dispersion hardening of the hard, nanosized crystalline Si3N4 or SiC formed in the deposition.
A new soluble synthetic route was developed to fabricate thin films of layered structure transition metal dichalcogendies, MoS2 and WS2. High-quality thin films of the dichalcogenides were prepared using new soluble precursors, (CH3NH3)2MS4 (M = Mo, W). The precursors were dissolved in organic solvents and spun onto substrates via both single- and multistep spin coating procedures. The thin films were formed by the thermal decomposition of the coatings under inert atmosphere. Structural, electrical, optical absorption, thermal, and transport properties of the thin films were characterized. Surface morphology of the films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Highly conductive and textured n-type MoS2 films were obtained. The measured room temperature conductivity ∼50 Ω−1 cm−1 is substantially higher than the previously reported values. The n-type WS2 films were prepared for the first time using solution-processed deposition. WS2 displays a conductivity of ∼6.7 Ω−1 cm−1 at room temperature.
Solvothermal/hydrothermal reactions of 4, 4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (H2bpdc) and cobalt (II) salt with pyridine derivative ligands such as 3-methylpyridine (3-pic), 4-methylpyridine (4-pic), as well as a longer terminal ligand 4-benzylpyridine (4-bzpy) generated four new extended structures: 1D zigzag polymer chain 1 crystallized in C2/c with a formula [Co(bpdc)(3-pic)2]·(3-pic); 1D helical chain compound 2 crystallized in P41 with a formula [Co(bpdc)(4-pic)2], 2D non-interpenetrating network 3 crystallized in P2221 with a formula [Co(bpdc)(4-pic)2]·(4-pic)0.5·H2O, and 2D non-interpenetrating network 4 crystallized in P2/c, formulated as [Co(bpdc)(bzpy)2]. Our studies show that terminal ligands play an important role in affecting the dimensionality and topology of the structures formed. Magnetic susceptibility and isothermal magnetization results revealed an antiferromagnetic ground state for 3 with a transition temperature T = 4.7 K, and paramagnetic behavior at high temperature range for 1 and 2.
Two new inorganic-organic hybrid II-VI semiconductor nanostructures have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions. These nanostructures consist of inorganic 2∞[ZnSe] layers and organic bridging diamine molecules as spacers. The crystal structures of [ZnSe(dbn)1/2](1, dbn = 1,4-diaminobutane) and [ZnSe(hda)1/2](2, hda = 1,6-hexanediamine) have been determined by the powder X-ray diffraction method. They are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system, space group Pbca(No.62), Z = 4. Crystal data for 1: a = 6.646(3), b = 6.473(3), c = 22.31(1) Å, V = 961.2(13) Å3, for 2: a = 6.6252(18), b = 6.4505(17), c = 27.138(7) Å, V = 1159.8(9) Å3. The optical absorption experiments show that both 1 and 2 generate a very large blue shift in the absorption edge (1.5-1.6 eV) due to a strong quantum confinement effect (QCE). Thermogravimetric behavior of both compounds has also been investigated.
Hydrothermal reactions of rare-earth metal acetates and nitrates with oxalic acid (H2C2O4) and 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (H2pddc) in triethylamine/water solutions have yielded five isostructural polymers with the general formula: [Ln(pddc)(C2O4)1/2(H2O)2]·H2O. [Ln = La(1), Pr(2), Nd(3), Eu(4) and Er(5)]. These compounds crystallize in monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/n, Z = 4, with only slight variations in their unit cell parameters: 1 a = 7.747(2), b = 9.954(2), c = 15.134(3) Å, = 98.64(3)°, V = 1153.8(4) Å3; 2 a = 7.707(2), b = 9.895(2), c = 15.006(3) Å, β = 98.54(3)°, V = 1131.7(4) Å3; 3 a = 7.688(2), b = 9.897(2), c = 14.955(3) Å, β = 98.43(3)°, V = 112 5.6(4) Å3; 4 a = 7.638(2), b = 9.842(2), c = 14.809(3) Å, β = 98.42(3)°, V = 1101.2(4) Å3; 5 a = 7.573(2), b = 9.761(2) Å, c = 14.630(3) Å, β = 98.10(3)°, V = 1070.7(4) Å3. The structure of these compounds is composed of 2D Ln(pddc) layers that are interconnected by chelating oxalate. Within the layer, each rare-earth metal forms a monodentate bond with each of the four pddc groups. The metal centers in the neighboring layers are bridged through µ4-oxalate, resulting in a three-dimensional framework. The remaining two sites around the eight-coordinate Ln are occupied by water molecules. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 exhibit paramagnetic behavior and 1 is diamagnetic. They are thermally stable up to 250°C.
The hydrothermal reactions of Cu(NO3)2.3H2O, K2CrO4 and exo-bidentate ligand bpy/bpe, (bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, bpe = trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene) result in two pillared 3D organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. Both contain bimetallic layers of copper(II) cations and chromate anions, which are directly connected by different organic ligands, leading to pillared structures with varying pillar length and thickness of layers. Crystal data for [Cu3(CrO4)2(OH)2(bpy)2] (1): triclinic, P1, a = 5.358(1), b = 5.603(1), c = 13.515(3) Å, α = 81.78(3), γ = 86.56(3), Å3 = 79.75(3)°, V = 394.91(13) Å3, Z = 1; [CuCrO4(bpe)] (2): monoclinic, C2/c, a = 23.282(5), b = 11.917(2), c = 9.726(2) Å, β = 112.99(3)°, V = 2484.2(8) Å3, Z = 8.
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