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In this paper, in situ Al4C3 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid-reinforced aluminum matrix composites were prepared by a two-step ball milling (TSBM), consisting of a 24-h long-time ball milling (LTBM) and a 6-h short-time ball milling (STBM). During LTBM, most of the CNTs were seriously damaged, and many amorphous carbon atoms derived from these damaged defects would react with Al powder to form in situ Al4C3 nanorods. Subsequently, 1 wt% CNTs were added into the composite powders for STBM to uniformly disperse CNTs into the composite powders. Compared with that of the composite prepared by one-step ball milling, the comprehensive mechanical properties of the composite prepared by the TSBM are improved obviously due to the synergistic effects of in situ Al4C3 and CNTs, and the tensile strength and elongation reached 258 MPa and 19.5%, respectively. The strengthening mechanisms of TSBM composite include fine-grained strengthening, dispersion strengthening by in situ Al4C3, and load transfer from matrix to CNTs.
In this paper we study general aggregation of stochastic arrangement increasing random variables, including both the generalized linear combination and the standard aggregation as special cases. In terms of monotonicity, supermodularity, and convexity of the kernel function, we develop several sufficient conditions for the increasing convex order on the generalized aggregations. Some applications in reliability and risks are also presented.
By using high purity aluminum powders and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as raw materials, MWCNTs/Al composites were fabricated with ball milling, followed by cold pressing, vacuum sintering, and hot extrusion. It was found that when the sintering temperature was 863 K, MWCNTs/Al composite sintered for 4 h showed good comprehensive properties, and its tensile strength and elongation reached to 156 MPa and 21%, respectively. The comprehensive mechanical properties of the composites became better with raising sintering temperature when the sintering time was 4 h. When the sintering temperature raised to 923 K, the tensile strength of the composite reached to 167 MPa which is three times more than that of annealed high purity aluminum, mainly due to the higher density and better interface bonding resulted from higher sintering temperature. CNTs' pulling out were observed obviously in the fractured surfaces, and load transfer may be the main strengthening mechanism.
We study the convergence of an Ulm-like Cayley transform method for solving inverse eigenvalue problems which avoids solving approximate Jacobian equations. Under the nonsingularity assumption of the relative generalized Jacobian matrices at the solution, a convergence analysis covering both the distinct and multiple eigenvalues cases is provided and the quadratical convergence is proved. Moreover, numerical experiments are given in the last section to illustrate our results.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed an approach to ventilator-associated events (VAE) surveillance. Using these methods, this study was performed to investigate VAE incidences and to test whether VAEs are associated with poorer outcomes in China.
A 4-month, prospective multicenter surveillance study between April and July 2013.
Our study included 15 adult intensive care units (ICUs) of 15 hospitals in China.
Patients admitted to ICUs during the study period
Patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) were monitored for VAEs: ventilator-associated conditions (VACs), infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVACs), and possible or probable ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Patients with and without VACs were compared with regard to duration of MV, ICU length of stay (LOS), overall hospital LOS, and mortality rate.
During the study period, 2,356 of the 5,256 patients admitted to ICUs received MV for 8,438 ventilator days. Of these patients, 636 were on MV >2 days. VACs were identified in 94 cases (4.0%; 11.1 cases per 1,000 ventilator days), including 31 patients with IVACs and 16 with possible VAP but none with probable VAP. Compared with patients without VACs, patients with VACs had longer ICU LOS (by 6.2 days), longer duration on MV (by 7.7 days), and higher hospital mortality rate (50.0% vs 27.3%). The mortality rate attributable to VACs was 11.7%. Compared with those with VACs alone, patients with IVACs had longer duration on MV and increased ICU LOS but no higher mortality rates.
In China, surveillance of VACs and IVACs is able to identify MV patients with poorer outcomes. However, surveillance of possible and probable VAP can be problematic.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1388–1395
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for beta-methyl vinyl phosphate (MAP), C29H27N2O10P, are reported [a = 17.293(4) Å, b = 6.142(6) Å, c = 14.464(8) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 112.048(0)°, unit-cell volume V = 1424.19 Å3, Z = 2, and space group P21]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
This article reviews current progress in research in ferroelectric switching
phenomena using in situ electron microscopy. We focus on
state-of-the-art instrumentation, analytical methods, experimental procedures,
and image contrast mechanisms. Particular emphasis is on ferroelectric domain
and domain wall structures that determine ferroelectric behaviors. The
applicability of in situ microscopy to studying a wide range of
switching phenomena, such as domain nucleation, domain wall motion, and domain
wall pinning by various types of defects, in ferroelectric thin films is
demonstrated. The underlying physics of these dynamic processes is also
This paper demonstrates light-induced tuning of optical spectrum from optical microfiber knot resonator overlaid with an azobenzene-doped nematic liquid crystal (azo-doped NLC). The high-quality fiber resonator is made by drawing the single mode fiber to the micro-size diameter and self-twisting the microfiber as a knot shape. During the UV light irradiation the azobenzene molecules perform trans-to-cis photoisomerization which disrupts the NLC orientation. The disrupted NLC changes the effective refractive index within the LC overlaid fiber area and shifts the optical spectrum of microfiber knot resonator. The 0.25 nm spectral shifting of resonance wavelength was observed under the irradiation of 50 mW UV light.
In this paper, we study the orthogonalities of Hecke eigenvalues of holomorphic cusp forms. An asymptotic large sieve with an unusually large main term for cusp forms is obtained. A family of special vectors formed by products of Kloosterman sums and Bessel functions is constructed for which the main term is exceptionally large. This surprising phenomenon reveals an interesting fact: that Fourier coefficients of cusp forms favor the direction of products of Kloosterman sums and Bessel functions of compatible type.
This work reports on a new morphology-inheriting methodology to MgO nanoplates. Precursor of Mg(OH)2 nanoplates was synthesized by a solvothermal method and showed a hexagonal shape. The morphological features of Mg(OH)2 nanoplates were retained to the resulting MgO nanoplates using a programmed heating process. MgO nanoplates showed highly hydroxylated surfaces. Upon excitation, the interactions between hydroxyl groups and surface O2−4c and O2−3c species gave rise to a dominant ultraviolet emission at 415 nm.
Numerical calculations are performed based on a set of equations that
describe the non-steady, nonlinear interactions between a moving body in space and
plasma. The results show that density cavitons and potential solitons are formed
owing to modulational instability if the envelope of the high-frequency modulational field is sufficiently intense.
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