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The average power of diode-pumped fiber lasers has been developed deeply into the kW regime in the past years. However, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is still a major factor limiting the further power scaling. Here, we have demonstrated the mitigation of SRS in kilowatt-level diode-pumped fiber amplifiers using a chirped and tilted fiber Bragg grating (CTFBG) for the first time. The CTFBG is designed and inscribed in large-mode-area (LMA) fibers, matching with the operating wavelength of the fiber amplifier. With the CTFBG inserted between the seed laser and the amplifier stage, an SRS suppression ratio of
is achieved in spectrum at the maximum output laser power of 2.35 kW, and there is no reduction in laser slope efficiency and degradation in beam quality. This work proves the feasibility and practicability of CTFBGs for SRS suppression in high-power fiber lasers, which is very useful for the further power scaling.
A compact dual ports antenna with high isolation is proposed for handheld radio frequency identification (RFID) reader which is rarely reported in open literatures. Different with conventional handheld RFID reader antennas with single port, the proposed antenna transmits and receives signal separately. The proposed antenna operating with full duplex mode can enhance effectively sensitivity of reader, since the strong transmitting signal of reader with single port is usually highly coupled with weak receiving backscatter signal of tag. The antenna utilizes E-shaped aperture-coupled patch structure that occupies less volume and provides further space-saving efficiency. The height of the proposed antenna is only 6.8 mm and the volume of that is 80 mm × 80 mm × 6.8 mm, which is easy to integrate in handheld RFID readers. The antenna uses two E-shaped coupling apertures to excite two orthogonal modes for dual-polarized operation. High isolation of around −30 dB is obtained by proper arrangement of the length of coupling apertures and the position of the stubs. The measured results show −10 dB matching band and −25 dB isolation band from 2.32 to 2.6 GHz and from 2.3 to 2.55 GHz, respectively. The antenna is suitable for applications in handheld RFID readers.
We present a concept of robust optimisation design for the spring actuator in a 10 kV/12.5 kA vacuum circuit breaker. We assume the breaking and closing velocity characteristics, which are derived form the technical data of the interrupter, as the specifications for the problem, and take the lengths of the connecting rods of the actuator and the stiffness coefficients of the breaking and closing springs as the optimisation variables. The variance between the specifications and the velocities calculated at each breaking and closing point and the maximal variation allowed by the design variables within acceptable tolerances make up the multiple objective function. The optimal parameters for the spring actuator are given by solving a non-linear programming problem with multiple targets and two-level optimisation.
As a promising reinforcement of aluminum alloy, in situ formed Al3Ti particles have attracted more attention in the fabrication of aluminum matrix composites. In our research, in situ Al3Ti/7075 alloy composites were fabricated by adding K2TiF6 salt powders into molten 7075 alloy at 750 °C via casting method. The formation of in situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075 alloy, including hardness, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and yield strength (YS), were investigated. The results showed that in situ formed Al3Ti particles were rod-like in morphology, with the average length and width of 15 µm and 5 µm, respectively. Due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles, α-Al crystals of 7075 alloy transferred from dendritic to equiaxed structure in morphology, the size of which decreased obviously as well. Compared with 7075 alloy, the hardness, UTS, and YS of in situ Al3Ti/7075 alloy were improved by 14.3%, 18.1%, and 25.8%, respectively.
Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE− / −) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45 % fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10 % (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64·1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE− / − mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54 % lower than that in the HFD group (P< 0·01). In addition, the aortas isolated from mice in the FO group had higher expression levels of Mfn2 and Opa1 but lower expression levels of Fis1 than those from the HFD group. Compared with mice fed the HFD, those fed the FO diet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0·05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.
We develop a splicing technology of Ti:sapphire crystals for a high-energy chirped pulse amplifier laser system that can suppress the parasitic lasing to improve the amplification efficiency compared to a large-size single Ti:sapphire crystal amplifier. Theoretical investigations on the characteristics of the amplifier with four splicing Ti:sapphire crystals, such as parasitic-lasing suppression and amplification efficiencies, are carried out. Some possible issues resulting from this splicing technology, including spectral modulation, stretching or splitting of the temporal profile, and the sidelobe generation in the spatial domain (near field and far field), are also investigated. Moreover, the feasibility of the splicing technology is preliminarily demonstrated in an experiment with a small splicing Ti:sapphire crystals amplifier. The temporal profile and spatial distribution of the output pulse from the splicing Ti:sapphire crystal amplifier are discussed in relation to the output pulse from a single Ti:sapphire crystal amplifier.
This research discussed how to synthesize submicrometer-sized TiC particulate reinforcement in the molten aluminum melt at low temperature via combustion synthesis by using in situ casting technique. A high temperature preheating treatment of Al–Ti–C pellets was carried out, by which the thermal explosion reaction of the pellets could take place in the pure aluminum melt at 750 °C. The synthesizing temperature of TiC particles was reduced by at least 150 °C compared with the conventional methods. In situ formed TiC particles were spherical in shape and were smaller than 1 µm in size due to the low melting temperature. The emergence of liquid aluminum phase led to the generation and accumulation of plenty of heat in the pellet in a short time due to the reactive diffusion of Al(l)–Ti(s). The formation mechanism of the submicrometer-sized TiC particles in the molten aluminum at low temperature was discussed in this research.
In this paper, a multi-layer model is developed for the purpose of studying nonlinear internal wave propagation in shallow water. The methodology employed in constructing the multi-layer model is similar to that used in deriving Boussinesq-type equations for surface gravity waves. It can also be viewed as an extension of the two-layer model developed by Choi & Camassa. The multi-layer model approximates the continuous density stratification by an -layer fluid system in which a constant density is assumed in each layer. This allows the model to investigate higher-mode internal waves. Furthermore, the model is capable of simulating large-amplitude internal waves up to the breaking point. However, the model is limited by the assumption that the total water depth is shallow in comparison with the wavelength of interest. Furthermore, the vertical vorticity must vanish, while the horizontal vorticity components are weak. Numerical examples for strongly nonlinear waves are compared with laboratory data and other numerical studies in a two-layer fluid system. Good agreement is observed. The generation and propagation of mode-1 and mode-2 internal waves and their interactions with bottom topography are also investigated.
Nominal 100 Å and 150 Å thick GaAs layers were deposited on Si substrates by a modulated molecular beam technique and normal molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at 300 °C and 375 °C respectively for plan view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations. From coverage of Moire fringes, it is found that the nucleated GaAs films grown by the modulated molecular beam technique were thinner, streaker and more two-dimensional than the MBE grown films. The same modulated molecular beam technique was also used for the deposition of the initial buffer layer of 3µm thick GaAs on Si films. Results from the 77k photoluminescence(PL) and double crystal X ray diffraction measurements showed that these films have superior optical and structural quality compared to similar films grown by normal two-step MBE. The improvement is attributed to a more two-dimensional nucleation of GaAs films associated with the modulated molecular beam growth technique.
Patterned epitaxial GaAs films have been formed on Si substrates by either growth over patterned substrate (selective -area epitaxy) or chemical etching of patterns after growth. The optical properties of these samples are studied by 77K photoluminescence (PL) and the defect structures are investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The patterned substrate consisted of bare Si stripes with width ranging from 10 µm to 100 µm surrounded by Si3N4 films on both sides and a reference area of bare Si. For 1.5 µmiann d 3 µm thick films, PL intensities from the films inside the 10 µm stripe shows 140% and 75% increase over unpatterned areas while the residual tensile stress in the patterned films is very similar to that of the unpatterned area. The increase in the photoluminescence intensity is ascribed to the reduction of crystalline defects inside the the window area. In the chemically etched sample, the pattern consisted of 4 µm by 4 µm squares and 1 mm long stripes with widths ranging from 100 µm to 4 plm. From the shift of PL peaks, a monotonic decrease in the tensile stress versus stripe width is observed. In particular, when the width of the stripe is less than 7 µm. tensile stress becomes essentially uniaxial in agreement with the results obtained by Yacobi et al  on a GaAs on InP sample. The polarization of the luminescence spectra parallel and perpendicular to the uniaxial stress of a 4 µm wide stripe agrees well with theoretical prediction. It is also observed that tensile stress is almost completely relieved in the 4 µm by 4 muentc hed squares.
We report the growth and characterizations of 31μm thick GaAs films grown on (100) InP substrates by MBE employing different buffer layer structures during the initial deposition. The buffer layer structures under study are: 1) GaAs layer grown at low temperature; 2) GaAs layer grown at low temperature plus two sets of In0.08Ga0.92As/GaAs strained layer superlattices (SLS) and 3) a transitional compositionally graded InxGal-xAs layer between the InP substrate and the GaAs film. After the buffer layer deposition, the growth was continued by conventionalMBE to a total thickness of 3μm for all samples. From the 77K photoluminescence (PL) measurement, it was found that the sample with SLS layers has the highest PL intensity and the narrowest PL linewidth. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed that the SLS is effective in reducing the propagation of threading dislocations and explains the observed superior optical quality from the PL measurement.
We have fabricated a new ferroelectric memory FET, which consists of the Au/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/SiO2/Si gate structure. Ferroelectric PZT thin film with a thickness of 250~400 nm was prepared by using Excimer Laser Ablation Deposition. Silicon oxide successfully served as a buffer layer between ferroelectric and Si substrate to suppress the charge injection and prevent Pb interdiffusion. Electrical properties of the ferroelectric FET have been characterized through both the Capacitance vs. Voltage(C-V) and Current vs. Voltage(I-V) measurements, showing a typical memory characteristics of FET devices, i.e., the ON state and OFF state were nonvolatile for about thirty minutes and several hours, respectively.
Research was conducted to improve performance of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)¨Caluminum (Alq3). Based on double layer structure, indium tin oxide(ITO)/N,N’Diphenyl-N-N’-di(m-tdyl) benzidine (TPD)/Alq3/Al, flexible OLEDs on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were fabricated by physical vapor deposition (PVD) method, with the Alq3 layer deposited at 90°C , 120°C and 150°C, respectively. It was found that the temperature had great effect on the surface morphology of Alq3 and the devices fabricated at high temperature (150°C) showed a higher external efficiency than those fabricated at low temperature (90°C , 120°C).
Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) doping poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) was used as hole injection layer to improve performance of OLEDs based on Alq3. PEDOT:PSS, which was doped by 0.2 wt.%, 0.4 wt.%, 0.6 wt.%, 0.8 wt.% and 1 wt.% MWCNTs, was coated on clean PET substrate with ITO by spin- coating method. The light-emitting layer (Alq3) and cathode layer (Al) were deposited by PVD method. It was found that the electroluminescence (EL) intensity of the OLEDs were highly improved by adopting MWCNTs doping PEDOT:PSS as hole injection layer. The luminous intensity obtained from the device with a concentration of 0.4 wt.% MWCNTs in the PEDOT:PSS layer was three folds as those adopted from device without MWCNTS doping in the PEDOT:PSS layer.
R2MoO6:Eu3+ (R = Gd, Y, La) phosphors were prepared by the Pechini sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and lifetimes were used to characterize the resulting phosphors. The results of XRD indicate that all of the R1.96Eu0.04MoO6 (R = Gd, Y, La) phosphors crystallized completely at 800 °C. Y1.96Eu0.04MoO6 and Gd1.96Eu0.04MoO6 are of isomorphous monoclinic (α) structure, while La1.96Eu0.04MoO6 preferentially adopts the tetragonal (γ) form. FE-SEM study reveals that the samples mainly consist of aggregated particles with an average grain size ranging from 100 to 250 nm. The luminescent properties of R2MoO6:Eu3+ (R = Gd, Y, La) phosphors are largely dependent on their structure, grain size, and powder morphology. The isomorphous Y2MoO6:Eu3+ and Gd2MoO6:Eu3+ phosphors show very similar luminescence properties, which differ greatly from that of the La2MoO6:Eu3+ phosphor.
Reports of the Tibet red deer, a subspecies of Cervus elaphus, have been so few in recent years that there were fears that the animal was extinct. A survey in a mountainous region of south-east Tibet in October 1995 found evidence that a few deer survive in one small area and possibly two others in high-altitude valleys of the tributaries of the Subansiri River. The most exciting finding of the survey, however, was an estimated 200-strong population of this deer in high rolling hills near the village of Zhenqi, north of the Yarlung Tsangpo River. This is the only known viable population of the deer and, although some hunting occurs, including by professional poachers from outside Tibet, the fact that it survives is an indication of the tolerance of the local people. The Tibet Forest Bureau has agreed to fund guards and to establish a reserve for the deer in co-operation with local people.
Chinese hospitals in the 1980s are in the midst of a technological revolution. Based upon data from several regions in China, this paper describes the political, organizational, economic, and philosophical changes which have accompanied the shift in focus from primary care medicine to high technology tertiary care. The increased authority of physicians, greater contact with the West, and increased funding for medical equipment are key factors in these changes. Although the Chinese state continues to control the administration and financing of most hospitals, the decentralizing reforms of Deng Xiaoping have undermined its ability to effectively plan for, and assess new technology. At present, limited resources prevent most regions from excessive technology acquisition, but the state must rebuild its planning capacity in order to foster rational allocation of scarce medical resources.
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