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HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
HIV-1 drug resistance can compromise the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A survey of pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance (PDR) was conducted in Lincang Prefecture of Yunnan Province. From 372 people living with HIV/AIDS initiating ART for the first time during 2017–2018, 322 pol sequences were obtained, of which 11 HIV-1 strain types were detected. CRF08_BC (70.2%, 226/322) was the predominant strain, followed by URF strains (10.6%, 34/322). Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected among 34.2% (110/322) of the participants. E138A/G/K/R (14.3%, 46/322) and V179E/D/T (13.7%, 47/322) were the predominant DRMs. Specifically, E138 mutations commonly occurred in CRF08_BC (19.9%, 45/226). Among the DRMs detected, some independently conferred resistance, such as K65R (1.6%, 5/322), Y188C/F/L (0.9%, 3/322), K103N (0.6%, 2/322) and G190A (0.3%, 1/322), which conferred high-level resistance. The prevalence of PDR was 7.5% (95% CI: 4.6–10.3%) and the prevalence of non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.6–7.4%), which is below the threshold (⩾10%) of initiating a public health response. In conclusion, HIV-1 genetic diversity and an overall moderate level of PDR prevalence were found in western Yunnan. PDR surveillance should be continually performed to decide whether a public health response to NNRTI resistance should be initiated.
Coastal lake sediments are valuable paleoclimate archives provided that they can be accurately dated. Here, we report radiocarbon ages of bulk sediment organic matter (OM), plants, shells, particulate OM, and dissolved OM from coastal lakes in Florida. Bulk sediment OM yielded ages that are consistently older than contemporaneous plants and shells, indicating significant radiocarbon deficiencies in sedimentary OM in these lakes. The data show that the OM radiocarbon deficiency varies over time and with location, making it impossible to determine a proper correction factor for radiocarbon ages of bulk sediments from these lakes. As a result, we consider ages obtained from bulk sediment OM from these lakes unreliable. The age reversals in bulk sediment OM observed in the sediment cores are likely caused by rapid increases in erosion and sedimentation resulting from large storm events. The data also show that sedimentation rate can vary considerably within a given lake, implying that an age-depth model established for one core cannot be directly applied to other cores despite their close proximity. Analyses of shells from one of the lakes suggest that fresh/brackish-water shells may serve as a good substrate for radiocarbon dating owing to a small reservoir effect on inorganic carbon.
Right atrial appendage aneurysm is an extremely rare congenital malformation with unknown aetiology. The most common potential complication is atrial arrhythmias including atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, and atrial tachycardia. These arrhythmias are usually refractory to medication therapy. Radiofrequency catheter ablation has poor efficacy with low success rate and high recurrence rate. Aneurysm resection is the recommended treatment with satisfactory efficacy. We report a child with chaotic atrial tachycardia due to giant right atrial appendage aneurysm who was successfully treated by aneurysm resection.
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