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Computerized cognitive remediation therapy (CCRT) is generally effective for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. However, there is much uncertainty about what factors mediate or moderate effectiveness and are therefore important to personalize treatment and boost its effects.
In total, 311 Chinese inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia were randomized to receive CCRT or Active control for 12 weeks with four to five sessions per week. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. The outcomes were cognition, clinical symptoms and functional outcomes.
There was a significant benefit in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) total score for CCRT (F1,258 = 5.62; p = 0.02; effect size was 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). There were no specific moderators of CCRT improvements. However, across both groups, Wisconsin Card Sort Test improvement mediated a positive effect on functional capacity and Digit Span benefit mediated decreases in positive symptoms. In exploratory analyses younger and older participants showed cognitive improvements but on different tests (younger on Symbol Coding Test, while older on the Spatial Span Test). Only the older age group showed MSCEIT benefits at post-treatment. In addition, cognition at baseline negatively correlated with cognitive improvement and those whose MCCB baseline total score was around 31 seem to derive the most benefit.
CCRT can improve the cognitive function of patients with schizophrenia. Changes in cognitive outcomes also contributed to improvements in functional outcomes either directly or solely in the context of CCRT. Age and the basic cognitive level of the participants seem to affect the cognitive benefits from CCRT.
One-dimensional α-MnO2 nanowires with a controlled width of 10–20 nm have been developed by means of ultrasonic waves from mesoporous carbon using KMnO4 as the precursor. The formation mechanism has been proposed based on the results. A peak around 100 K was detected in the temperature-dependence of magnetization curve, indicating the ferromagnetic state in nanocomposite mesoporous carbon-MnO2, which is in agreement with the transition temperature found from the magnetization versus applied magnetic field curve. The magnetization versus temperature curve of the obtained MnO2 nanowires showed a magnetic transition at about 50 K, illustrating that a parasitic ferromagnetic component is composed on the antiferromagnetic structure of MnO2. The advantage of the method reported here is that phase-controlled synthesis of α-MnO2 nanowires was implemented regardless of pH, temperature, and types of ions in the reaction system. A major advantage of this approach is the efficient, fast, and reproducible control of width and the facile strategy to synthesize nanowires MnO2, in addition to the high purity of the resultant material.
This paper presents a concept on the subjective ship domain. The factors related to the
domain are discussed. A method based on the neural networks is used to establish a model
of the domain that considers the effects of visibility and manoeuvrability, which can react
quickly to various ships within a certain range.
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