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Brachiopod shell accumulations are abundant and diverse in the lower Cambrian strata of Yunnan Province, South China, but most commonly they are composed of linguloid and acrotheloid brachiopods. Here, we describe the first record of shell beds with high-density accumulations of microscopic acrotretoid brachiopods (usually <2 mm in width) in the muddy deposits of the Wulongqing Formation (Guanshan Biota, Cambrian Stage 4) in the Wuding area of Yunnan Province. The acrotretoid shell beds from the Wulongqing Formation vary from thin mm-thick pavements to more well-developed beds, several centimeters thick. The occurrence of remarkably rich acrotretoid shell beds indicates that microscopic lingulates began to exert an important role in hardening and paving the soft-substrate seafloor during the early Cambrian evolution of Phanerozoic “mixgrounds.” The new Guanshan material is referred to a new species, Linnarssonia sapushanensis n. sp., which differs from other species of Linnarssonia mainly in having a well-developed internal pedicle tube, as well as a relatively longer dorsal median septum. The occurrence of Linnarssonia sapushanensis n. sp. in the Wulongqing Formation in eastern Yunnan extend the oldest record of the genus on the Yangtze Platform of South China back to at least Cambrian Stage 4.
In this paper, we use finite element analysis (FEA) to study the linear viscoelastic response of polyurea, a type of hard–soft block copolymer. A Niblack's algorithm-based technique employed on atomic force microscopy images provides geometry inputs for the FEA model, while the viscoelastic master curves of the soft matrix are obtained via a combination of dynamic mechanical analysis data and molecular dynamic (MD) estimations. In this microstructural image-based FEA framework, we introduce an interphase area of altered properties between the hard and soft domains. Both spatial and property distributions of this interphase area affect the viscoelastic response of the copolymer system. To quantitatively investigate the impact of structural and property features of the interphase on the energy storage and dissipation of a system during linear perturbation, we develop a statistical descriptor representation of the interphase region related to physical parameters. Utilizing decision-tree and random forest concepts from machine learning, we apply a ranking algorithm to identify the most significant features for four different mechanical response descriptors. Results show that the total interphase volume fraction and shifting factor distributions in the interphase area dominate the magnitude of the tan δ peak, whereas the magnitudes of the shifting factors primarily affect the tan δ peak location in frequency space. This method allows us to readily identify the dominant features impacting individual properties and paves the way for material design of hard–soft block copolymer systems.
Cognitive decline in advanced age is closely related to dementia. The trajectory of cognitive function in older Chinese is yet to be fully investigated. We aimed to investigate the trajectories of cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of older people living in China and to explore the potential determinants of these trajectories.
This study included 2,038 cognitively healthy persons aged 65–104 years at their first observation in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014. Cognitive function was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify potential heterogeneity of longitudinal changes over the 12 years and to investigate associations between baseline predictors of group membership and these trajectories.
Three trajectories were identified according to the following types of changes in MMSE scores: slow decline (14.0%), rapid decline (4.5%), and stable function (81.5%). Older age, female gender, having no schooling, a low frequency of leisure activity, and a low baseline MMSE score were associated with the slow decline trajectory. Older age, body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2, and having more than one cardiovascular disease (CVD) were associated with the rapid decline trajectory.
Three trajectories of cognitive function were identified in the older Chinese population. The identified determinants of these trajectories could be targeted for developing prevention and intervention strategies for dementia.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect is considered to be one of the main obstacles for power scaling in general-type fiber lasers. Different from previous techniques that aim at suppressing SRS, nonlinear fiber amplifier (NFA), which manipulates and employs the SRS for power scaling in rare-earth-doped fiber, is under intensive research in recent years. In this paper, the authors will present an all-round study on this new kind of high-power fiber amplifier. A theoretical model is proposed based on the rate equation and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), with random noise taken into account. By numerical solving of the theoretical model, the power scaling potential, heat analysis and advantages in suppressing the undesired backscattering light are quantificationally analyzed for the first time. Then two different types of high-power NFAs are demonstrated individually. Firstly, a laser diode pumped NFA has reached kilowatt output power, and the results agree well with theoretical predictions. Secondly, a tandem-pumped NFA is proposed for the first time and validated experimentally, in which 1.5 kW output power has been achieved. The authors also briefly discuss several new issues relating to the complex nonlinear dynamics that occur in high-power NFAs, which might be interesting topics for future endeavors.
Compared with traditional uniform fibers, tapered fiber has numerous unique advantages, such as larger mode area, higher pump absorption, suppression to nonlinear effects, and maintaining good beam quality. In this manuscript, we have constructed an all-fiberized fiber amplifier which is based on a piece of ytterbium-doped tapered double-clad fiber (T-DCF). The fiber amplifier is operated under continuous wave (CW) regime at 1080 nm wavelength. The
factor of the amplifier at 1.39 kW output power is
. The maximum output power of the system reached 1.47 kW, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest output power of long tapered fiber based fiber laser system. Our result successfully verifies the potential of power scalability and all-fiberized capability of long tapered fiber, and the performance of our system can be further enhanced by fiber design optimization.
The Wa'ergang section in South China has been proposed as a potential Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Stage 10, the uppermost stage of the Cambrian System. In this study, high-resolution C-isotopic compositions are reported and we identified three large negative δ13C excursions, namely N1, N2 and N3, at Wa'ergang. The N1 is located just above the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of Lotagnostus americanus, corresponding to the possible base of the Proconodontus posterocostatus conodont Zone. The N2 was identified within the Micragnostus chuishuensis trilobite Zone and the Proconodontus muelleri conodont Zone. The N3 is located in the lowermost part of the Leiagnostus cf. bexelli – Archaeuloma taoyuanense trilobite Zone or Eoconodontus conodont Zone. The N1 and N2 can be correlated with the negative δ13C excursions preceding the Top of Cambrian Carbon Isotope Excursion (TOCE) observed globally. The N3 can be correlated with the TOCE or the HEllnmaria–Red Tops Boundary (HERB) Event. The inter-basinal correlation of N1 and L. americanus strongly supports that the base of Stage 10 may be best defined by the FAD of L. americanus. We also used a box model to quantitatively explore the genesis of the negative δ13C excursions from South China. Our numerical simulations suggest that weathering of the organic-rich sediments on the platform, probably driven by intermittent sea level fall and/or the oxygenation of the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) reservoir in seawater, may have contributed to the generation of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the Stage 10 at Wa'ergang in South China.
We evaluate the relative importance of climate change, fluvial dynamics, and anthropogenic environmental modification in forming the Holocene sedimentary record of the Luoyang Basin, a tributary drainage basin of the Yellow River, located in western Henan Province, China. Our 2011 fieldwork south of the Erlitou site in the Luoyang Basin indicates that an unconformity dating to ca. AD 1100 is roughly coincident with a major southward shift in the lower course of the Yellow River. In AD 1128, the governor of Kaifeng breached the dikes of the Yellow River to impede an advancing army, causing the Yellow River to flow south out to the Yellow Sea. We argue that the dike breach not only changed the fluvial dynamics of the Yellow River but also switched the rivers in the Luoyang Basin from an aggrading to an incising system. The resumption of sedimentation in the Luoyang Basin is roughly coincident with the next major shift of the Yellow River’s main course northward to the Bohai Sea in AD 1855. The unconformity found in the Luoyang Basin may be a legacy of historically contingent human agency rather than climatic shifts or gradual environmental modification.
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive method for measuring 129I in environmental samples available today, with a detection limit of about 10–15 for 129I/127I. A drawback of the technique is the time-consuming chemical separation required to prepare AMS targets from raw samples. This step significantly limits applications requiring rapid analyses and large numbers of samples, for example, in monitoring studies associated with nuclear accidents. This work introduces a direct method for 129I measurements by AMS that does not require chemical separation. In this approach, stable iodine (127I) is added to a matrix of niobium (Nb) powder and mixed with dried raw sample. This mixture is pressed directly into a sputter target for AMS analysis. Two types of environmental samples have been tested in this work, seaweed and sediment. No anomalous behavior was noted in the Cs+ sputtering behavior of the targets prepared from these materials. The 129I/127I ratios and 129I concentrations measured by this rapid method were found to be in agreement with reported values that used a conventional AMS method for the same material. Based on our findings, we expect that such rapid measurements can be applied to a wide variety of materials, in addition to seaweed and sediment, as long as the sputtering-induced adverse effects do not prevent the stable operation of the ion source. The method is especially useful for screening large numbers of samples before more precise analyses are made.
This paper presents a shallow water depth estimation methodology using S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the HJ-1C satellite. It is based on the shoaling and refraction of long surface gravity waves as they propagate shoreward. A two-scale Bragg scattering model is used to describe the imaging process of long waves by SAR. By computing the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) for the selected sub image, wavelength and direction of the long wave can be retrieved from the two-dimensional (2D) spectra with wave tracking technology. Shallow water depths are then obtained from the linear dispersion relation with the calculated angular wave frequency obtained from other sources or first guesses of initial water depths or wave periods. Applicability and effectiveness are tested in the near-shore area of the Fujian province, China. Comparison between the derived results and water depths from an Electronic Navigational Chart (ENC) indicates that HJ-1C SAR is capable of higher resolution underwater topography detection, and the methodology can be used for shallow water depth estimation with good accuracy. The average absolute error and average relative error of the estimated results is 0·86 m and 11·05%, respectively.
A new nonlinear robust filter is proposed in this paper to deal with the outliers of an integrated Global Positioning System/Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (GPS/SINS) navigation system. The influence of different design parameters for an H∞ cubature Kalman filter is analysed. It is found that when the design parameter is small, the robustness of the filter is stronger. However, the design parameter is easily out of step in the Riccati equation and the filter easily diverges. In this respect, a singular value decomposition algorithm is employed to replace the Cholesky decomposition in the robust cubature Kalman filter. With large conditions for the design parameter, the new filter is more robust. The test results demonstrate that the proposed filter algorithm is more reliable and effective in dealing with the outliers in the data sets produced by the integrated GPS/SINS system.
We investigate the influence of the initial size of the proton layer on proton acceleration in the interaction of high intensity laser pulses with double-layer targets by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. We discuss the influence of proton layer initial sizes on the cut-off energy, energy spread, and divergence angle of proton beam. It is found that Coulomb explosion plays an important role on the proton cut-off energy. This causes the cut-off energy to increase for increasing proton layer thickness, at the expense of energy spread. The proton divergence angle reaches a peak value and then falls again with increasing the width. Proton divergence angle grows with target thickness. It is found that there is an optimal thickness to obtain the narrowest energy spread, which may provide an effective method (change the size of proton layer) to obtain high quality proton beams. This work may serve to improve the understanding of sheath field proton acceleration.
This paper summarizes the mathematical and numerical theories and computational elements of the adaptive fast multipole Poisson-Boltzmann (AFMPB) solver. We introduce and discuss the following components in order: the Poisson-Boltzmann model, boundary integral equation reformulation, surface mesh generation, the nodepatch discretization approach, Krylov iterative methods, the new version of fast multipole methods (FMMs), and a dynamic prioritization technique for scheduling parallel operations. For each component, we also remark on feasible approaches for further improvements in efficiency, accuracy and applicability of the AFMPB solver to large-scale long-time molecular dynamics simulations. The potential of the solver is demonstrated with preliminary numerical results.
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) has been shown to be a potent apoptosis inducer and growth inhibitor in a variety of cancer cells. Our previous studies showed the important role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the apoptosis induced by α-TOS. However, the relationship of oxidative stress with ER stress is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interplay between the two stress responses induced by α-TOS in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. In response to α-TOS, cytological changes typical of apoptosis, induction of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein transcription factor (CHOP), and activation of caspase-4 were observed. And the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine inhibited induction of both GRP78 and CHOP by α-TOS transcriptionally and translationally. Furthermore, knocking down CHOP by RNA interference decreased ROS generation, increased glutathione level and induced glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in α-TOS-treated cells, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutases mRNA expression were not altered. The results imply that α-TOS induces ER stress response through ROS production, while CHOP perturbs the redox state of SGC-7901 cells treated with α-TOS.
This paper compares the knowledge and utilization of health services among rural residents, urban residents, rural migrants and urban migrants in a large Chinese city. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of 2765 individuals (1951 heads of households and 814 spouses) in Guandu district, Kunming, in 2005. The determinants of their knowledge and utilization of health services were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. First, the migrant population was less likely to know of, or utilize, high-level hospitals and township hospitals than residents. Migrants were more likely to utilize private rather than public services for general health care and delivery care. Second, there was a difference between rural migrants and urban migrants in terms of knowledge and utilization of health services. Rural migrants utilized more low-cost private clinics, but had less knowledge about sources of condoms than urban migrants. Finally, rural residents had more knowledge and utilization of township hospitals than urban residents. This latter group were more likely to utilize high-level hospitals. Migrants' access to health care in urban China is understood better using a dual rural–urban and migrant–resident analytical framework. Rural migrants are the most disadvantaged in their access to urban health care. Further reform of the registered residence system and urban public financing system is recommended. Better information on services and their utilization should be provided to migrants and residents.
This paper proposed a novel three degree of freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator—two translations and one rotation. The mobility study and inverse kinematic analysis are conducted, and a CAD model is presented showing the design features. The optimization techniques based on artificial intelligence approaches are investigated to improve the system stiffness of the proposed 3-DOF parallel manipulator. Genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks are implemented as the intelligent optimization methods for the stiffness synthesis. The mean value and the standard deviation of the global stiffness distribution are proposed as the design indices. Both the single objective and multi-objective optimization issues are addressed. The effectiveness of this methodology is validated with Matlab.
One-dimensional α-MnO2 nanowires with a controlled width of 10–20 nm have been developed by means of ultrasonic waves from mesoporous carbon using KMnO4 as the precursor. The formation mechanism has been proposed based on the results. A peak around 100 K was detected in the temperature-dependence of magnetization curve, indicating the ferromagnetic state in nanocomposite mesoporous carbon-MnO2, which is in agreement with the transition temperature found from the magnetization versus applied magnetic field curve. The magnetization versus temperature curve of the obtained MnO2 nanowires showed a magnetic transition at about 50 K, illustrating that a parasitic ferromagnetic component is composed on the antiferromagnetic structure of MnO2. The advantage of the method reported here is that phase-controlled synthesis of α-MnO2 nanowires was implemented regardless of pH, temperature, and types of ions in the reaction system. A major advantage of this approach is the efficient, fast, and reproducible control of width and the facile strategy to synthesize nanowires MnO2, in addition to the high purity of the resultant material.
Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for electrical and optoelectronic applications in the area of high power, high temperature, high frequency and intense radiation. Many groups have worked on growing SiC bulk crystals by sublimation from SiC powder source at a temperature above 2000 oC under an argon environment. They have also worked on improving the crystal growth rate. Traditional approach is to increase furnace temperature to enhance the growth rate. However, high cost of inert crucible at high temperature and impurity caused by crucible degradation set limit on the maximum growth rate which can be achieved. Current existing crucible and other components in the furnace are no longer passive at high temperature. Also understanding of vapor transport during powder sublimation and the interplay between vapor transport and powder sublimation is important for the optimization of the sublimation growth process. A comprehensive numerical model combining heat transfer, sublimation, species transport, and powder porosity evolution of SiC sublimation growth process is developed in this paper. The mechanism of vapor transport is described, in which a driving force is introduced to explain vapor transport. A new method to increase crystal growth rate is proposed based on the model. The new method includes changing the initial powder porosity and creating a hole in the packed powder. Simulation results for the case with a central hole and without hole are presented. The results show that the powder sublimation rate increases by creating a hole, and it is also validated by experiments. The results also reveal that the mass of the as-grown crystal increases if the powder sublimation rate increases. Finally, the powder geometry is optimized using numerical simulations.
RNA helices that recapitulate sequences of the
tRNA acceptor stem, including the 3′ NCCA nucleotides,
can be substrates for aminoacyl–tRNA synthetases
(Frugier et al., 1994; Hamann & Hou, 1995; Martinis
& Schimmel, 1995; Quinn et al., 1995). Although the
catalytic efficiency of aminoacylation of RNA helices is
reduced from that of the full-length parent tRNA, the specificity
is maintained. The specific aminoacylation lies in the
ability of aminoacyl–tRNA synthetases to recognize
functional groups within the RNA helices. Analysis of tRNA–synthetase
structures has suggested a general principle (Rould et
al., 1989; Ruff et al., 1991; Arnez & Moras, 1997).
The class I synthetases, which attach an amino acid initially
to the 2′-OH of the terminal ribose, approach the
acceptor and NCCA end from the minor groove side. The class
II synthetases, which attach an amino acid to the terminal
3′-OH, approach from the major groove side (Arnez
& Moras, 1997). The class-specific approach leads to
tRNA–synthetase complexes that are near mirror images
of each other and provides a structural rationale for the
stereochemistries of aminoacylation. We report here the
identification of a functional group in the acceptor end
of Escherichia coli tRNACys that is
important for the class I cysteine–tRNA synthetase.
This functional group makes one of the largest energetic
contributions to aminoacylation. However, it is located
on the major groove side of the acceptor stem. Kinetic
analysis of the contribution of this functional group to
aminoacylation suggests new features that are not anticipated
from the class-specific approach of synthetases.
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